The concepts of quality planning in firms


Quality planning is a systematic approach that lays down some fundamental policies to develop products and to cater for the needs of the customer as well. Thus quality planning ensures reasonable further progress. The idea is to identify the prospective customers and then to provide for their demands and expectations. The customers are divided into two groups - external and internal i.e. those who are outside the producing organisation and those who are inside the producing organisation respectively. Most of the organisations feel that it is the external customers which are more important but it has been observed that the various internal customers need to work in harmony for the success of an organisation and it is the responsibility of an organisation to keep their needs into account.

The two products chosen for the study of quality planning are Pizzas and Hamburgers of the organisations Dominos and Burger King respectively. The product chosen for the study is Pizza of the organisation Dominos.

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The Burger King Corporation is an expanding empire mainly in Japan, Hong Kong. It has been in this chain of fast food restaurants for years and has grown fairly well. The burger king have been innovative in recent years like the latest launch of Burger Bar one of its first kind does add enormously to the follow up of its huge number of customers. The comparisons regarding McDonald's burger's and Burger king's has been a long disputed dilemma as to which is better but the ones going for a bigger one do prefer Burger Kings.

Identifying External Customers

It is very clear that the prospective customers of both the Pizzas of Dominos and Burgers of Burger King, are mainly the kids above 8 yrs, adolescents (youth), and middle aged people, popular in urban areas, facilitating mainly the middle and upper class people. It appeals both individuals and, family or group.

Analysis of the needs of the external customers

It is very important for an organisation to identify the customers to whom they would sell their product. The first stage begins with the product made and then begins the practice to figure out the consumers for the product. The people who are involved with the purchasing of a commodity are termed as an external customer. The external customers can be identified demographically, psycho graphically or depending on the market size.

Considering the demographic features, marketing becomes more certain as the various segments help identify the customers. These segments are

Age Group - The Product pizza attracts the age group from 8 to 40 maximum which are mainly the children, teens and middle aged people. Since, it is junk food it fails to entertain old age people. Thus, here the external customers are mainly the kids and youth.

Family size - The pizzas offered by Dominos come in all sizes for individual as well as for a group termed as large pizzas. Such an arrangement by dominos attracts all sectors of society.

Income level - The basic price of pizza is different in different countries. The price of the product generally suits the middle class or the working class and less to the labour class. Thus, the target customers in this segment are the middle and upper class. The same goes for burgers.

Psychographics examines the behaviour of the people living in the area where the product is required. It generally defines the lifestyle and standard of living of the place.

For example the classification into high resource people and low resource people is important to an organisation as the high resource people have more demands; they show lesser adaptability and have greater options while the low resource people because of their limitations in terms of money look for the best at reduced cost. A product for these two sets of customers is different. Dominos mainly facilitates the high resource people but some of their pizzas come in reasonable prices for the low resource people to afford.

Other factor is the motivation (or in other words the need) in the people of that geographical location as to whether they want like that kind of food or not. In case of Dominos, the pizzas are considered as food in the urban location while it is not liked in rural areas. (Dom10)

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The external customers are not only the end users but also the external stakeholders in an organisation, for example, the sponsers, may be media or suppliers are the various external customers whose roles need to be identified such as in these cases a suppliers supplies products thus adds to the human resources of the organisaton. A sponser provides the organisation with resources too which can be utilised for the benefit of organisation. It is the quality planning which aims at understanding the needs of these customers so that they may retained their faith in the organisation. A recent research technique called the BenchMarketing aims at enquiring and inspecting an organisation's performance, factors that affect its growth or loss. Such an approach forms the basis of Quality Planning and analyses the internal and external customers of an organisation to make it more productive and resourceful to add to its public demand and competitiveness. The Hamburger producing organisation such as Burger King has done sufficiently fine to keep up its image among its suppliers, stakeholders and end users by providing high quality services, being dedicated to its supporters in terms of providing new offers and rewards. The company also takes a keen interest in the environmental issues such as recycling wastes and organising green sessions for its employees. The company is also inclined to ethical principles which it uses to promote its basic ideology. (ITP10)

Identifying Internal Customers

The internal customers in a pizza producing organisation Dominos and Hamburger producing Burger Kings are the work staff such as the pizza delivery guys (in case of pizzas), the employees involved in preparing of the product, HR department taking care of hiring and maintaining interpersonal relationships, corporate store operations, the finance section and marketing section. The internal customers are engaged in the functioning of the organisaion. They could be any one from the a project manager, a team carrying out some project or even a third party involved. (Ide10)

Analysis of the needs of the Internal Customers

Internal customers are those people who work for the organisation which in this study are Dominos and Burger King. They are mainly the employees of the organisation who use the services and products of the company and reside in it. The internal customer services are of great importance for interdepartmental support, in reducing miscommunication, problem solving and increasing productivity. It is important for the organisation to care about their external customers as a satisfied employee is also required for business to run longer. The workforce demands better services such as better salary, facilities and technological advancement. The employees need to be encouraged by the organisation so that they deliver innovative and successful results. The corporate stores in Dominos are well kept, thus the personals carrying out operations in these stores seem to do fine. The employees often suffer with the problem of miscommunication thus the organisation should implement a sound body which adheres to the problem. Performance measurement scheme is much appreciated because it provides a transparent measure to identify an active workforce who could be rewarded for their performance. The highest priorities of the internal customers are health and safety. The organisation should look into the matter and formulate some policy so that the loyal customers could avail beneficial results. Dominos as well as Burger Kings provides its internal customers with assistance regarding finance, and solving accounting issues. (Int10)

The most arising need to the internal customers is that the other departments should work efficiently and coordinate with each other. For example, an employee in sales department has to study the sales of the organisation but it is the responsibility of a different department to avail the report for the same, which if not delivered to the former leads to discontentment. It is thus the responsibility of the company to take care of the same either by initiating a training program to motivate the employees and help them revive satisfaction in the organisation.


The basic idea behind the Quality Planning is to identify the prospective customers and to cater for their needs. It focuses on improving services to please its customers. The benefits it offers as discussed earlier are better understanding between the various levels of hierarchy. It does provide the internal customers with less rework, greater production at reduce costs. The estimation of costs i.e. the cost of sales and revenue generated by an organisation help in taking important decisions thus facilitates decision making. Also, the analysis of the customer needs helps the organisation through its decisions, also enables it to be more dynamic and aware of the changing trends in the environment. Customer satisfaction is a hard fruit to eat as it requires a set of distinct approaches such as planning, collection, up gradation and reassessment of the implementation. If such an effort is successful, it is definitely a top notch. Quality planning not only identifies the problems but also the untouched aspects which can be from the same or other areas. It is also used as a resource used by the suppliers to promote products to its customers by providing an outlook on how the company will ensure to keep its market share healthy.

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Thus the internal and external customers are of vital importance for the organisation and an organisation should provide for both sections of customers as both are very crucial for the survival of the organisation. The interrelationship between the two is far more important as the internal customers are aware of the customer expectations and priorities. Also an organisation should consider internal workers equally crucial as they are vital for the improvement of the company. This would help the customers trust the organisation and be loyal to the same. (Int101)