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Leadership is the ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organization goals. It is the process of providing the direction and inspiration necessary to create or sustain an organization.
The 21st century has already spawned a sizable volcano of daunting new challenges to leadership. Deregulation, digitization, ecosystems, strategy life cycles, and competition at present, represents change have permanent rhythm for every business firm. This change process gives a role of decision making initiative for the leaders such as:
1)Â Â Â Â Â Broadening the scope of employee freedom by managing less, without sacrificing focus, discipline, and order.
2)Â Â Â Â Â Creating an organization where the spirit of shared values and community dominate, not programs and policies.
3)Â Â Â Â Â Providing for a mission that justifies extraordinary contribution .etc
The best effective decisions made within the available limited resources and constraints to provide an optimum solution for the change process makes a leader and a manager to achieve their objectives in many change process. Further to handle the change initiatives efficiently Â an organization must recognize that succession planning and leadership development are two elements of the same process that of ensuring there are leaders now and in the future who can implement the organizational vision .while succession planning can identify those individuals who have the abilities ,talent and potential to turn the vision of the organization into reality, the alignment to leadership development can ensure that this potential is realized .In so doing, an organization can ensure that there is indeed long term leadership sustainability and opportunities of entrepreneurship this will be a source of having competitive advantage of developing next generation leaders in the years to come for an organization to succeed .
Leadership is the energetic process of getting people fully and willingly committed to a new and sustainable course of action to meet commonly agreed objectives whilst having commonly held values. Leader's values must offer 4E's frame work-envision, enable, empower and energize, for establishing a climate for creative thinking and promote innovation.
21'st century has already experienced with deregulation, digitization, globalization,
Strategic business management, the result is familiar to every business firm "Change",
Change is a common occurrence in business today. Leading change describes the role of leaders in accepting and managing many change processÂ .many of the change initiatives fail to achieve their objectives because (1) Absence of a definition of what actually would constitute organizational success. (2)Â "Results" a powerful concept if left unmanaged, poses a risk in future. (3) Intransparency ie, lack of clarity of the changing situation. (4) Lack of succession planning and building bench strength.
Leadership attempts to have integrated systems to solve the problems of change process.
"Leadership is about being adaptable to change and uncertainty" (Mark .A. Morgan MD of citigroup private bank).
An organization to develop the next generation leaders should consider the following important points such as (1) Identifying core set of skills to equip leaders of next generation. (2) Tracking and networking alumni of young professionals. (3) Determining the value of pooling program evaluation efforts. (4) Recognizing the key challenges in finding the resources and enhancing youth programes.
Key words: Leadership sustainability & roles, change process, toxic leadership etc.
Â A Challenges Approaches To Leadership
leadership is contested issue. It is much discussed and debated, both practically and therotically, and means different things to different people in different contexts. There is no one correct definition of leadership, or any one set of personal qualities or competencies that characterize leaders. Despite this, most approaches to leadership development are based on personal competency models and focus upon the individual.
Our model of leadership has three doain
1: CHALLENGES are the critical tasks, problems and issue requiring action.
2: CHARACTERISTICS are the qualities, competencies and skills that enable us to contribute to the practice of
leadership in challenges situations.
3: CONTEXT is the 'on-site' conditions found in the challenges situation.
All three domains are important: without challenging tasks there is no call for leadership; challenges make great demands on the qualities, abilities and skills of the people in the situation; and leadership is always situated in a particular context. Because of the complexity of these contexts, there is no one best style or approach that fits all situations.
Contemporary Leadership Roles
The 4 contemporary leadership roles that are important for the organization to achieve its objectives are:
Providing team leadership
Leadership is increasingly taking place within a team context .as teams grow in popularity; the role of the leader in guiding team members takes on heightened importance.
Organizations have formal mentoring programs where mentors are officially assigned to new or high -potential employees to present ideas clearly, and empathize with problems of their protégés.
Self -leadership propose that there are a set of processes through which individuals control their own behavior and effective leaders help their followers to lead themselves.
To lead the people who are physically separated from you and with whom your interactions are basically to written digital communications like telecommuting with employees you need online leadership.
Factors for effective leadership
(1) Follower. (2) Leader (3) Communication (4) Situation
Factors influencing changes in organizations environment
Globalization and developments in the field of information and technology.
New management strategies and the competitiveness in the business environment.
Implementation of news business processes.
New goals and performance standards established in the business
Structural changes in the economy. Etc
Need for implementation of change in the organization's environment
Based on Michael E Porter's five forces of competitive position we can analyze that there is a need for "change" in the organization to survive in the competitive modern business.
Michael Porter's five forces:
Existing competitive rivalry between suppliers
Threat of new market entrants.
Bargaining power of buyer
Power of suppliers
Threat of substitute products (including technology change)
Leadership role and responsibility in implementing change in organization
Organizational culture is the primary source of resistance to change a leader should understand the organization culture and then plan the change process.
The use of value based management model 0f 7-s model can be helpful in implementation of change by coordinating 7-s namely, shared value, strategy, structure, system, staff, style and skill. (MC Kinsey's 7-s framework)
Leadership should determine clear decision making framework to ensure the organization has means and resources to achieve its goals.
Analyzing the change process through a experimental projectÂ with the five factors such as project duration, the project teams performance ,integrity of management commitment, employee commitment and employee effort required to cope with the change that are essential to be implemented.
Change can be implemented through organizational transformation by ensuring succession planning initiatives are closely aligned to leadership and development and organizational vision
Ensuring that succession planning process occurs in such a way that it is in itself a transforming experience.
Drawbacks of implementation of changes in the organization.
Some the reasons why change initiatives fail to achieve their objectives are:
Absence of clear definition of what actually constitute organizational success
Lack of knowledge about changing situation in business environment.
Lack of integration between succession planning and leadership with organizational vision.
Toxic leadership performance.
Lack of planning premises and constraints, inadequacy of resources and means to implement the planned change process.
Toxic leadership and organization
Toxic /Bad leadership is one of the main reason we can point out for the failure toÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â implementation of change in the organization. "A Toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over organizations employees but abuses the leader -follower relationship by leaving the organization in a worse condition than when he/she first found them". (Barbara Kellerman)
Barbara Kellerman analyzes Toxic/bad leadership into seven different types:
(1)Incompetent (2) Rigid (3) Intemperate (4) Callous (5) Corrupt (6) Insular (7) Evil.
Toxic leadership can effect organization in change implementation by following way:
Lack of definition of vision, strategy and business plan.
Inappropriate execution of the vision, plan strategy and business plan.
Lack of team building skills and business ethics.
Lack of sponsoring, supporting, measuring results.
Destruction of organizational culture, values and employees trust and confidence.
Understanding the change process
Understanding the change process helps the leader of present and future generation to develop the suitable technique to solve problems in initiating change process in organization. To understand problems, determining the characteristics of the difficult problem is key to initiate change process.
Dietrich Dorner and Joachim Funke have elucidated typical characteristics of difficult problem they are as follows:
Intransparency-lack of clarity of situation.
Polytely-multiple goals which have
a)Â Â Â Â Â Inexpressiveness.
b)Â Â Â Â Â Opposition
c)Â Â Â Â Â Transience
complexity- large number of items interrelations and decisions which have
a)Â Â Â Â Â Enumerability.
b)Â Â Â Â Â Connectivity (hierarchy relation ,communication relation, allocation relation)
c)Â Â Â Â Â Heterogeneity.
Dynamics- time considerations, which have
a)Â Â Â Â Â Temporal constraints
b)Â Â Â Â Â Temporal sensitivity
c)Â Â Â Â Â Phase effects
d)Â Â Â Â Dynamic unpredictability
Problem Solving Techniques
Abstraction: solving the problem in a model of the system before applying it to the real system.
Analogy: using a solution that solved an analogous problem.
Brainstorming: (especially among the groups and teams) suggesting a large number of solutions or ideas and combining and developing them until an optimum is found.
Divide and conquer: breaking down a large complex problem into smaller, solvable problems.
Hypothesis testing: assuming a possible explanation to the problem and trying to prove the assumption
Lateral thinking: approaching solutions indirectly and creatively.
Means-ends analysis: choosing an action at each step to move closer to the goal.
Method of focal objects: synthesizing seemingly non-matching characteristics of different objects into something new.
Morphological analysis: assessing the output and interactions of an entire system
10.Â Reduction: transforming the problem into another problem for which solutions exist.
11.Â Research: employing existing ideas or adapting existing solutions to similar problems.
12.Â Root cause analysis: eliminating the cause of the problem.
13.Â Trial and error: testing possible solutions until the right one is found.
leaders live in networks. Influence, inspiration and informal authority are excercised through relationships with other people who may be bosses or subordinates, colleagues or external consultants, peers or business partners . these networks relationships are the life blood and the energy source of any organization. Peers are a most valuable source of information about what is happening they can offer advised or council give feed back on your behavior and help you think through option for action all on the bases of equality with out fares of grace and favour network are key to connection power one of the most underrated forms of power and one that has that grown the importance in the information age. Developing connection powers means building personal network that also help create power for the others in these relationships they make it easy to contact and access relevant people when we need help to accomplish tasks. A wide network provides the wherewithal to across department boundaries and other disputed territories, including even hierarchies, to get things done. Through connecting as peers we can access people in authority structures, both more and less powerful ourselves. If you know your boss only as a boss, and not also as a fellow members of a project or the local branch of your professional association, your 'bandwidth' with that person remains much narrower than it might. And the same is true of people who work for you. The narrower the bandwidth, the fewer are the sources of information, power and influence.
Networks also aid innovations than those who are relatively isolated (rogers, 1995, p.301). in knowledge-based work, a person's effectiveness rests increasingly on the richness of their personal networks. In his study of general managers, kotter (1982) found that those most likely to be successful in their careers are those who develop the most effective lateral relationships.
Personal networks vary greatly in shape and extent. As individuals, we have personal characteristics that make some of us more natural networkers from the nursery onwards. A first step is to become aware of our own preferences and how these affect your actions and those around you. A second step is, from whatever base, to build your networks and connection power as an essential element in your leadership.
DEVELOPING DIRECTION AND STRATEGY
To choose a direction, a leader must first have developed a mental image of a possible and desirable future state for the organization. This image, which we call a vision, may be as vague as a dream or as precise as a goal or mission statement. The critical point is that a vision articulates a view of a realistic, credible, attractive future for the organization, a condition that is better in some important ways than what now exists.
(Bennis and Nanus, 1985, p.89)
DEVELOPING DIRECTION AND STRATEGY
Historically, management arises as an intermediate function between the owner and the workers of a business. Managers were the overseers and organizers of the production process, whereas the owners continued to direct their businesses. As organizations have got bigger and ownership has become more diffuse, institutional and less personal, a role for leadership has emerged as distinct from managing. This is expressed in the need to create and find a sense of organizational direction in the form of a mission or vision for a particular context. Given the direction and the objectives, the management task is one of planning, establishing, operating and overseeing the activities needed to achieve them.
Most definition of leadership include the core characteristics of giving direction, setting strategy or pointing the way to the future. Choosing strategic direction in a rapidly changing world whilst daring on a deeper sense of purpose and values is a key part of this territory.
Developing the Leaders of Next Generation
Michael G.Winston who has been working with fortune 50 companies partnering with key executives in developing the next generation of leadership explains how they develop the next generation of leaders.
Seeking and securing top management.
Leadership development initiatives are launched with clear communication from the senior executives explaining the mission, strategy, objectives and expectations for participant's .later stage measurement tools are designed to assess and reinforce leadership accountability for results.
Determining required skill sets.
Firstly you define key leadership requirement and develop a plan to improve critical skills and competencies required to implement the current and projected business strategy and review both current and prospective markets, competitors, customers, channels and determine critical success factor.
Building Best-in-class leadership development initiatives
An integrated and highly focused set of initiatives is crafted that should reflect the company's strategic agenda, address critical challenges and opportunities and strengthen leadership capability ,programs are generally used as a combination of company's presenters, external world-class subject matter experts,E-learning technologies and post-program project work to reinforce key strategic initiatives.
Launching a tiered Talent Identification, Assessment and Succession process
Succession management is a critical activity in business organizations must serve to identify, develop and retain those people who are able to deliver superior performance both individually and as a part of team. This can be done like:
Alignment of top performers to most critical jobs.
Identification of successor candidates for key roles
Assessment of strengths across key competencies
Identification and development of high potentials.
Identification and elimination of key succession gaps.
Figure showing how to strengthening talent development in the organization.
Developing an enterprise perspective
The CEO can ensure a balanced focus on leadership development and business
Needs as well as movement of people across organizational boundaries. This will
Promote sustainable leadership in the organization
Integrating the organization
Creation of an organizational integration function provides diagnostic processes to identify and eliminate or reduce the overlap and duplication that often emerges in decentralized structures. High impact instruments can be created and implanted to identify and build upon key organizational, structural process and leadership elements to strengthen and enhance business performance.
Metrics for driving accountability
Systems are then installed to hold line managers accountable for building leadership.
2. Institutionalizing the process
Ultimately the objective is to institutionalize a simple consistent process across the enterprise which promotes leadership and succession cycles
Leadership and Entrepreneurship
It is leadership style that creates the appropriate climate for entrepreneurship and innovation in an organization.successfull leaders are not only good executives they are also great entrepreneurs .a entrepreneur today has to face several changes in the organization .he has to adapt the change process efficiently and convert the disadvantages of changes into advantages of business for which entrepreneur needs strong leadership qualities mentioned in above paragraphs leadership ,creativity, ability to solve problems makes a leader successful leadership.
Conclusion and Suggestions
A. Overtime the management team realizes that the above initiatives for leadership development can be great differentiator clearly a company's organizational structures, its executive rediness, its process for creating and sustaining a high performance culture and its ability to continuously staff with the best people are required distinctive competencies for future success.
B. Only by aligning succession planning to leadership development, a sustainable leadership for long period can be achieved.
C. Succession planning process should result in a transformational experience to the organization or else it is ineffective process.
D. As the economy today is a knowledge economy updating adequate skills adds to the leadership performance minimizing the future uncertainties
E. An extraordinary opportunity to change your organization should be converted into an ultimate advantage of business; a late decision to implement change imposes risk in the future.Â Â Â
Reference and End Notes
Andrew J. DuBrin- Leadership research findings, practice and skills.2008 edition by biztantra.
Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge -organizational behavior 12th edition by Pearson education.
Using succession planning to transform organizations-Rosie Steeves, PH.D and Barbara Ross .DenRoche, M.A.journal from The Centre for Exceptional Leadership 2003.
Internal communication of change -Journal by Dagmar Reclies on www.themanager.org.
porter's five forces model-journal by Michael Porter on www.businessballs.com
Kellerman, Barbara -Bad leadership, what it is, how it happens, why it matters?
Mike peddler, john bugoyne, tom boydell, A managers guide to leadership, (2004) p, 37,106,119.
Harvard Business School press .September 2004.
Dorner.D and Wearing. A (1995) Complex problem solving Journal/wall street journal.
Developing the next generation of leadership by Michael G.Winston on www.linkageinc.com .
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