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Alignment of aims, purpose and values between staff, teams and organisation is the most fundamental aspect of motivation. There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you can not force it to drink, it will drink only if it's thirsty - so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. In relation to Motivation Albert Einstein said as: "We cannot solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them" (www.businessballs.com).
Over the past two decades, the pace of change within companies has grown even faster and global competitive pressures have become more acute. Companies emphasise that 'employees are our greatest asset' and are increasingly taking initiatives to enhance motivation as a pragmatic tool of involvement, empowerment and success.
The challenge of motivating employees has long been recognised as an integral part of managing organisations. According to Edington, Hundson and Lankford (2001), motivation plays an exceedingly important role in moving an organisation towards excellence. Moorhead and Griffin (1998) have suggested that employee performance is a joint function of ability and motivation. Therefore, motivating employees to perform to the best of their ability is seen as one of the key tasks of the manager.
Yet despite the agreement over the significance of 'work' motivation, there is considerable controversy over which factors motivate employees to work. The complexity of motivation at work is evident in the interaction of the forces among individuals, the job and the work environment that account for the level, direction and persistence of the effort expended at work (Steers & Porter, 1991).
Different people are motivated by different factors. Some people derive motivation from the tasks they perform, while some are moved by opportunities to succeed and advance. Motivation assessment helps to determine the factors at work to define a purpose and a sense of direction. Over the centuries, Human Resource Management has gained popularity and companies have understood the importance of carrying out research and analysis on how to increase employee productivity and help them perform to optimum level.
I believe that motivation of employees plays a crucial role in the successful attainment of an organisation's goals and its sustainability. I am therefore interested in this topic and want to undertake research to identify factors that motivate employees at their work place. I hope that my findings will contribute to some extent to help organisations identify and apply employee motivational factors that determine its success.
In this modern and most innovative period of time people are interested in direct effect issues in both of their personal life and organisational framework. Employee motivation is a small term to define but with very large multi-layers impact in both from personal and organisational perspectives. It leads personal willingness towards achieving organisational goal transforming de-motivation to satisfaction.
At present, the competitiveness exists within the industry is at highest possible extent and the individual organisational achievement of goals and success became more compromised, conditional and shared. So employee role in performing for desired outputs became more as significant as never thought before. In this case, motivation is a pragmatic tool works in a tailored framework invisibly to arouse strong willingness and belongingness among the employees and management and between them to work more consistently. As a result, it is now very important to explore motivation from new possible angles with a visionary objective of knowing the changes in factors of motivation and their ways of act.
In addition to examining existing literature, I would like to validate my research with primary research carried out within the context of the London Bridge branch of Marks and Spencer Simply Food. Based on this I would like to identify the key indicators that motivate employees.
1.2 Brief Company Profile: Marks & Spencer (M&S)
Michael Marks opened a stall at Leeds Kirkgate Market on 1884. In 1894 Michael formed a partnership with Tom Spencer. It became a Marks & Spencer Limited (M&S) (Public Company) in 1926. The company operates 600 stores through out the UK. In addition the company has 240 stores worldwide, including over 219 franchise businesses operating in 34 countries. 65,000 employees are working in UK only. M&S regards people as their key asset. They therefore provide quality training and development and reward schemes to all their employees.
1.3 Main objectives of the Research
I hope that my research will contribute to enrich the knowledge generated by other organisations with regard to motivational factors in a work place. By this research and analysis I want to:
Explore the importance of Motivation as perceived by the people for increasing the level of employee performance in Human Resource Management within the context of M&S.
Identify motivational factors in the M&S as in the retail industry and the type of motivation take place in the industry with ranking by the employees.
Outline the Job Evaluation and Incentives analysis in inspiring employees towards better performance.
Gather information from primary and secondary resources along with other sources to establish my points.
Present statistical data and first hand information in order to present and validate my findings, which I hope, will be applicable to other organisations in the retail industry as well.
Make suggestions and recommendations based on above findings for further progess.
2.1 Why Motivation
Ivancevich and Matteson (1987) identified employee performance as a combination of three factors:
Capacity to perform - relevant skills, abilities, knowledge and experiences that a person possesses.
Opportunity to perform - the infrastructure needed to perform must be in place.
Willingness to perform - how much effort a person is willing to exert to achieve relevant and useful performance.
No combination of capacity and opportunity will result in high performance in the absence of the willingness to perform. Good employee performance is important because the business environment is very dynamic and competitive and the lines of differentiation between one company and another could be very fine.
2.2 Factors of Motivation will be considered in the research:
2.3 Consideration of different types of Motivation as a comparative study in the research:
A motive is a reason for doing something. Motivation is concerned with factors that influence people to behave in creative ways. The three components of motivation, as listed by Arnold et al (1991) are:
Direction - what a person is trying to do
Effort - how hard a person is trying
Persistence - how long a person keeps on trying.
A motivated person is involved in goal-directed behaviour. Motivation takes place when people expect a course of action to lead to the attainment of a goal - a valued reward that satisfies their particular needs. Armstrong (2002) suggests two types of motivation as follows.
2.3.1 Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation is where the reason for the task is to perform the activity itself i.e. by seeking, finding and doing work, which helps them acquire and accomplish the cause for which they are actually working. The motivators include responsibility, where they feel the work is important and challenging and which has the scope to develop their skills and opportunities for advancement.
2.3.2 Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation occurs when a person performs an activity for any external reward they will receive or experience once the task has been completed. The rewards include praise, promotion, increased pay, self-development, training, and appraisal for exhibiting good work. These often have a more powerful and immediate effect albeit short term.
2.4 Job evaluation
Job evaluation is a process followed by employers for a number of reasons. The results of job evaluation can be used to provide a useful classification as the basis to distinguish rewards and introduce a pay structure. The importance of having a fair salary scheme supports the effort to provide a balance between different job types by using the same pay scales for different jobs according to a number of criteria. A clear pay structure is more likely to reduce the amount of pay related conflict in the workplace and therefore reduce grievances. Furthermore in cases of new recruits, the introduction of a new role or changes in an existing role, pay structures can be used to define the rewards for the new entry. The existence of a straightforward reward management system also allows the comparison of rates between organisations.
From an employee's perspective a job evaluation scheme allows transparency in the workplace. It is vital for the employee to feel that sufficient rewards are provided for his/her efforts, skills and knowledge. Linking pay scales with job specifications and other performance criteria help employees to maintain a clear perspective of organisation values. Furthermore they have clear measurement for comparing how valued they are against other colleagues or employees in other organisations in the same sector.
Job evaluation aims to provide a fair judgement of establishing the relevant size of jobs and their rewards. These criteria can be used to establish payment scales and structures. Job evaluation can be used to provide an objective method to grade jobs, compare with market rates and ensure that the organisation adheres to equal pay policies. Job evaluation ensures the transparency of reward management across the organisation.
2.4.1 Job analysis process
The following figure provides an illustration of the job analysis process.
Preparation for Job Analysis
General familiarity with organisation and type of work
Collection of Job Analysis data
Application of analysis information
Figure: Job analysis process (Bratton and Gold)
Job evaluation is based on estimating the importance of a number of factors constituting the job description (responsibilities) as compiled by Torrington in the following table:
Accountability Effort Problem solving
Accuracy Initiative Resources control
Analysis and judgement Judgement Responsibility materials
Complexity Know-how Social skills
Contact and diplomacy Knowledge and skills Supervision given/received
Creativity Mental effort Task completion
Decision making Mental fatigue Training and experience
Dexterity Physical demands Work conditions
Education Physical skills Work pressure
Effect of errors Planning and co-ordination
Job evaluation can follow an analytical approach, meaning that factors contributing to the job specification are analysed in order to provide an accurate representation of the job's value to the organisation. It is a systematic approach since it is based on factual information, however it is highly judgmental since a number of points require classification and decision making when ranking the various factors. The approach is concerned with the job rather than the person and uses tasks and the associated responsibility to estimate the importance of the job. Internal relativity of different jobs is also essential for the estimation of the job value. The following figure summarises methods of collecting job analysis data in terms of above factors.
2.4.2 Data collection methods
Figure: Methods of collecting job analysis data (Bratton and Gold)
2.5 Incentives Analysis
Incentives are provided by organisations to increase motivation and performance output of their employees. Incentives may have a number of different forms and it is difficult to identify the incentive method that is more widely spread as well as if there is a tendency in organisations to move towards or away from the provision of incentives.
It is difficult to draw the line between incentives and some payment schemes available at the workplace. In some cases incentives may be part of a more attractive reward package. Organisations that have included incentives in their pay structure plan their incentives according to three main elements. The unit of the incentive plan distinguishes the incentives according to who is entitled to them. For example bonus payments for achieving certain targets may be available for individuals, teams or organisation wide to all employees. Next the standards of performance that are regarded as acceptable for receiving the incentive reward must be defined according to specific criteria that are closely related to output. Finally incentives may be in an alternative form from pay and in such cases the incentives depend on preferences and the type of work that is being rewarded.
2.6 Evolving theories of Motivation
For centuries, theorists have assumed that human behaviour is guided by reason and free will. Yet, research led psychologists to conclude that not all human behaviour is guided by reason and therefore they began studying other motivational factors.
Different theories of motivation rely on different theories of human behaviour. Whilst some theories are based upon human satisfaction theories, others are based on human incentive theories.
Although there are many theories that can be linked with motivational factors at work, I would like to briefly describe about those theories and models I shall use elaborately in my research.
2.6.1 Abraham H. Maslow's Hierarchy of Need
(will be used elaborately in further research)
"THE ONLY HAPPY PEOPLE I KNOW ARE THE ONES WHO ARE WORKING WELL AT SOMETHING THEY CONSIDER IMPORTANT."
Abraham H. Maslow
Need to fulfill oneself, to grow and use abilities to the fullest and most creative extents
Need for esteem of others; respect, prestige, recognition, personal sense of competence, mastery
Most basic of all human needs; need for biological maintenance; need for food, water, and sustenance
Need for security, protection, and stability in the physical and interpersonal events of day-to-day life
Need for love, affection, sense of belongingness in one's relationships with other people
Figure 1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
2.6.2 Herzberg's Theory of Motivation
(will be used elaborately in further research)
Frederick Herzberg analysed the job attitudes of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked to recall when they had felt positive or negative at work and he suggested a two-step approach to understanding employee motivation and satisfaction.
Motivators are the elements of the job that make it satisfying and are hence intrinsic. If they are improved, they can lead to motivation, else they would lead to dissatisfaction.
Recognition - feedback and praise on successful work
Responsibility - accountability for oneself and others
Achievement - completing challenging jobs and solving problems
Advancement - promotion.
Company policies and administration
If these factors are absent or negative, dissatisfaction occurs, but at the same time presence of these factors, by themselves does not lead to satisfaction.
The literature review provides the foundation on which I can start my analysis but it leaves several questions unanswered; for example, which factors are generally considered to be the most important ones in driving forward an employee's motivation? Which factors are not commonly listed but considered important by some? Like these lots of issues are important to work with to prove the facts and influences. This is why I have planned to adopt both primary and secondary researches to stronghold my analysis.
Hence, in order to provide answers to those questions, I designed my research based on key issues of motivation for employees of M&S Simply Food that will form the basis of my primary and secondary research.
3.2 Primary research:
The primary research will include individual interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, analysis of the data, and discussion of findings with M&S Simply Foods.
3.2.1 Individual interviews
Individual interviews need to be conducted to better familiarize with the organization, its employees and current levels of motivation. After a few preliminary exploratory interviews, the researcher will develop an interview guideline for the rest of the interviews. It would be necessary to interview people from different levels in diverse departments to get a good feel for the organization.
The questions included in the questionnaire are such that can elicit responses that are generally representative of the overall working population in terms of feelings and perceptions. Questionnaires can be effective if correct samples are used since the responses can be used to make generalisations. However, they need to be written suitably and consideration must be given to the little room for error in perceiving different questions by different people. To avoid this, the questions are kept precise, simple and straightforward and are generally those with a multiple choice with a rating scale in relation to the level of importance or satisfaction. It also includes questions about what the employees want to change about their work place and space was provided for them to write down their thoughts and express their opinions as to which factors motivate them to what extent and what their highest priority is. This style of questioning is informative and it is easy to conduct an analysis of figures by counting number of sample members falling in a particular category and how many rank the same factor as most important, or even to conduct an analysis by age, sex or hierarchy.
In order to maintain gender equality, the questionnaires will be given out to 10 male and 10 female employees out of 70 employees (management and non-management) of Marks and Spencer Simply Food of London Bridge Station. This phase will also provide the basis for development of a facilitation guideline for the focus groups to follow.
3.2.2 Focus groups
Focus group discussions with homogeneous groups of employees will give the researcher a forum to explore different ideas and suggestions. Every focus group will have people from about the same level and age group as possible to ensure that the issues raised and discussed are of equal interest and concern to all participants.
3.2.3 Questionnaires Development and pilot testing
A sample questionnaire is developed as given below and will be finalized based on following steps:
â€¢ Identify the conditions under which M&S employees perform at their best and how often such conditions are perceived by them to be satisfied;
â€¢ Identify the conditions under which they do not perform well as well as frequency of occurrence of such conditions; and
â€¢ Establish correlation between critical conditions/ factors and performance, both positive and negative.
â€¢ Identify managerial views on how best to motivate employees, and what is seen to work in M&S-UK; and
â€¢ Identify managerial views on what appears to block or hinder sustained high performance
The model questionnaire:
Employee Motivation Questionnaire
Marks & Specer Simply food, London Bridge Store, uk
1. Age Group?
Â Under 20 Â 20-34 Â 35-49 Â Over 50
Â Male Â Female
3. How long have you been working at this store ?
Â Less than 6 months Â 6 months to 1 year Â 1-2 years Â More than 2 years
4. What are the most important factors in your job?
Please indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements
Motivating factor 1. Very Important 2. Important 3. Neutral 4. Less important
Career development _______ _______ _______ _______
Job Opportunities _______ _ÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂÂ______ _______ _______
Performance appraisal _______ _______ _______ _______
Remuneration (pay/rewards) _______ _______ _______ _______
Staffs discount _______ _______ _______ _______
Quality of working life _______ _______ _______ _______
Flexibility of working hours _______ _______ _______ _______
Job security _______ _______ _______ _______
Employee relationships/Friendships _______ _______ _______ _______
Employers cover for insurance _______ _______ _______ _______
Social life outside workplace _______ _______ _______ _______
Relationship with senior _______ _______ _______ _______
Hierarchical ladder _______ _______ _______ _______
Promotion and training opportunities _______ _______ _______ _______
Recognition of good work _______ ÂÂ_______ _______ _______
Challenging tasks _______ _______ _______ _______
Management support _______ _______ _______ _______
Opportunities to use own initiative _______ _______ _______ _______
Opportunity to use new technologies _______ _______ _______ _______
Relationship with customers _______ _______ _______ _______
Business mission _______ _______ _______ _______
What other factors than the ones listed above motivates you?
5. How satisfied are you with the work that you carry out?
Â Very satisfied Â satisfied Â Neutral Â Dissatisfied
6. To what extent you are satisfied with the pay and benefits you receive?
Â Very satisfied Â Satisfied Â Neutral Â Dissatisfied
7. How important is money and monetary benefits received from your work?
Â Very Important Â Important Â Neutral Â Unimportant
8. Would an increase in pay motivate you to work harder?
Â Yes Â Maybe Â No
9. Do you feel employees are recognised as an individual at your workplace?
Â Always Â Usually Â Sometimes Â Rarely Â Never
10. How motivated are you to see the company succeed?
Â Very motivated Â Somewhat motivated Â Not very motivated Â Not at all motivated
11. The company clearly communicates its goals and strategies to me?
ÂStrongly disagree ÂSomewhat disagree ÂNeutral ÂSomewhat agree ÂStrongly agree Â N/A
12. Who motivates you the least and most at work? With least being 0 and most being 5
Section Colleagues _____
Section/Assistant Manager _____
Department Manager _____
Colleagues in other sections _____
Other managers e.g. Store, deputy, other DM's _____
13. If you could make any changes to your work what would the changes be? These changes can be associated with anything in work, including the environment, the people and the customers.
Thank you for your time.
3.2.3 Questionnaire survey
The questionnaire will be given to various junior and management level employees in different and random manner in order to compare and contrast of responses from employees Marks & Spencer Simply Foods and to identify what differs between the perspectives of one from another. The questionnaires will be distributed to a number of employees and managers to ensure that the sample size of response is statistically valid. The exact mode of distribution and collection will be decided closer to this phase and based on discussions with relevant management.
3.3 Secondary research:
Secondary research in terms of data is the Human Resource Department (HRD) at the London Bridge branch, e.g., statistical figures on employee turnover, absenteeism, unpermitted sick leaves, number of years in service, number of leavers, average establishment figure and reasons why employees change jobs. Some of the above analysis will be done by age.
I shall also refer to The Corporate Social Responsibility Report for M&S for the year 2005-2006 and search information on the Internet regarding employee motivation and refer to different books and Journals on HR management and motivation of employees.
3.4 Data Analysis
The questionnaire will be analyzed and studied to identify patterns, correlation, etc.
3.5 Discussion of the findings
The tentative findings will be discussed with the supervisor and an agreement reached on the validity and limitations of findings. It is hoped to discuss some recommendations and implications as well at this stage.
3.6 Final writing up of the dissertation
After the findings are discussed with the supervisor and expected data being collected, I shall start my final writing up of my dissertation.
3.7 Draft dissertation submission for discussion
The first draft will be uploaded for forum discussion and supervisors comment.
3.8 Final dissertation uploading
The final step of my work is to upload the piece of analysis for judgement.
3.9 Research planning (Time distribution)
There are three months (approximately 12 weeks) ahead to prepare the final dissertation as I want to submit this dissertation in April Session on 26th of April 2010. So within this timeframe I would like to follow the planning given below:
Task to be done
4 weeks /12 weeks
Questionnaires Development and pilot testing to finalise
1 week /4 weeks
2 weeks /4 weeks
1 week /4 weeks
2 weeks /12 weeks
1 week /12 weeks
Discussion of findings
1 week /12 weeks
Writing up the draft of dissertation
2 weeks /12 weeks
Uploading draft for forum discussion and supervisor's comment
1 week /12 weeks
Amendments to existing draft and finalising the draft for the dissertation and Uploading for final assessment
1 weeks /12 weeks
3.9 Limitations of methodology
With most surveys and experiments, there are limitations, concerning the sample, environment, confidentiality, availability of target sample group, disclosure of information and other such factors. This research is not beyond critics and limitations due to time and resource constraints. Though the sample has been carefully considered to include people of various age groups and an equal number of males and females and the proportion of partners at various hierarchical levels, like all other samples this is indicative of the total population but does not guarantee that other employees not part of this exercise and the accuracy will not compromise. The rate of accuracy may vary from that of expectation, which will be used in generating final results of the whole analysis.
3.10 Measures I shall take to minimise the above limitation
The limitations highlight a number of gaps regarding the methodology being proposed to be used in research but can be minimised negotiating time and recourse constrains. If I get enough time to conduct the research I shall the questionnaire to ask more questions with in-depth questions. Questions concerning marital status of the sample members and work status can be added as an optional choice question to get better comparative results. For example, if the sample member has a family to support, they may rank particular factors higher than others may. I shall increase the sample size if possible, which will include a larger number of people depending upon the availability and time. I shall try to carry out my research on employees from various geographical areas and ethnic backgrounds, which will allow me to analyse how such differences impact my findings and research picture out a better statistical scenario.
The opinions on motivation have been evolving for many years, and will continue to do so due to various changes over time. I hope that my research, despite its limitations, will be able to contribute some beneficial insight towards this thinking.