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Today, in the 21st century, tense and intense competition will certainly continue to be an important issue, every organization. In order to improve the knowledge of the staff, can help organizations gain a competitive advantage in a turbulent environment (Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. 1995) an important way. On the role of human resources management in the enterprise. Human resource management is the application of scientific methods to coordinate the relationship between the man and the substance, dealing with interpersonal conflicts, and give full play to the potential. Reason to develop their talents so that everyone, regardless of its people, is fit for human affairs, in order to achieve the goals of the organization process. Its connotation is the gain of the human resources, integration, drive and control the whole process. Including human resource planning, promotion, performance evaluation of the staff. The staff trains, wages and welfare policies. This is the essential difference between traditional personnel management. Various human resources management with an understanding, in reality, only with other resources.
This article aims to discuss human resource management is composed of four parts. The first part of the discussion of Armstrong and long-term (1994) defined on the basis of strategic human resource management. The second part of the human resources policies and practices Devanna, Fombrun and Krstic (1984) theory of reference. The third part will analyze the challenges of human resources planning. The last part will show the different stages in the planning process.
Strategic human resource management
Policies and practices
In Devanna, Fombrun and Tychyââ‚¬â„¢s (1984)book, they discussed the human resources management strategies. 3 main issues: the external and internal environment, the strategic role of human resources strategy, human resources and strategic issue of human resources management.
Design and management of HR system
The establishment of a human resources management system is an important means to improve the level of human resources management to accelerate scientific and modern view of enterprises, improve the enterprise nervous system. Therefore, the establishment of a human resources management system, it is necessary and urgent. There are many ways to design and manage the human resources system.
Human resource planning strategy is to capture the "human" factors, and they relate to the company's future success. Determine whether the company has the right skills and knowledge of the correct number of people. If the gap between digital, or lack of skills, the development of an ambitious plan, recruitment and staffing activities. The plan will be submitted to the approval of the appropriate management personnel. Equipment and space requirements are determined in consultation with stakeholders. Study the cost and suppliers to meet these needs. Compile a comprehensive budget allowance cost comparison. Timetable and milestones to meet the objectives and requirements of the company. Training in the appropriate departments for investigation and analysis to determine the current skills and future technology needs. Research appropriate training courses to meet the company's objectives and the necessary skills, and the rest of the border and within budget. Study creative staff incentive schemes to encourage high performance. To achieve the main objective of the company is directly aligned with performance pay. Select the measurement of human resource planning, in order to show the value of the company. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) has been widely used to measure a variety of performance in the field of human resources. Some of the most common is customer satisfaction, speed of resolution of employee relations and staff development.
Forces and environment
Environmental trends in the industry, this book has four principles:
Technology sector: the technology used in the production of goods and services, product and process innovation.
The economic sphere: the market system and the macroeconomic impact of the economic
Social and cultural areas: the changing social and labor values ââ‚¬â€¹ââ‚¬â€¹and attitudes.
Political sphere: the control layer, its performance in the social system, the social nature of the decision-making.
Reinforcement of activity
There are different levels of management activities. At the strategic level, involved in policy-making and goal setting. Focused on the acquisition and allocation of resources management level. At the operational level, the day-to-day management of the organization.
Challenges in human resource planning
In recent years, some business trend has produced a wide-ranging implications for the human resources management field significantly. The most important of the new technology. These new technologies, especially in the areas of electronic communication and information dissemination and retrieval, which greatly changed the business landscape. Have contributed to changes in the satellite communications, computer and network systems, fax machines and other equipment, to enable enterprises to interact with each other and their own workers. For example, telecommuting has become a very popular choice for many people, and management of human resources professionals have to develop new guidelines for employees this emerging subset.
Structural changes also affect the face of changing human resource management. The steady erosion of the manufacturing sector, the service industry in the United States and other countries, the rise in these countries, change workplace union representatives on the decline, many industries (both of these trends, in fact, generally considered as interrelated). In addition, the organization's philosophy has changed. Many companies have canceled or adjust their traditional, hierarchical organization structure conducive to flatten the management structure. The responsibility of the human resource management experts, this shift has brought a need to reassess the job description, evaluation systems, and other elements of personnel management.
The third change in the factors that have driven the market accelerated globalization. This phenomenon helps to enhance competitiveness, for our customers and work. The development of the latter so that some companies require higher performance from their employees, while maintaining the line for compensation. Other factors in recent years has changed the nature of the human resources management, including the management and operation of, such as total quality management (TQM) theory, the rapid demographic changes and health insurance, as well as changes in the federal and state labor laws.
In strategic planning and management of a common problem is the lack of commitment of the senior management team. The senior management team are often reluctant to support a system of strategic planning and management of power and authority, because it needs to stay away from them. Strategic planning and management process, and therefore should be designed with a mind to increase the commitment of the top management.
Harm the strategic planning and management process, a major problem is the political organization. Planning and management should be objective, but in reality, individual planners and managers have their own interests, beliefs and prejudices. Personal bias influence the planning and management process, it may lead to the political rift within the company.
Strategic planning is a useful method, but may be counterproductive, if a company set goals too lofty, because failure only crimp the enthusiasm of the new project. Must be honest with their own organization also underestimated the weakness or threat - even if they are very difficult to solve - and makes it difficult to achieve its objectives. People in general, do not want to change. Strategic planning and management, and was introduced to a company, which will be very problematic. This is a new and different way of doing things, people may simple reject it because it is new and different. Strategic planning and management process, to be seriously introduced aware of any changes in the resistance.
Stages in planning process
The purpose of human resource planning needs of different organizations varies. For example, its purpose may be to attract and retain the best employees with the necessary skills, ability and aptitude.
Planning Process stages
The determination of the mission is the first step in the strategic planning, as it was decided to organize what to complete as time goes on, the company will follow the principle of what the process of doing so. The second component is the key, both ends do not always justify the means, should not encourage immoral just to reach a certain milestone of profits or growth.
Organizations to understand the strengths and weaknesses of its internal environment, as well as the opportunities and threats in the external environment, and then to determine the best way to achieve its mission. Therefore, do a SWOT analysis of the study's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the second step of the strategic planning.
Third-step strategic planning and setting goals, everyone in the organization know that they are working to complete the task. All goals should be recorded in writing, measurable track success and specific timeline. They should also provide a challenge, but from the outset, is not very obvious reach the.
Strategy set last step. Once everyone is clear the organization's goals, they can determine exactly how to achieve their goals.
Once the organization's strategic planning has been completed, you must use this information to take action. The implementation of the strategic planning strategy is often the most challenging of all the steps, because even the most perfect analysis, and if not effectively carry out its strategic plan will help the company. May be difficult, because it usually takes to change the behavior of the organization, but HR can help smooth this transition, the common goal of educating employees, as well as why these successful implementation of the strategy will help organizations.