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Behavioral Theory is one of the leadership theories which believe that leaders are made and people can learn to be leaders by observation and training. This leadership theory concentrate on leaders' actions and how they behave (especially towards subordinates) rather than on their qualities.
Ron aligns with Behavioral Theory because he observes and follows working style of Adam in believing in the philosophy of "My way or no way". He wants his staff to work in his way only. Followers do not have freedom to give their ideas therefore they have to work under Ron's instructions and control. He focuses on Adam's behavior and acts the same way as him but he does not think about mental qualities of Adam. He does not realize if behavior of Adam suitable for current situation of company or not. He is not aware of affections of this working style on producing and subordinates' feeling that it can be de-motivated.
Autocratic Leadership Style
This leadership style, leaders make decisions independently with no reference to other people in the group, followers are not allowed to give any suggestions or ideas. Leaders retain as much power and decision making authority as possible and they impose thinking without discussing with subordinates. Leaders order and give clear expectations for what they want subordinate to do.
Adam follows Autocratic Style because he believes in the philosophy of "My way or no way" which means he is only one who can make decision and he thinks his decision making is the best and always right. He does not need any input from subordinates. Hence followers' idea and alternative ways of working are not allowed. Followers are expected to obey his orders and if they fail do so they might be punished.
Laissez-Faire: Free Rein Leadership Style
This leadership style can be called "hands-off" style. Leaders allow subordinate to make the decisions and they can work independently. Leaders do not offer guidance or direction to followers and leave decision-making up to them. Power is given to subordinates but when they get struck they have to solve problems by their own.
James follows Laissez-Faire Style because he does not pay attention to his staffs whether they work efficiently or not. He gives subordinates freedom to work without any direction and does not follow result if they get their work done effectively. He Concerns for people not quantities of production as he do not want to take any action to upset followers by complaining when they make mistake or give them necessary advices to work in the right direction for effective result.
Autocratic Leadership Style is not appropriate for this situation owing to the fact that it could be the cause of high turn-over of staffs and staffs become less self-confident to make decision on their own.
In general followers like being trust and faith, the autocratic leadership style does not promote employees' participation in making decision or presenting their ideas. As a result, they are under controlled and work under pressure because they have to work as instruction of leader. They could feel that they work as machines so they do not stay with the company for long.
As followers receive orders from leader all the time, they may become dependent upon their leader. They will be losing initiative and the confidence for making decisions on their own. As a result, some workers may become inefficient at running operations if they are not instructed by their leader. That's mean they cannot work without direction because they are not trained to do so.
Laissez-Faire: Free Rein Leadership Style is too flexible for production of this company especially in the present situation. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style is suitable for jobs which need creative ideas not in production section.
As employees are given freedom to work without direction and instruction. They are not even supervised if they are working or not. These cause delays of fabric through the dyeing section. The manager does not do this job as his responsibility because he is afraid that staffs will not like him.
In current situation which production has dropped and customers are not satisfied with the quality of goods, leader should pay serious attention on working procedure and how employees work. It is right to trust in ability of staffs but when some of them do not perform on their job well, leader should supervise and give them direction to work in the right way and effectively. Leader should be aware of company's benefit not his own.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow (1954) presents a hierarchy of needs model which indicate into basic needs and growth needs.Â
Once need or a certain order of need is satisfied it is no longer motivating factor. One must satisfy lower level basic needs then the next level will emerge as the depressed need seeking to be satisfied. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.
Every person is able and has the desire to move up the hierarchy to reach a level of self-actualization.Â Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by failure to meet lower level needs. Maslow noted only one in a hundred people become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs and sometimes people are not aware of their own need.
The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model:
1. Biological and Physiological needs - breathing, food, water, homeostasis, warmth, sex, sleep
2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, and stability.
3. Social needs - friendship, family, sexual intimacy, relationships.
4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, confidence, dominance, respect of others and by others, managerial responsibility.
5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, acceptance of facts, spontaneity, morality.
Everyone needs different level of motivation. Carl needs to be motivated from social needs level because he is firm and strict and find it hard to communication with others. That means his friendship with team members is unsatisfied for himself. He should be motivated by building good relationship with manager of all departments and sections. Make him feel that he is loved and accepted from colleges. Make him pound of himself and CEO should keep telling him that how important he is for the company especially in difficult situation company need some a person like him to bring company move forward. After social need is successful, should move to the next level that is Esteem need. Make him believe that the current situation of company is the big opportunity for challenging himself for his career. Not everyone can do it, and if he can be the main person who give guidance and direction to subordinates and colleges that means he make achievement and will be respected from other. He will full fill his self esteem.
The way that could motivate staff to stay longer in Knitting section.
Adam adjusts himself to be a good communicator with staffs. He should be a leader who can communicate effectively. He should be a manager that all staffs can talk to and consult with when they need advices without fear of judgment. Be positive and helpful for followers and always support team members. Adam seems to be tough on his staffs, He should be more flexible and give more guidance not ordering.
Give the opportunities to staffs to make their own decisions. Give them trust and let them work on their own but direct them when they need. Give power to staff to make decision and take responsibility for their outcome, let them control over their daily environment. Invite them to participate when manager wants new idea of working. Employees will feel that they are important for an organization and have job satisfaction and stay longer.
Give Incentives, rewards and recognition to good staffs. The staffs who perform well constantly should be felicitated in front of other employees. Give rewards certificates, or badges to them. Ask team members to give a loud hand crapping to the employees who have done their jobs perfectly. Put the names of the top performers on the company's notice board that everyone can see.
Give opportunities to build a career for staff members. Show all employees where they can go in the future. Show them that they can grow their careers with the company and can be promoted when they perform well and stay long enough to understand and have ability and experience to do their job efficiently.
The first benefit of delegation is increases productivity. If Ron assigned some routine and clearly defined tasks to his staff, then he can focus on more important and more difficult tasks that need his decision making and dedication. That means more tasks could be done in the same time. As a result, he can reduce the delay of procedure in Finishing section.
Delegation helps manager to manage time effectively. When Ron assigns staff to work on less skilled tasks, this allows him who has more skills to concentrate working on more skilled tasks. Therefore, delegation helps Ron to manage his limited time and he has more time to supervise all procedure in his control. Then Finishing section can contribute work on time and will not be the cause of delay of the whole producing.
Increase motivation of staffs. When Ron delegates tasks to subordinates he also empowers them to make decision. This can make them feel that they play an important role for company and they are trusted. They will be more motivated to do a good job. Delegating gives staffs message that they growth in their careers. Therefore they will not leave company because they can see opportunity. This could reduce high turnover of staff in Finishing section and keep knowledge in company.
Responsibility: It is about the assignment and the intended results. That means manager must set clear expectations about what should be completed. This includes avoiding prescribing the staff how the assignment should be done. If Ron delegates a subordinate to check the quality of finishing fabric and record in system, he should set the goal that what he expect staff to process work and how much he wants that staff to get job done in one week.
Authority: It is about the limit of power that is given to subordinates who is delegated task and the right which they can act and make decisions. Ron should estimate that how appropriate power he can give to staff to make decision and what level of problem needs his decision making. Explain to staff what he can and cannot do.
Accountability: When manager assigns a task to subordinate, manager is still accountable for the result of the task. After delegation task to staff Ron should establish appropriate controls to inspect progress of work. For example he can monitor work progress every three days and if any mistake occurs he can give advice and direction.
Process employed: by select the task to delegate, then select the appropriate person to do that task, after that assign the task to staff also explain responsibility and authority. Next step is to get feedback of work progress then give reward or punishment to staff depends on how effective of work. Ron should follow the delegate process by select the job that he thinks does not need his decision making then select staff who is reliable and has experience enough that is able to learn and do that task. After that explain the task and give direction, give him authority to make decision. Follow up the work progress and reward him if he performs well.