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Quality management is recent phenomenon. Quality is what customer wants.its customer perception about the degree to which the product or service meets his/her expectation. Therefore, quality is defined by customer needs and expectation. During advanced civilization that supports the high quality of goods and they choose goods meeting higher quality standards than normal goods. Due to the industrial revolution, the importance of craftsmen was diminished and repetitive work practices were instituted. The objective behind to produce large numbers of the same goods. A product that meets the needs of the customer, at a price where the customer is agree to pay, and does it for evrytime thats called quality product. If a customer is not satisfied with the product, so next time they are unlikely to come back. So for a businessman to survive his business they have to maintain the quality of goods to up to the mark.
It can be classified in following categories
(1) Attractive Quality element: Customer would be satisfied if this quality was provided otherwise they would accept the product or service and would not show dissatisfaction.
(2) Must be Quality element: Customers would accept the product or service if this quality element is provided, but their satisfaction would increase. However, customers would feel dissatisfied if this quality element was not provided.
(3) One-dimensional Quality element: Customer would be satisfied if this quality element would provide otherwise they wouldn't satisfied
The following diagram could illustrate the relationship between customer satisfaction and quality performance, each category respectively affected customer satisfaction in a different way. The customer satisfaction contained three antecedents of satisfaction which including must be attributes, one dimensional attributes and attractive attributes with a product or service, Have been utilize in this diagram
Dimensions of Quality
Quality symbolizes many aspects of what customer wants. Some dimensions of quality are mentioned below
(1) Performance: It is the primary operating characteristics, which determines-how well the product or service performs.
(2) Features: There special features that attract to customers. Eg: Some design, look or colour etc
(3) Durability: It is the time duration or amount of use before being replaced or repaired.
(4) Reliability: Likelihood of breakdown, repair or expected time of fault-free operation
(5) Service: Customer would more attract to the product if such after purchasing the product if some sort of service is provided
(6) Outer look: Customer will more attract to such product where the product is more attractive.
(7) Uniformity: Limited variations among different products of same type.
(8) Consistency: Conformance with standard, matching with documentation, being on-time etc.
(9) Safety: Safety is main concerns for the customer before they purchase any product.
(10) Customer Service: After Sales Service, treatment received during or before sales
(11) Compatibility: Compatibility of the product/service with existing or standard interfaces peripherals or other attachments, power source etc.
Traditional Approach to Quality Management
Management Approaches could be either Traditional or Modern.
Ask any manger as to their approach and skill set in managing employees, often the response is that all attributes are up to date. A second glance may reveal a different climate within an organization. Research indicates that manager style will be greatly influenced by the approach adopted either traditional or quality. This is the basis of the quality management theory at the other end of the spectrum lays the traditional management approach considered to be outdarted, this approach does not utilize the full potential of a firm's human capital. The schematic below illustrates the attributes of two approaches.
Traditional Management Quality Management
Expectation that individuals possess required knowledge
Goals independent of reality
Communication impaired by trepidation
Management by objective
Goals based on firms capabilities
Effort to reduce factors that impair communication through trust
Long term goals
Long term relationship
Perhaps the biggest difference of the two approaches is the ability of Quality Management to create an environment in the workplace that encourages everyone to contribute to the continued viability of the firm. The traditional management approach is considered to be autocratic as compared to the Modern Quality management approach which is known to be open, people oriented and democratic.
Modern Concept of Total Quality Mangement
He wanted to change the way people think about the product. He insist the organization to emphases main on the quality of products. According to Ishikawa, quality improvement is a continuous process, and it can always be taken one step further.
He always believed and insist to give more importance to leadership and top level management. He always urged top level executives to take quality control courses, He knows that without the support of the management these programs can't run successfully. He emphasised that it would take firm commitment from the entire hierarchy of employees to reach the companies potential for success. He also emphasized of quality throughout a products life cycle not just during production. Although he believed strongly in creating standards,he wanted organisation always meet consumer needs from these needs all other decisions should stem.
Ishikawa expanded Demings four step into the following six
Determine goals and targets
Determine methods of reaching goals
Engage in education and training
Check the effects of implementation
Take appropriate action
Joseph M Juran
Joseph M.Juran, made many contributions to the field of quality management in his working years. He revolutionized the Japanese philosophy on quality management and in no small way worked to help shape their economy into the industrial leader it is today. Dr. Juran was the first incorporate the human aspect of quality management which is referred to as Total Quality Management.
The following point outlines the major points of Dr. Juran's quality management ideas:
Quality Planning :
Identify who are the customers
Determine the needs of those customers
Translate those needs into our language
Develop a product that can respond to those needs
Optimise the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs
Develop a process which is able to produce the product.
Optimise the process.
Prove that the process can produce the product under minimal inspection.
Transfer the process to operation
Philip B. Crosby
Philip Crosby excelled in finding the core word of quality that mere mortals could understand. He mainly focused on zero defects, and modern six sigma Quality movement. Mr. Crosby was quick to point out, however that zero defects is not something that origins on the assembly line. To create a manufacturing process that has zero defects management must set the tone and atmosphere for employees to follow. If management does not create a system by which zero defect are clearly the objective then employees are not to blame when things go astray and defects occur. Mr. Crosby defined quality as conformity to certain specifications set forth by management and not some vague concept of "goodness". These specifications are not arbitrary either; they must be set according to customer needs and wants.
Four Absolutes of Quality Management
Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as 'goodness' or 'elegance'.
The system for causing quality is prevention, not appraisal.
The performance standard must be Zero Defects, not "that's close enough".
The measurement of quality is the Price of Non-conformance, not indices.
Taguchi revolutionized the manufacturing process in Japan through cost savings. He understood, like many other engineers, that all manufacturing process are affected by outside influence, noise.His theory has been adopted around globe.
There are some of the points which Taguchi has made to improve the quality.
The Loss Function: Mainly, it tells organsation how much revenue they are losing because of variability in their production process.He was the person to equate quality with cost. He devised an equation to quantify the decline of a customer's perceived value of a product as its quality declines.
Orthogonal Arrays and Linear Graphs: When evaluating a production process analysis will identify outside factors which cause deviation from the mean. Isolating these factors to determine their factors to determine their individual effect can be very time consuming process Effective manner.
Robustness: Some factors can be detected it could be eliminated and even it could be isolated but there are some which cannot. For instances it is too difficult to predict and prepare for any possible weather condition. He therefore referred to the ability of a process or product to work as intended regardless of uncontrollable outside influences as robustness.
Armand V. Feigenbaum
He promoted the concept of a working environment where quality developments cover entire organization, each and every person in organization must be dedicated in improving the quality of product.However such methods are only part of the overall administrative quality control system, they are not the system itself. Particularly, there is the recognition that variation in product quality must be constantly studied of the particular product between different lots of the same article by critical quality characteristics. The need for quality-mindedness throughout all levels is emphasized as is need to sale the program to the entire plant organization and the need for the complete support of top management. Management must give more importance to quality to increase sale activity. From the human relations point of view, the quality in organization is seen in both.
1) A channel for communication for product quality information
2) A means of participation in the overall plant quality program
The important force leading to organizational success and company growth in national and international is seen as Quality, decreasing operating cost, reduced operating losses and improved utilization of resources. Operating quality costs are divided into:
1) Prevention costs including quality planning
2) Appraisal costs including inspection
3) Internal failure costs including scrap and rework
4) External failure costs including warranty costs, complaints, etc.
Reduction in operating costs result from setting up a total quality system for two reasons:
1) Lack of existing effective customer-oriented customer standards may mean current quality of product is not optimal given use,
2) Expenditure on prevention costs can lead to a several fold reduction in internal and external failure costs.
W. Edwards Deming
His contribution was in improving quality, by setting 14 points principles which is the foundation for achieving the objective of quality improvements. Japanese companies applied these principles and know you can see the quality of Japanese companies product and its quality. If any organization applies these 14 points surely they will find some changes in their products.
1) Create constancy of purpose
2) Management has to adopt the new philosophy
3) Cease dependence on inspection (it concerns to variation in other words, if there is no variation no inspection is needed because all products shows no defects)
4) Move towards a single supplier for any one item
5) Improve constantly and forever
6) Institute training on the job
7) Institute leadership
8) Drive out fear
9) Break down barriers between departments
10) Eliminate slogans (Usually, it's not the employee who did it wrong, but it's the system who allowed that. No need to create tension on workers)
11) Eliminate management by objectives
12) Remove barriers to pride of workmanship
13) Institute education and self improvement.
14) Transformation is everyone's job.