The Anatomy Of Disasters Business Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Natural disasters like droughts, floods, fires and earthquakes increase poverty and impose huge human and economic costs, including loss of life, injuries, disabilities and displacement, as well as damage to agricultural activities, livestock, infrastructure and lead to extreme poverty among the nation.

The devastating impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami has reminded us all of the scale of the devastation natural disasters causes and demonstrated the vulnerability of human life to natural disasters, and also of the severity of effect they have on poor people. Unless more determined efforts are made to concentrate on the loss of lives, livelihoods and infrastructure, disasters will become increasingly serious problems to the achievement of the world progress Goals.

Many scientist and researcher has been focusing on the topic, but still there is no obvious progress has been made in term of implementing an early warning system as the world has sacrificed and continue to do so due to incompetence and failure of scientist and researchers.

1- Discus the nature of failure:

There are significant amount of efforts and research aimed at this controversial topic, but the most interesting one definition of failure came by (Fortune & Peters, 1995) “ failure is something that gone wrong, or not lived up to expectations” .

These are selection of failure facing the nations:

IT failure:

Failures are remain the key issues with the major governmental and non governmental sectors. Mixture of poor strategic planning and decision making in data management area are the key dynamic factors of it failures.

Steve Diamond, one of the most senior directors of CRM product marketing, came with most strongest statement on It failure “ My comments apply to all CRM vendors, not just Oracle. As I perused the list, I couldn't find any failures related to technology. They all seemed related to people or process. Now, this isn't about finger pointing, or impugning customers. I love customers! And when they fail, WE fail”.

Peter correctly an IT consultant argued about how to prevent big system project failure has somehow always reminded me of the Will Rogers quote: “Don't gamble; take all your savings and buy some good stock and hold it till it goes up, then sell it. If it does not go up, do not buy it.”

And further argument ‘'In other words, with big projects, by the time you realize it's failed, it's pretty much too late. Let's think a bit about the reasons why, and what we can do to change that?''

Peter Correctly claimed that he had rarely seen a big project fail specifically because of technology failure. And few IT veterans will disagree with me. Instead, failures nearly always go back to poor communication, murky goals, inadequate management, or mismatched expectations. People issues, in other words

And once again according to the above statements in the fact that all the IT failures always the underlying causes were human's failure rather than technological as many thought.

Intelligence failure:

Intelligent failure according to central intelligent agency (CIA) “Intelligent errors are factual inaccuracies in analysis resulting from poor or missing data”

Intelligence failure takes place when systematic organization cultures or disciplines are widely neglected

The principal claims justifying the invasion of Iraq - that Saddam Hussein had biological and chemical weapons and was developing nuclear weapons - were fundamentally wrong and the result of a "global intelligence failure", a US Senate has concluded on the investigation.

"We went into Iraq based on false claims," said Senator Jay Rockefeller

The inability to find Iraqi weapons of mass destruction will go down as one of the greatest intelligence failures in American history for generations to come

Natural disaster

(Alexander, 2002) defined natural disaster as an “effect of a natural hazard (e.g. flood, tornado, volcano eruption, earthquake, or landslide) that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses”.

A different simple definition of disaster by (Cisin & Clark, 1962) cited that “An event which seriously disrupts normal activity”

This could inevitably lead to loss of lives depends on the number of the population habitats in the area and their capability of handling the situation.

There is an argument on a book published by (Fortune & Peters) over whether the natural disaster is an act of god or humans. The context of the argument and I made some rephrased “In such a division natural disasters, like earthquakes and hurricanes, which can claim many thousand of lives as happen in Haiti and hurricane Katrina in United state, which this act taking place frequently almost every year, would be regarded as act of god” and on the other hand “disaster like rail accidents or chemical plant explosion, thought far more common than the above natural disasters, but rarely claim more than a handful of lives, are of human making”.


Indian earthquake resulted tsunami on December 26, 2004, when Indian Ocean triggered caused a massive devastation along the coast, killing at least 300 thousands lives in fourteen different countries. This incident was reported by scientists, but man kind failed to response and underestimated and as the result heavy price have been paid for.

2- Explain the causes of failure:

According to following the following website cited failure as “Lack of success”

These are key selections of types of failure:

Organization failure:

Idea by (Fortune & Peters, 1995) “This is likely to experience when there is an adequate resource such as lack of people and money to achieve the objectives and this directly lead to failure of both internal of the management and support from the organization”.

Further argument by (Fortune & Peters, 1995) claimed that “In the more specialist human factors disciplines the term is usually applied to circumstances where a human being acts in a manner inappropriate in particular situations, perhaps by

deviating from the prescribed practice by omitting or adding some action or failing

to respond to a change in the setting in which the task is being undertaken, rather the than organisation code of conduct failure”

And this is exactly applied to the recent Toyota break malfunctions blonder.

Human failure

(Fortune & Peters, 1995) both made an argument that “People management failures in motivation and team building which jeopardise success and also personality failure between individuals and mismatches between personal attributes and task requirements as well as user contact failures by lack of insufficient checking by designers and builders with those who will use the system”.

Above paragraph by Fortune & Peters indicated that human always remove the safety mechanism and therefore lead to a deadly consequence for the organisations to pay for.

This is an example of Toyota's nightmare, when they called over millions of it car fro across the Europe, America and Middle East for just a minor error has cost Toyota fortune of over 1.5 billion and still its reputation is uncertain.

According to (Fortune & Peters, 1995) human failure likely to occur due to:

Selectivity: Attending to the ‘wrong information'

Workplace limitations: Selecting an inappropriate framework or model for understanding the situation at hand.

Out of side out of mind: Ignoring data which is not readily available and giving undue weight to that which is readily discernible

Confirmation bias: Having made a preliminary judgment on a small amount of information

Over confidence: Particularly in a single own knowledge e.g.…

3- Formulate a typology of disasters

TYPOLOGY is referred by (Berren, 1980) ‘'Empirical analysis of organizational response to a disaster episode involves classification of structure/function patterns and tracing changes in those patterns in the various phases''

The bellow typologies should be placed to see the characteristic of threat, as a tool to place disaster within a broader framework of similar events. On a dynamic view, the typology can be used to trace the development of disasters as it changed over times, taking on new dimension, posing a new decisional problem, and requiring different response strategies for a different types of disaster as demonstrated at the bellow

This idea is explored by (Berren, 1980)

Type of Disaster

Whether act of god

Nature of Personal Impact

Potential of Occurrence

Control Over Future Impact

Duration of Disaster


Act of God

Possible human and properties loss

Very often world wide

Early warning systems

This mainly last in less than 10 seconds


Medical disaster

Nuclear disaster

Terrorist disaster

Act of God

Act of god

Act of human

Act of human

Land damages and possibly humans and properties

Human's lives

Humans live as well as properties

It could be costly on human and properties





Early warning system an ideal proposal

May it is possible to have an early pandemic assessment

Early warning system


This is could may take weeks and sometimes months

May it could take up to months

May it take months

May it take days/moths


Act of God

Possible loss of lives and properties


Satellite systems

Possibly hours


Act of God

Possible loss of lives and properties


Early warning systems

Possibly last for hours

Land slide

Act of God

Possible loss of lives, properties and sea kinds

Very unusual occurrence

Early warning systems

May last for hours

4- Appraise the events leading up to disasters:

Here are examples of most catastrophic disasters and its causes

A heavily loaded super cargo flight EL AL 747 takes of from Amsterdam Schipol Airport on October 4, 1992. When the flight climbed steadily over one of the most crowded European city, literally the two massive engines on the right wing cut off and collapsed to earth. After an eight minute is struggling to get back to the airport, the fully fuelled Israeli super jumbo ploughs into a crowded apartment block. Incredibly, only forty three people are killed according to Netherlands aviation security (NAS). After an investigation by (NAS) suggested that a safety mechanism procedure has been undermined by the crew and failed to response to a basic technical error, was not a terrorist attack, catastrophic mechanical failure or a freak accident. But it is a simple human error blonder

Another aviation disaster:

On July 19, 1989, United Airlines flight 232, a DC10-10 experienced a major catastrophic failure on its number two tail mounted engine during the flight according to American aviation security (AAS). The tail engine's fan disc splits

during a mid flight. It severs all the hydraulic lines.

The plane becomes uncontrollable. A flying instructor heads to the cockpit and offers his assistance. Together they manage to wrestle the plane to the ground but the plane starts plunging towards the runway at Sioux City, Iowa, U.S at speeds almost three times the normal rate. In a dramatic emergency landing, it cartwheels, veers right into a field, breaks into three parts and erupts in a massive fireball. Of the 285 passengers on board 112 were killed. What caused the fan disk to split? Was it human error or a design fault?

Eventually, after enormous investigation conducted by the American federal aviation (AFA) safety acknowledged that there is series of human and organization failures as the key factors.

Florida Swamp Air Crash:

Original Airdate: July 11, 2006
On May 11, 1996, at 2.04 pm ValuJet Flight 592 en route to Atlanta is cleared for take-off. The pilots and their 105 passengers are unaware however, that a fire is about to start in the forward cargo hold. Just 9 minutes into the flight, the out of control jet crashes into the Florida everglades, with the loss of all 110 people aboard. But the flight begins without any hint of a problem. How could a blaze take hold and bring the plane down so quickly? Why was the pilot unable to get the plane back on the ground when the airport was so close? Was the crash a result of human error or was mechanical failure to blame?

Once again after an investigation conducted by an independent aviation safety concluded that human error to blame.

5- Recognise early warning signs of impeding failures:

According to UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), “This new programme will help bring safety, security and peace of mind,”

Yustiningrum argued that ‘'Response toward a disaster depends highly on the typology of disaster itself. The typology is the following: first, disaster differs according to the object of the basic threat. Example includes the hijacking of national airplane by the separatist group, occupation of the government building by the hostile group, and the destruction of major urban infrastructure by earthquake''. All of these objects of threat will create different concern within social, organizational, and political life for none having an early warning system for the above major concerns

The United Nations led by Unite State has launched comprehensive plans to bring an end for human suffering by introducing global early warning system to reduce the deadly toll of natural hazards. According to International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) “This could combine speedy transmission of data with training of populations at risk in a strategy those experts”. This initiative could have saved scores of thousands of lives in the recent Indian Ocean tsunami as well as hurricane Katrina and many other global disasters

This initiative could help to bring to an end of human suffering as the result of natural natures. Early warning systems for Natural disasters can not be prevented, but its impact can be mitigate through nations alertness, timely warnings as well as effective response

Tsunami early warning systems for Indian Ocean will be in place by the middle of next year according to UNESCO head Koichiro and this could be highly beneficial for the defenseless nations as the last Indian Ocean still in mind and such systems could save thousands of vulnerable people.

10- Identify organizational cultures that encourage mistakes:

According to (Kotter, 1999) “Culture refers to an organization's values, beliefs, and behaviors. In general, it is concerned with beliefs and values on the basis of which people interpret experiences and behave, individually and in groups”.

According to ( Kotter, 1999) “instead of nurturing talent, encouraging people to lead and to learn from mistakes and success, organizations all too often ignore organizational culture potential, offer no training or role model, and punish who those who make small errors while trying to lead”

Organizations cultures that encourage mistakes According to (Kotter, 1999)

Discouraging Culture: “No shared values; lack of trust; blame culture; focus on problems, not opportunities; diversity is not celebrated; failures are not tolerated; people lose confidence in their leaders and systems”

And other organizations common errors such as:

  • Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture
  • Lack of inspiring and energize employers
  • Lack of Creating a Culture for Innovation ( Kotter, 1999).
  • Lack of Leadership Skills ( Kotter, 1999).

The image bellow demonstrates how organization share value impact organization's culture.


I have considered and relied on my researches many significant articles, journals and book in attempt to figure out the nature of natural disasters and its impact on nations. A range of measures have been used to illustrate the potential consequences and actual impacts on humans as well as the environment impact on disasters.

A major challenge on for future research is to identify the methods of which find ways to deal with such devastation consequences cause by disasters in the past decades.


  • -John P. Kotter on What Leaders Really Do (Harvard Business Review Book) (Hardcover
  • -^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBNISBN 1-85383-964-7.
  • ^ B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBNISBN 0-415-25216-4.
  • ^ D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBNISBN 1-903544-10-6.
  • ^ Weather Encyclopedia, The Weather Channel, Accessed on June 2, 2009,
  • Barton A.H. (1969). Communities in Disaster. A Sociological Analysis of Collective Stress Situations. SI: Ward Lock
  • Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster. Susanna M. Hoffman and Anthony Oliver-Smith, Eds.. Santa Fe NM: School of American Research Press, 2002
  • G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBN 1-85383-964-7.
  • D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBN 1-903544-10-6.
  • ournal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 16, No. 17, 1536-1549 (1997)
  • ^ Hoffer, Jim. "Backing Up Business - Industry Trend or Event." Health Management Technology, Jan 2001 [1]
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • ^ BBC: Oxfam warns of climate disasters
  • ^ III. (2008). 2008 Natural Catastrophe Review.
  • lack of success, defeat, collapse, abortion, wreck, frustration, breakdown, overthrow, miscarriage, fiasco, downfall The policy is doomed to failure.
  • ^ G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBNISBN 1-85383-964-7.
  • ^ B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge. ISBNISBN 0-415-25216-4.
  • ^ D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBNISBN 1-903544-10-6.
  • ^ Weather Encyclopedia, The Weather Channel, Accessed on June 2, 2009,
  • ^ BBC: Oxfam warns of climate disasters
  • · ^ III. (2008). 2008 Natural Catastrophe Review
  • · ^ Green, Celia (2003). The Lost Cause: Causation and the Mind-Body Problem. Oxford: Oxford Forum. ISBN 0-9536772-1-4. Includes three chapters on causality at the microlevel in physics.
  • · ^ Bunge, Mario (1959). Causality: the place of the causal principle in modern science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • · ^ Aristotle, Physics, Book VII, part 5, 249b30-250a6
  • · ^ e.g. R. Adler, M. Bazin, M. Schiffer, Introduction to general relativity, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965, section 2.3.
  • · ^ Ernst Mach, Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwicklung, Historisch-kritisch dargestellt, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1988, section 2.7.
  • · ^ A. Einstein, "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Koerper", Annalen der Physik 17, 891-921 (1905)

Frgani music festive

Organising successful events is about making a right plan in order to put a smile on everybody's face. They are also run so smoothly that not only do the visitors want to repeat the experiences, but organisers too.

When choosing an event, it therefore important to bear in mind that you need a series of aspect put together in order to accomplished your goals, which is making money is the main purpose of the event as well as make reputation for future events.

It is very important to develop viable system model as it might the event necessitate.

I seriously need to consider the above 5 function in order to establish the event structure and understanding the events requirements


According to Espejo & Gill ‘Control is essential and important used to adjunct to direct control of the event from monitoring channel and control of the functionality of the event


It is legal requirement and obliged to have one to cover all the participants as well as the works


This is also one of the ingredient of the event to obtained a license from the local authority


It is significant to guarantee accommodation for the customer as they may come from nationwide to participate the event


Highly significant to arrange sort of transport to involve in bringing customers from the tube station as it would be hard to get a there by using a public transport


This is the chart of the music festival plan:

EEE C Resources request

Budget set up

Before you commence organizing the music event, make a decision about budget. Will I get any sponsors share the cost or will there be a budget to support the whole party? If so, what is achievable within that budget?

Develop a budget for all festival production costs. The main categories must include the venue, entertainment, coordination and management, advertising and promotion. Include legal advice, insurance, staffs, printing, equipment, travelling (local and destination) and the profits.

Get the cost of renting the place venue as well as all the necessary equipment including fencing, lighting, and security staffs for the night and add it to the budgets, and make sure everyone got paid after the event and try to set up a target and there would be no deficits

Organize security:

Organizing security and door staff for the event is very important as the venue expected to attract many people and order need to be in place to make sure the event will go smooth and no tolerable zone as the success it depend on its security and participants welfare. May participant break out trouble due to consumption of alcohol at the event and this habits ideally would be dealt by the security firm.


You may need a license for holding the event, depending on where it's being held. You may also need a license for selling alcohol, unless you're holding it at a site hired that is already licensed by the owner.

Meeting with the board

Arrange schedule regular meetings with the event committee. As it can use these meetings to check progress as well as respond to any questions that anyone may have. You can commence with monthly meetings prior to the event and schedule them more often as it gets closer to the date of the event

Finding seat:

It is very important to decide whether it is to be a seated or standing evening. When it's a standing it would be an ideal to have a large capacity and bear in mind that publics sometimes prefer standing rather than seating, as well as it is important to decide if the event the event will have assignedseats or general admission. Participants often prefer general admission because everyone has a shot at front row for the same price. However, a seated, need to consider assigned seat event as it required less security and less hassle and less spending in order to cover all the costs


Look at the previous venues taken place, and think about the way making improvement and make the participant happy in order to attract them for future venues or the venues that are using by similar or competing events. It might not be a good idea to try to use the exact same venue, but it will give you some ideas in what you need to look for when conducting a site visit

When thinking about location, think about the type of audience you will have. If the majority of them are based in the south of England, it would be sensible to hold your event in that area. If you are trying to attract a large group of people who don't drive - then don't hold your event in the middle of nowhere!

The location of your venue will be very important, make sure it will need to be well known enough that people will know how to get there by providing a guide on line as well put many sign around the event and make sure the venue arena need to be fair in term of the cost of the hire, but in this case the venue already in place.

Band selection:

Decide what type of entertainment most of the people want to have, it is a key to determine which bands to invite for the event as the selection of the bands is very fundamental; the venue is about attracting as many people as possible in order to cover the cost and to ensure there would be no deficit.

You need to be in contact with the bands constantly to encourage them and give them moral to be ready for the event to produce a unforgettable event. It's recommended that you get at least one band that is totally unheard of; they can open the night and it will promote them, as well as earn you one new contact.


It is very important to arrange accommodation with the local hotel as some people find they don't manage to drop off to sleep at all overnight, meaning they are too tired to enjoy the following day. So either take ear plugs or consider alternative accommodation


Be ready for emergencies such as someone getting sick or having an emergency when they were supposed to be helping. Always have a back up plan in case of an emergency


It is very important that to look after participant to ensure that they enjoy the entire event. There are some simple elements of making participant happy need to be consider and have good experience about the event and try to win their heart and mind to ensure next venue more customers to be attracted in order to increase the revenue.


Create the flyers and posters. It is best to hire a local graphic designer to create professional looking flyers and posters. Make sure you have all of the details in order for the designer, such as show dates, bands, the club address and maps.


It is very important to have a venue insurance for the Public as well as for the worker as this is a legal requirement and make sure the cost of the insurance to be added to the total budget and make sure there would be no accident as long as there are no accidents, the cost of the insurance will go down, because you have proved you're responsible and there is less risk and this will decrease the spending and increase the revenue.

Sound Engineers:

Having a qualified sound and lighting engineer is very essential for the success of the venue as it would be unpleasant lights to go off during the event as band may will not be familiar with the sound systems and add any costs may incurred to the budget

Master ceremony

This is the guy that who introduces the bands, and closes the night. Try to get someone locally famous on the band scene, or even can be done by organizer if feels confidence enough as may take a few minutes preparation practice. Need to be cautious as inexperience, drunk, unpopular MC can ruin a night and cause unnecessary hassle, better no MC than one that causes you problems

Make sure the host speaker has the schedule and resume of the chief guest ready. She/he should be well prepared. Make sure the host/anchor/Master of Ceremony is aware of the purpose of the program as well as the people who are organizing it

Play music during the breaks:

It is very important to play music during the break to ensure participant would not get bored and keep entertain during artists or commercial break and try to make sort of fashion show in order to make the event enjoyable.

Make posters:

The 'budget' but classy way to do this is, to make one simple poster with white writing and a black background and get someone who works in an office to photocopy it as much as possible. Otherwise, you will have an extra cost for printing. Put the following on the poster

  • Headlining Band
  • Opening band
  • Location
  • Date
  • Cost


Make sure best restaurant has to be approach in order supply all types of food and drinks contact the top restaurants and food emporiums in your area. It's not all about the music People have to eat and drink as well, so you might as well make sure they are not hungry or thirst.


Make transportation and traveling arrangements for participants and organizers. Prepare an itinerary for all outstation participants. Make a written schedule and include directions along with contact information at the venue.


Get the venue to ticket printed well advance, If they don't print tickets, sell tickets on the door; there will be no paper and/or forged tickets are likely to involved this way. Use a hand stamp on people or hand band as they arrive which can differentiate VIP's from others, but remember, unless it's hand made someone else could have one. So get an original colour ink pad to use, and change the colour and stamp for every gig you run.

On the night of the event


Make sure you get all the bands there early, as 'no-shows' ruin the night and it could disastrous. A good two or three hours before the doors open would be good so they can entertain the crowd until the venue officially start

Check in with the Sound Engineer, Door Staff and Bands to make sure everything is running smoothly

Set up a Green Room.

The Green Room is simply a room backstage with some refreshments and should be big enough to hold the bands while they're not on stage.

After the event

• Dismantling

  • Try to dismantle all the event including fancies, stage, and temporary accommodations with due causation and ensure the safety of the people who work in the location are safe and free of any injuries as well as returned all the equipment with in due care
  • Pay the bands and all the relevant people including engineering, securities, emergency services, contractors and try to recover money from promoters and sponsors
  • Look forward to the next festival and try to make further improvement