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In the era of 21st century the modern organizations are operating in the competitive and challenging environment of globalization. It is very essential to have the knowledge and understanding of the management circumference from all aspects and directions. The famous writers and economists Graham and Bennett (2008) once said, that human resource management is one of the most exciting and challenging area of the management. HRM is mainly classified into three parts, where the first part is acquiring the human resources, second part is to manage and maintain them and third part is to develop them. The centred resource for any organization is the HRM, which do not only give the direction to the human resources but also represents and entertains the appropriate and required climate and culture for the employees within the organization. HRM operations are not limited within the company borders but also play a dominant role to give edge and priority over other organizations. Therefore, the HRM and organizational management is the process of hiring the employees and to encourage them towards the success of the company while implementing and integrating the policies and procedures for their motivation.
According to Brown (2007), a strong bond is always measured and calculated between the motivational factors and the organization culture. And obviously they are required to be entertained by the organization to achieve high level of success. The good performance is always based on the motivational policies and to achieve the higher rate of performance, all employees must be motivated through the external incentives or internals where self commitment is also important by the employees to play their role.
During the last few years where various analysts and writers have given their views regarding the organization cultures and its impact on the employee motivation, Boddy (2004) said, many organizations have been seen striving for the greater success during the past few years entailing that time, the same organizations are unable to entertain in their services and goods in the same way they were doing earlier. The conducted surveys and word of mouth on it elaborates the outcome of this type of blame to 'organization culture'. Due to being the greatest and largest factor of the HRM, the organization culture can easily influence the behaviour of the employees serving in it. According to the few writes, the impact of the organization culture could make the employees efficient to produce better results and on the other side the same employees and their performance could be affected and would not be able to generate desired results.
The culture in a particular organization can de-motivate or motivate the employees working in it. The research is to be conducted on 'Tesco Extra Bakery' to make sure that the culture of this organization can or does effect and influence the motivation of the employees working in it. To motivate or de-motivate the employees of the organization, the strongest and powerful aspect is the culture. This research is purely based on to figure out how 'Tesco Extra Bakery' can implement the culture to motivate its employees to work hard and produce effective and better results with the continuation of success. This study would be based on the cultures implemented in various organizations and how they play their roles in motivating their employees in various environments. The factors influencing of Herzberg's Hygiene-Motivators are also kept in view before conducting this research.
During the year 1991, Tesco Extra Bakery came into existence in the market of Coeliac. The company was purely intended to supply their products on the international level and started supplying to Ireland and United Kingdom. With the continuous efforts and struggles, company made progress and grew in the whole Europe with the 40 various products of Juvela and Glutafin. The people who has special dietary needs can get the required products through prescriptions. Along with that, company's intention and vision was to make the bakery department as the home for the world class clinical nutrition in a specialized way. This company is operating its business in the competitive environment from the last few years where it made a good success but facing the cultural change for their regular and continuous improvements.
Tesco Extra Bakery is rapidly growing high-technology manufacturing company. Its founders who began the bakery before 15 years ago, manages it, the founder has strongly held beliefs and values. Tesco Extra operates in several critical and coordinated assumptions. Individuals are assumed to be the source of innovations and productivity. Company will not implement any ideas unless everyone involved in implementation process has been convinced. Individuals must think for themselves and will "do the right think" even if that means violating the company policy. The company members are one big family will take care of one another in the high conflict environment. The company takes care of its employees considering monetary and fiscal policies, as staff being paid rewards and bonuses if targets achieved. The bakery works in three different shifts with 48 people together. The bakery environment is quite friendly, as the general view appears to be that hard work; innovation and rapid solutions to problems are essential to this rapidly growing high-technology company.
To summarise we can say that, organisational culture has a strong influence on employees' behaviour and attitudes since it conveys a sense of identity and unity of purpose to members of the organisation. It is clear to understand that an individual's performance at work will be determined by how motivated he/she is. For this purpose, organisational culture also helps shape the behaviour of people, providing guidance on what is expected and it facilitates the generation of commitment and unity, providing the culture is such that meets the needs and expectations of its employees. As we discussed earlier, we can seen that every society and organisation has its own unique culture and employee behaviour will depend on the existing norms and values of that particular culture. Extrinsic factors and Intrinsic factors are crucial to understand needs and expectations. Although, the prominence is given on the monetary rewards in creating and maintaining sustained levels of motivation in employees, financial rewards are not generally sufficient to create and maintain sufficient level of motivation. Therefore, Herzberg's two factors theory is being discussed.
To motivate an individual means creating and environment in which his or her goals can be satisfied while at the same time the goals of the organisation are met. Hunt (1986) says that choosing people for jobs ideally involves relating two questions: what does the organisation need? And what sorts of goals in individuals are closest to those corporate goals? Not surprisingly the highly motivated individual is found in a job where the two goal sets are closest. If the demotivated person is found in situation, the goal congruency is worst. Various cultural aspects can change the view and working environment as we seen in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Theory claims that people are motivated by a number of factors at work, aiming to satisfy one particular need before moving on to attempt to satisfy the next in the hierarchy. Organisations change, people change and most importantly people's expectations change. In other words, management must be fully aware of what aspects within the working environment encourage people to perform better.
As we have seen in the studies presented in this chapter, most people are motivated by factors such as high salary, recognition, responsibilities, good relationship with peers and or a good benefit package. In the next chapter research methodology will be carried out to test what factors generally motivate people to perform better and whether most organisations do go out of their way to accommodate for employees needs and expectations.
Structure of the Dissertation
The dissertation will be presented in six chapters. In the chapter one, we introduce the research and give a background to the research, the purpose of the research and the objectives of the research.
Chapter two, the literature review, identifies and discusses some of the relevant literature that is available on the subject matter. This will establish a solid background of information that is required to complete the research area.
In the chapter three, Research Methodology describes how the research was conducted, in terms of questionnaires, interviews etc. There will be a detailed explanation of the usage of these methods.
The chapter four will consist of summarising the results obtained from the research methodology. By analysing the data collected it will be possible to present the findings of the research.
In the chapter five, we will draw a suitable conclusion from the findings and relate them to the original hypothesis. This section will also determine whether the research has met its objectives.
There will be a number of suitable and realistic recommendations given to organisations, on methods to improve the organisation culture to achieve a totally motivated team of workers in the chapter six.
The purpose of this literature review is to establish a solid background of information that is required to investigate the impact of Organisational Culture on employee motivation. Various relevant theories and studies will be discussed and analysed, this will provide an insight into what is already known on the subject matter.
The role of organisational culture is crucial to understand organisational behaviour. Organisational culture has a strong influence on employees' behaviour and attitudes. Organisation culture involves standard and norms that prescribe how employee should behave in any given organisation. According to Martin (1992), global research indicates that organisational cultures create high levels of commitment and performance. Organisational culture helps to provide stability to an organisation. This implies that organisational culture is a very useful tool for managers in managing diversified workforce in business environment.
Therefore, managers and employees do not behave in a value-free vacuum; they are governed, directed and tempered by the organisation's culture (Brown, 1998). The above quotation provides an understanding of the characteristic that makes a culture. These include norms, sets of ideology, shared values and systems of belief and practices of the people within it. In other words culture refers to the habits and behaviour of a particular group of people, be that within a society or an organisation. However, these norms and values are very rigid and deep and more often they are not being taken as granted. This is because they are not always expressed and they are often known without being understood.
According to Hofstede (2001: 9) culture as "a historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate and develop their knowledge about and attitudes towards life." This is true since the survival of groups and societies has bought about many factors that are unique to the culture that has developed in every specific organisation. Schein (1992) states this takes place because every organisation has its own set of norms and values and every member share these. For example in most developing countries it is the norm that the girls stay at home and help their mother with domestic work, whereas boys are more likely to go to school for an education or go out for work. They are known as the 'bread winners'. The locals do not regard this as a big issue, as this is the normal way of behaviour in their society. However, this concept may be highly opposed in a Western society, as in their culture it is compulsory for both girls and boys to go to school and they have the choice to work and become 'bread winners'.
This concept is backed by Becker & Geer adapted from Mullins (2005) who describe culture as any group, to the extent that it is a distinctive unit, will have to some degree a culture differing from that of other groups, a somewhat different set of common understandings around which action is organised, and these differences will find expression in a language whose nuances are peculiar to that group.
On the contrary, according to Brown (1998), there is a lot more to culture then the sharing of norms and beliefs. It is based upon long-held assumptions about how things are and how they are done in a specific culture. For example, when an individual enters an organisation or industry for the first time, he/she will experience a micro-society (small groups) with its own culture, which has developed within it. The individual is required to adapt to the organisation culture and learn new sets of norms and values. The new employee must then learn to behave in ways that are acceptable within the working environment. However, these norms and values may be minor aspects, for example, wear the company uniform, be punctual, perform tasks in the correct manner or treat subordinates in a certain way, but they must be carried out in order to adapt to the organisation culture.
The culture of an organisation is influenced by many technical and social factors as well (Schein, 1992). Each person in an organisation has a role and they must understand how to complete that role effectively, in both social and technical terms. Normally a job description is given to the employee, and he or she is required to use their personal knowledge and skills to meet demands. Cartwright (1999), however, states our ability to conform is just as important as our willingness to do so. It means that as we move in and out of the organisation in the morning and evening we have to change. Cultural boundaries are defined by time, place and language, and as we move across those boundaries we automatically suspend our conformity to one culture and adopt the demands of another. In other words, he says that organisational and social cultures interact with and influence each other in very marked way.
Organisational Culture is currently one of the major domains of organisational research, together with studies of formal structures, organisations-environment relations and bureaucracy. Research shows that environmental concerns have grown since the early 1990s. Environmental responsibility is becoming necessary in the product market. This is a feature of corporate culture to which employees will respond. Organisations have faced many problems with getting the workforce committed to a project that they regard as worthless. Bashinsky (2004) is backed this view, who claims that Senior Managers recognise that organisation culture has much influence on efficiency and effectiveness. He says that many factors influence organisational culture. These include climate or atmosphere in which workers operate, the style of leadership and management, the nature of the organisation, its technology and history.
This research will take an in-depth approach of dimensions of culture (gender, religion, and ethnicity) into the study of the impact of organisation culture on the motivation level of employees. Every organisation has its own unique culture, which includes religion, gender, ethnicity, leadership style, communication methods and so on. These factors may not seem relevant to some, however they affect others and in turn this has much impact on the behaviours of employees, in a positive or negative way. An example of such factors is listed below.
This is one dimension of culture, which causes much impact on employee behaviour. Over the years there have been numerous cases where men always get higher positions and better roles than women do. Till this day according to Wilson (2004) some organisations do include these equal rights policies, but they do not carry out them effectively. A personal example is when a male and female were working for the same company, doing the same job and had the same responsibilities; the male had a high increase in his salary than female. When female asked about this dissimilarity, the Manager told her that the other employees were a man and he had a family to feed and look after. When women do not get promoted or recognised for their hard work, it causes lack of job satisfaction and resentment towards their job. This can be a very big loss to the company. If women are rewarded for their contribution in the same way as men, then they will obviously want to work harder (Schoenberger, 1997).
Since we are living in such a multi-cultural society, ethnical differences are very much apparent and should be well accepted by people of different ethnical backgrounds. However, according to Martin (1992) racial discrimination still remains a big issue within organisations. A personal example was when working for a travel club; a new person was employed, after two weeks of him working there, two African workers returned back from their holiday. The white man got up and said to the supervisor "I am leaving" and when he asked 'why', he answered, "I am not going to work along side black people." Racial discrimination may make and employee feels inferior to the majority, resulting in poor performance and lack of confidence. Participation will not always be there, since he or she will always feel an outsider. Research shows that working together as a team not only increases staff motivation but also produces better outcome.
It is obvious that commitment will only be gained if people understand what they are expected to do. However, according to Moorhead & Griffin (1995) managers often fail to deliver the message to employees, in a clear and precise manner. In such situations Organisational Behaviour will be very poor, as individuals will be working in a confused environment where goals and objectives are unclear. Poor communication results in an unstable working environment and de-motivates employees (Hannagan, 2002). There should be minimum participation of staff particularly those who are unaware of what is going on. In order to communicate effectively, newsletters, briefing groups, notice boards and videos must be used.
Leadership is the heart and sole of an organisation culture. Management determines consciously or sometimes unconsciously the form of culture, which will evolve. The type of leadership style the manager wishes to use will positively or negatively affect Organisational Behaviour. According to Schein (1992), here is no best style of leadership. What may work effectively in one company may not work in another. For example, an easygoing manager may still be able to get his/her staff to meet targets, as well as having a good relationship with subordinates. On the other hand, a similar leadership style may be taken for granted in another company and jobs may not be carried through properly. This may be very convenient for the employees at first, but there is a high risk of the company failing in the long run.
Effective leadership should influence employee behaviour in a positive manner, as managers who can motivate staff by providing training, offering incentives and giving promotion to employees. This can obviously encourage staff to work harder and remain loyal to the organisation. This next quotation of Sieff quoted in Mullins (1993, p: 11) sums up the contribution of leaders, to the organisation culture, "Leadership is vitally important at all levels within the company, from main board to the shop floor. Leadership is the moral and intellectual ability to visualise and work for what is best for the company and its employees. The most vital thing the leader does is to create team spirit around him near him, not in a schoolboy sense, but in realistic terms of mature adults."
The above are few dimensions of culture; this research will take an in-depth approach into the study of the impact of organisation culture on the motivation level of employees. To gain a better understanding, it is important to look into the concept of motivation and how culture has a positive or negative impact on employee motivation and performance levels.
Motivation is critical if the company wants to achieve sustained high levels of performance through its staff. This means giving close attention to how individuals can best be motivated through means such as incentives, rewards, leadership and, importantly, the work they do and the organization context within which they carry out that work. (Armstrong 2003). When one talks of 'motivation', we refer to the forces within an individual that account for the way in which they behave. It is concerned with why individuals choose a particular course of action in preference to others. Mitchell (1982) identifies four common characteristics, which underlie the definition of motivation. These are as follows.
Motivation is typified as an individual phenomenon. Every person is unique and all the major theories of motivation allow for this uniqueness to be demonstrated in one way or another.
Motivation is described usually as intentional. Motivation is assumed to be under the worker's control and behaviours that are influenced by motivation, such as effort expended, are seen as choice of action.
Motivation is multifaceted. The two factors of greatest importance are what gets people activated and the forces of an individual to engage in desired behaviour (direction or choice of behaviour).
The purpose of motivational theories is to predict behaviour. Motivation is not the behaviour itself, and it is not performance. Motivation concerns action, and the internal and external forces, which influence a person's choice of action.
From Mitchell's definition it is possible to define motivation as the forces within an individual, which wants and chooses to engage in certain patterns of behaviour. It is clear to understand that an individual's performance at work will be determined by how motivated he/she is.
On the other hand, Mullins (1999: 15) is underlying concept of motivation as "a driving force within individuals, by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfil some need or expectation." Motivational model provides illustration for this.
It is obvious from this that an individual's behaviour is determined by what motivates him/her. Their performance is in subject to their motivational level. Therefore, if the manager is to improve the work of the organisation, attention must be given to the level of motivation of its members. The manager must also encourage staff to direct their efforts (their driving force) towards the successful attainment of the goals and objectives of the organisation. The most important aspect is to establish this driving force. It is important to understand people needs and expectations, and how they influence the behaviour and performance of individual at work.
When we refer to the needs and expectations of individuals we are talking of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors of motivation. According to Naylor (2004: 370-371), extrinsic motivation is being tangible rewards provided by someone else. This could be in terms of increase in pay, job security, promotion, benefits, responsibilities and so on. Although a manager frequently provides extrinsic rewards, colleagues can also offer them through their appreciation. Intrinsic motivation on the other hand is related to psychological rewards such as the opportunity to use one's ability, a sense of challenge, achievement, being appreciated and gaining recognition. These psychological rewards are those that can usually be determined by the actions and behaviour of individual managers.
On the other hand, Bennett (1981) provides a broad three-fold classification for the motivation to work. First, there are economic rewards such as pay, fringe benefits, pension rights, material goods and security. This is known as instrumental orientation to work and is concerned with 'other things'. Second is intrinsic satisfaction, which derived from the nature of the work itself, interest in the job, personal growth and development. It is concerned with 'oneself', called as personal orientation to work. The third is social relationships such as friendships, group working and the desire for affiliation, status and dependency. This type of orientation to work is known as relational and is concerned with 'other people'.
The above study shows that a person's motivation, job satisfaction and work performance will depend on these sets of needs/expectations and the extent to which they are fulfilled. Bennett provides an example, "Some people may make a deliberate choice to forgo intrinsic satisfaction and social relationships (particularly in the short term or in the earlier years of their working life) in return for high economic rewards. Other people are happy to accept comparatively lower economic rewards in favour of a job which has high intrinsic satisfaction and/or social relationship."
Keeping in mind the three categories mentioned above, Cartwright (1999: 39) claims that the motivation to work is also influenced by the concept of the 'psychological contract'. The psychological contract involves a series of expectations between the employees and the organisation. These expectations may not be defined in a formal manner and/or both parties may not be aware of this agreement; however it still affects the relationship between the individual member and organisation. According to Beardewell (2004), obviously if expectations are not met, this will naturally have an impact on motivation and in turn on performance level. According to him, the theory, especially in relation to reward and performance management, has a straightforward application because its message is clear- find out what motivates your employees at each of the levels and at which level employee is operating, and develop a reward strategy accordingly. All above given theories of motivation strive to explain how diverse factors affect the level of motivation and how motivation can be maintained or built.
However, writers such as Taylor (1947) claimed that obtaining the maximum wages through working is the most competent and productive way to motivate employees. According to him, performance was limited by psychological fatigue and motivation was increased when employers gave high wages to employees. According to Beardewell (2004), "Taylor believed that the use of money as a motivator linked to various objectives would offer the best motivation for performance." In Taylor's opinion money is the primary motivator.
Cowling (1992) supported the same view when he states that money and a lot more of it motivate people. The significance of pay is also explained by Torrington (2005). According to him, money is a status symbol and determinant of standards of living apart from being reward for the work. However, if we compare the above to the different school of thought who claims that people go to work to satisfy a range of different needs and not just simply for a high salary. Financial rewards are not generally sufficient to create and maintain sufficient level of motivation. They emphasised more on the importance of the social needs of individuals and gave recognition to the work organisation as a social organisation. In their opinion, money is not necessarily the best way of motivating people at work (Hunt, 1986).
The contingency approach to organisations takes the view that there are a large number of variables or situational factors which have an impact on employee behaviour and in turn organisational performance. According to them, there is more than one factor affecting the level of motivation in employees. According to Rollinson (2005), people are motivated by things that make them feel good about work, but have aversions to things that make them feel bad. It means people are motivated or demotivate by good or bad conditions at work. Organisations and individual managers must be adaptable and vary their behaviour according to the particular situation and the different needs and motivations of employees.
Organisation Culture and Motivational Factors
According to Management News, (1990), all managers have a duty to motivate their teams. Motivated people take more pride in their jobs and work better. But many managers don't know how to motivate their staff.
According to Moorhead & Griffin (1995), every individual is unique and it is impossible to identify one single factor that will motivate the whole workforce. There are many motives that influence organisational behaviour in different ways and as the previous section states, an organisation's structure and functions are the main ingredients that determine employee behaviour. It is correct to claim that an organisation culture can motivate or de-motivate employees. In other words, according to Hofstede (2001), some employees may work harder if they know they will get recognition for such work, others may better their performance for promotion and development reasons and on the other hand there may be some that are motivated by establishing a strong relationship between peers/subordinates. We must realise that all these elements are given rise by an organisation's culture. This is the strongest factor of a working environment that determines behaviour patterns.
Along with this, the amazing aspect of culture according to Schein (1992) is that people do not realise how much they are influenced by it. The atmosphere is such so that employees' see himself/herself as becoming part of a team working together to meet the company goals. In return for this strong bonding the company offers many indirect benefits, which include loans for home purchases, company holiday packages, transport to and from the workplace and so on. The fact that there are so many benefits and the importance of length of service for promotion and remuneration increases the loyalty of the employee to one company.
Harrison (1972) adapted from Brown (1998: 66), through his study, identifies some of the best-known classification schemes of organisational cultures. These include power, role, people and task culture. However, after a few years, Handy (1982) reworked Harrison's ideas and identifies this simple classification scheme has been extremely influential, played a primary role to understand how organisations work. His study suggests that all organisations have at least one of these cultures and these have much impact on organisational behaviour as well as employee motivation. They are as follows.
CHAPTER - III
To make the research successful and meet its objectives, it was essential to plan the study within the given time scale and word limit. Obviously, all research creates its own risk and uncertainty; this is where it was important to keep a personal diary, which kept account of what was to be done, by when and how. The research is organisational culture powerful enough to motivate or de-motivate employees. Since such a link between organisation culture and employee motivation has not been made before or if it had than the author was not aware of it, therefore it was a challenge making connection between the two.
Sources of Information
In such a research obviously there needs to be a wide range of material studied. Relevant data needs to be collected and analysed in order to gain an insight into the subject area. Below is a list of the sources of information and methods used to carry out the investigation into the impact of organisation culture on employee motivation.
These included, Journal of Management Development, Project Appraisal, International Journal of Human Resource Management and many others. They were quite helpful in gaining a background understanding of the subject matter. The journals did provide useful examples of different types of organisation cultures and also factors that motivate people at work.
The Internet was another useful source, which provided examples, which were relevant for the research topic. However, the connection between organisation culture and employee motivation had limited capacity, may be because this concept had not been linked before.
This was excellent in obtaining much literature material. From the books studied it was possible to gain a greater understanding of the research.
There are many ways to undertake research methodology. However, the approach proposed by Saunders et al. (2003) seems very logical. Saunders et al. (2003) compare the research process to an onion by highlighting the layered approach to research depicted in figure.
Data Collection Methods
(Secondary research/ interview)
(Adopted from Saunders et al. 2003)
Among the various possible research strategies, this particular research is most likely to be classified as a case study research. This research concentrates on a particular section of an organisation (organisation culture). According to Morris and Wood (1991), a case study is most suitable to gain a deep insight into the context of the research and the processes. According to Saunders et al. (2003), case study involves observation of a single group or event at a single point in time, usually subsequent to some phenomenon that allegedly produced a change. Despite of being criticised by Jankowicz (2002), the method of case study is the best for management purpose.
This research is exploratory and a cross sectional study. Due to the time and resource constraints involved, conducting a longitudinal research would not be feasible. The research however, involves the analysis of historical data. Even though it is cross-sectional, the study would be able to provide a fair amount of insight into the research question. According to Hussey (1997), A sample is made up of some of the members of population. It is representative of the population from which it is drawn. According to Bryman and Bell (2003), there are two types of sampling: probability sampling and Non-probability sampling. According to Saunders et al. (2003), heterogeneous non-probability sampling (convenience sampling, snowball sampling, purposive sampling and quota sampling) is best for case study research. On the contrary, Bryman and Bell (2003) said that the greater the heterogeneity of a population, the larger a sample will need to be. The homogeneous, instead of heterogeneous is relatively good for the members of a company where the amount of variation is less. The research will be based on the convenience sampling of ten people working in different backgrounds from sales advisor to HR manager in organisation, which is simply available by virtue of its accessibility.
The primary data and secondary data have been used to get all necessary information for this research. As a secondary data, author has used books, journals, Internet and literatures. For the primary data there are lots of sources like interview, survey, questionnaire, protocol analysis, observation, diaries and so on (According to Gill & Johnson, 2002). According to Saunders M. et al., (2003), an interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more person. The use of interviews helps to gather valid and reliable data that are relevant to the research questions and objectives. However, interviews particularly unstructured and semi-structured are very time consuming, expensive. Questions should be open ended. According to Hussey (1997), as the whole process can be very time consuming and expensive, in some cases a short questionnaire may be more appropriate.
Questionnaires are a popular method for collecting data. It is cheaper and less time consuming than interviews and very large samples can be taken. This questionnaire contends questions intended to asked cover various aspects of our research about organisation culture is powerful to motivate employees. However, on the contrary, According to Gill & Johnson, (2002), the questionnaire is based on more closed questions, whereas interviews would give room for more open answers. Interviews would allow the respondent to give a more complete answer rather than just a 'yes' or 'no'. For the research purpose, researcher has conducted interviews with 10 employees of Tesco Extra Bakery. Although the sample size is small in interview, it was decided that results obtained would produce a truer picture for the purpose of the research.
In quantitative analysis, data can be measured. In other words, numbers and what they stand for are the material of analysis. We can make direct comparison between two organisations through valid sampling and techniques and it is also useful to conduct exploratory data analysis (Hussey, 1997). However, by contrast, according to Saunders et al. (2003), quantitative analysis is less reliable than qualitative analysis as qualitative analysis deals in words and standardized procedures than statistical analysis. Qualitative analysis provides shared ground rules for drawing conclusions and verifying their sturdiness. According to Saunders et al. (2003) there is relative lack of standardization in quantitative analysis, which focuses considerable misunderstanding. The method used in research will be qualitative analysis as it is related to complete and detailed description of the research topic.
Confidentiality is of primary importance throughout this research and very crucial in terms of gaining access to organisations and individuals. Once promises about confidentiality have been made it is of great importance to make sure that these are maintained (Saunders et al, 2003). In almost all cases, the data collection would be on the condition of secrecy. Keeping the sensitivity of the information collected in mind, this research will not be disclosed names of people. A sincere effort would be maintain throughout the research stick to these ethical concerns.
Scope and Limitations
The interviews will be conducted with various people from different working backgrounds in the organisation to obtain a comprehensive feedback. Realistic future recommendations will be given to organisation on how to improve their culture and in turn increase staff motivation. The research will concentrate only on 'organisation culture' and not on national or regional culture. It is arguable that organisational culture has become the single most active research arena. The research will not go into much depth due to word, cost and time limitations.