One of the few certainties in this uncertain world is the growing influence of internationalization on organizations, both large and small. There are increasing numbers if internationally operating organizations and internationally operating employees. The subject of international of human resources management (IHRM) is becoming ever more critical for more and more organizations.
International human resource management (IHRM) is the process of procuring, allocating, and effectively utilising human resources in a multinational corporation. While balancing the integration and differentiation of HR activities in foreign locations. (Pieper, 1990). International Human Resource Management (International Human Resource Management) human resources management, international and global enterprises focus on expatriate management, human resource management practices in different countries compared. As any company the importance of human resources, organization-specific approach reflects the international Society of Human Resource Management Strategy.
Objectives of IHRM
Various comparisons of how HRM and Industrial Relations (IR) practices are evident in various countries, and The developing field of how HRM is conducted across countries and cultures, in multinational and international companies (Dowling & Welch 2004). With the global company's knowledge workers and employees increased, the international human resource management function has become more essential to the success of large enterprises.
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To reduce the risk of international human resource
To avoid cultural risks
To avoid regional disparities
To manage diversifies human capital
1.1.3 IHRM model (BY RICKY)
(Figure 1)A model of IHRM (Morgan, 1986)
What is an expatriate?
Compete in the global market is growing, companies need to staff employees from their company to create a local presence and the maintenance of international competition, known as the leave the country in foreign subsidiaries.
With such high stakes riding on the success of foreign transfers, and expensive, face high failure rate, the best choice is crucial foreign, is a major human resources management challenges for most companies. (Overman ,1993).
1.2 INTRODUCTION ON FEDEX CORPORATION
Federal Express Corporation was founded in 1973, new concept in the package delivery - the "an overnight air delivery service." Frederick W Â· Smith is chairman, president, president and CEO of FedEx since 2010, FedEx's net income reached 1.2 billion U.S. dollars, 32.3 billion global transportation, business services and logistics company. The company also provides e-commerce and supply chain management services to its clients over 210 countries. The company has 215,000 employees, contractors and delivery options available, including the global express and ground parcel delivery, cargo delivery, customs too. An integrated business solution through a group operating companies, FedEx is the largest.
Vision and Mission
FedEx Corporation global vision and mission is "will produce superior financial returns for its shareowners by providing high value-added logistics, transportation and related business services through focused operating companies"
. FedEx operating strategy
Federal Express operates independently, through an independent network to meet the priority needs of different customers. Another strategy is to FedEx through the joint efforts of management to keep employees, customers and investors, committed relationship.
Another reason for FedEx's unparalleled success is the company's philosophy of "People-Service-Profit," which dictates that company puts its people first above everything. In this way, managers clearly believe that staff motivation, to provide the best customer service possible, and profitability will follow.
3.1 The concept of HR initiatives
Many companies use human resources initiatives to align human resources strategy, the following is a format about human resources initiatives services(figure 2), this HR initiatives match of many companies, including FedEx. Next is the main point of this format.
The HR initiatives services (figure 2)
(Galliers and leidner, 2003)
Any activity, in which a company lacks internal expertise and confidentiality and requires an unbiased opinion on human resources, can be outsourcing. Recruitment suite Focus areas such like Functional, Departmental, and SBU.
Example, we carry out all services relating to "Training and Development" programs for FedEx organisations like:
1) The training needs analysis and development needs analysis
2) Design a training strategy to support the business strategy
3) The training of the audit function
4) The company's specific needs for learning and development of design systems
5) Assessing the effectiveness of training programs
6) The priority of the training budget
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
7) Investigation in the field of corporate training
Consulting Solutions (Survey & Studies and diagnostics) Focussed HR Studies such like follow programs:
Surveys and studies
Organizational climate survey
Employee satisfaction measurement
Culture Assessment Surveys
Training need analysis
Leadership orientation assessment
System and process interventions in Human Resource Development
Management pool development
3.2 How the programmes affect employee's knowledge, skills and attitudes
3.2.1 What is employee behaviour?
Employee behaviour, also known as organizational behaviour, is the influencing factors, how to deal with staff, leadership and customer results. Internal and external factors to determine their behaviour can help employees understand why the commitment and enthusiasm. Internal factors such as leadership, organizational structure and corporate culture. External factors include family life and other business relationships. (Angus McIlwraith, 2006)
3.2.2 Major Categories Affecting Behaviour
Model of Employee Behaviour (figure 3)
(Nikandrou and Papalexandris, 2008)
Affect employees behaviour includes external factors and internal factors, external factors include outside the organization's and internal working environment, for example (figure 3), it's like investment in work, quality of alternative jobs and tolerance to change. Internal factors refer to the employee as long as the situation itself, such as the individual KSAs, satisfaction, communication, employee relations and power.
3.2.2 How the programmes affect employee's KSAs (knowledge, skill and ability)
(Table 3): The Programs of FedEx
Programs affect employees behavior
Survey Feedback Action program
Encourage employees to give feedback on management policies.
Guaranteed Fair Treatment Procedure
ensured that all types of employee grievances were addressed
Job Change ApplicationTracking System
Provide temporary employees the opportunity to gain regular employment at FedEx.
Leadership Evaluation and Awareness Process
gave FedEx's non-managerial employees the opportunity to seek managerial positions at FedEx
internal employee training programs
how to accomplish job tasks correctly
FedEx had introduced a number of innovative human resource practices. The company designed business communications solutions for the 'Survey Feedback Action ' programs that encourage employees to provide feedback on management policies.
Survey Feedback Model (Perry A 1989)
This model is for FedEx survey feedback model (figure 4), it's show how the model working in FedEx company.
Using the employee's input, the source of the problem, through focus group interviews to guide the structure of meetings (Figure 4) their ideas and solicit employee suggestions for improvement. Treatment, as how the organization is working well and they informed observers (Figure 4). If possible and appropriate, given the responsibility for the implementation of the Action Plan (employees while recognizing that this is not the follow-up of all areas.) Action-oriented, will affect the contrast too much emphasis on actual performance scores.
FedEx's ensured that all types of employee grievances were addressed. A cornerstone of the HR initiative at FedEx is the GFTP or the' Guaranteed Fair Treatment 'Policy that ensures that every employee gets a fair hearing of his or her concerns without fear of retaliation.
For example, In case of a dispute between a manager and a sub-ordinate, accountability rests with the senior, who has to prove that his subordinate was in the wrong. "Besides, employees also conduct a performance review of their managers, who are rated on a range of parameters such as their leadership skills, openness and fairness." Transparency within the organization is another priority for the company, be it in the information systems implemented or even the people-to-people interactions across the company. (FedEx Express, 2002)
The company had also devised employee development programs such as 'Job Change Application Tracking System' to provide temporary employees the opportunity to gain regular employment at FedEx. For temporary employees, the company will be to design a plan to spend 3-5 months training to temporary employees, and if their performance is outstanding, the company will formally hire them.
The company's 'Leadership Evaluation and Awareness Process' gave FedEx's non-managerial employees the opportunity to seek managerial positions at FedEx. FedEx concern is how to identify and train staffs, who is the better manager. FedEx has maintained a continuous chain of such a goal. Whenever a vacancy occurs, we first find the right person within the organization, giving employees more opportunities to compete, after training, select the appropriate management personnel. (Holbeche, 2009)
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FedEx also conducted 'internal employee training programs', which were designed along the lines of executive education programs offered by management institutes. FedEx was considered one of the most employee-friendly companies in the world because its innovative HR initiatives aimed at achieving maximum employee satisfaction.
FedEx Employees appreciate the opportunity to develop their knowledge and skills without ever leaving work or the workplace. Internal training and development brings a special plus. Examples, terminology, and opportunities reflect the culture, environment, and needs of your workplace. Internal employee training programs encourages employees to take time off to educate themselves further. This may be mandatory in-house training or even voluntary training to sharpen their skills. ( Swansburg and Swansburg 2002)