10 Concept Of Management Business Essay

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In work specialization...

the entire job is broken down into steps, each step completed by a separate individual

individual workers specialize in doing part of an activity

involves repetetive performance of a few skills

can be viewed as a means to make the most efficient use of employee's skills

some task requires highly developed skills

others can be performed by the untrained 

Division of labor

makes efficient use of employees skills

increases employee's skills through repetition

less between-job downtime increases productivity

specialized training is more efficient

allows the use of specialized equipment

Eg:- in the Garment industry employees are divided into specific tasks. Some sew buttons others sew the sleeve others the collar. Therfore they are specialized in their task and work is done effectively and productively than one employee sewing the shirt all by themselves.

Departmentalization

 

After reviewing the plans, usually the first step in the organizing process is departmentalization. Once jobs have been classified through work specialization, they are grouped so those common tasks can be coordinated. Departmentalization is the basis on which work or individuals are grouped into manageable units. There are five traditional methods for grouping work activities.

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Departmentalization by function organizes by the functions to be performed. The functions reflect the nature of the business. The advantage of this type of grouping is obtaining efficiencies from consolidating similar specialties and people with common skills, knowledge and orientations together in common units.

Eg: Consider employees working in a garment factory. The employees who do the same task are grouped together.

Departmentalization by product assembles all functions needed to make and market a particular product are placed under one executive. For instance, major department stores are structured around product groups such as home accessories, appliances, women's clothing, men's clothing, and children's clothing.

Eg : Consider a Garment factory which covers a wide range of clothes for the industry. Therefore children's clothing section will be done in one section adults in another and teen agers in another.

Departmentalization by geographical regions groups jobs on the basis of territory or geography.

Eg : Merck, a major pharmaceutical company, has its domestic sales departmentalized by regions such as Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, Southwest, and Northwest.

Departmentalization by process groups jobs on the basis of product or customer flow. Each process requires particular skills and offers a basis for homogeneous categorizing of work activities.

Eg : A patient preparing for an operation would first engage in preliminary diagnostic tests, then go through the admitting process, undergo a procedure in surgery, receive post operative care, be discharged and perhaps receive out-patient attention. These services are each administered by different departments.

Departmentalization by customer groups jobs on the basis of a common set of needs or problems of specific customers.

Eg : a plumbing firm may group its work according to whether it is serving private sector, public sector, government, or not-for-profit organizations.

Hierarchy

A hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity. This arrangement is a form of a hierarchy. In an organization, the hierarchy usually consists of a singular/group of power at the top with subsequent levels of power beneath them. This is the dominant mode of organization among large organizations; most corporations, governments, and organized religions are hierarchical organizations with different levels of management, power or authority.

Organization consist of

Top-level Managers

Middle level Managers

First-Level Managers

Eg : the broad, top-level overview of the general organization of the Catholic Church consists of the Pope, then the Cardinals, then the Archbishops, and so on

Span of Control

The Span of Control in an organization is defined as the number of employees reporting directly to one supervisor. Traditionally, the Span of Control has been defined as a number between 4 and 7 subordinates under one manager.

The Span of Control is a concept which developed during the 19'th Century for the organization of large European armies into smaller and smaller subunits. I.e. one could have 7 soldiers in one Platoon with 1 leader, 7 platoons with one higher-ranking leader, etc. to form a large army which was relatively easy for one General at the top to manage under conditions of combat.

 

Concept

 

 wider spans of management increase organizational efficiency

 

Eg: In a garment factory each section or department consist of supervisors and if it a large industry these supervisors have managerial supervisors to supervise these supervisors.

Narrow Span Drawbacks

 

·        xpense of additional layers of management

·        increased complexity of vertical communication

·        encouragement of overly tight supervision and discouragement of employee autonomy

Delegation

Delegation (or deputation) is the assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities. However the person who delegated the work remains accountable for the outcome of the delegated work. Delegation empowers a subordinate to make decisions

1. Successful delegation in simple words means using other's power and hardwork such as subordinates or teammates help.

2. If you complete tasks by yourself, there is only a limited amount of tasks you can accomplish.

3. If you will include other person's assistance in accomplishing a task, you can complete large volumes of work in less amount of time.

4. If you really work well at your job, your boss may want more from what you have been doing as the expectations will be high and demand will increase with the quality of work you are delivering. More expectations will lead to more workload and pressure making you stressed and unhappy and you might be thinking that you are letting people down.

5. So there comes the real point why delegation of work becomes important. If you are able to delegate your work easily to your subordinates or juniors, then you will be able to achieve your targets successfully keeping in mind the time factor and if you are able to build a team of successful members who can handle the work delegated to them by you, then you can consider yourself as a successful delegator.

How to delegate in an effective manner?

1. Delegation is a win-win approach when done properly, however, that doesn't mean-that you can just delegate anything.

2. You have to always keep in mind that the task provides a great opportunity for other members to develop their personal skills?

3. Delegating a job effectively is the most important factor in delegation.

To whom you should delegate your work?

1. You have to assess and analyze the skills and qualities of every person in your group to do a delegated task.

2. You have to also consider that the person whom you are assigning the job is able to handle the workload well or not?

3. Does the person has enough time to complete your assigned work?

How to deletgate successfully?

1. Include your team members in the delegation process, as they can provide certain new ideas or suggestions to help in this process.

2. You have match the amount of authority with the amount of responsibility that means how responsible a person is, it depends on person to person.

3. Provide adequate support to your group in order to let them accomplish their task successfully.

4. Focus on results, analyze and assess their skills on a daily basis in order to understand that the work delegated is accomplished properly or not and which person is best suited for which work.

Though there are many aspects involved in leadership skills but delegation is also an important quality to build if you want successful management of your tasks to your subordinates.

Eg : ABC company Manager want to get project worked out. Therefore he divides work among the employees accordingly .One would be given to do the Project proposal other to design the components other to star coding. Finally he would put together all what the employees have done to complete the project

Formalization

the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized

HIGH LEVELS

minimum amount of discretion over what, when, and how

consistent output

explicit job descriptions

organizational rules

clearly defined procedures

 

LOW LEVELS

unprogrammed behaviors 

exercise discretion 

great deal of freedom

less standardization

consider alternatives

 

Coordination

Coordination is the act of coordinating, making different people or things work together for a goal or effect.

When doing a certain task with a group of people coordination is a key factor to get the task worked out.

Eg : When a task is divided among several employees. The given work load should be done at the right time and date. If not coordination of the project will be at a risk.

Situational Approach

Situational leadership is therefore the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal achievement in a given situation. In essence, leadership involves accomplishing goals with and through people. Therefore, a leader must be concerned about tasks and human 

Features

Management action is contingent on certain action outside the system or subsystem as the case may be.

Organizational action should be based on the behaviour of action outside the system so that organization should be integrated with the environment.

Because of the specific organization - environment relationship, no action can be universal.

It varies from situation to situation.

Limitations

Inadequate literature.

Complex

Difficult emprical testing

Reactive not Proactive.

Eg : Encouraging employees that work under you by saying kind words when a job is done well etc…

Motivation 

Performance is considered to be a function of ability and motivation, thus:

Job performance =f(ability)(motivation)

Ability in turn depends on education, experience and training and its improvement is a slow and long process. On the other hand motivation can be improved quickly. There are many options and an uninitiated manager may not even know where to start. As a guideline, there are broadly seven strategies for motivation.

Positive reinforcement / high expectations

Effective discipline and punishment

Treating people fairly

Satisfying employees needs

Setting work related goals

Restructuring jobs

Base rewards on job performance

These are the basic strategies, though the mix in the final 'recipe' will vary from workplace situation to situation. Essentially, there is a gap between an individuals actual state and some desired state and the manager tries to reduce this gap.

Motivation is, in effect, a means to reduce and manipulate this gap. It is inducing others in a specific way towards goals specifically stated by the motivator. Naturally, these goals as also the motivation system must conform to the corporate policy of the organization. The motivational system must be tailored to the situation and to the organization.

Eg : if the task done is failing badly at the initial stage and employees are giving up on working on it and get depressed over the failure that's when motivation should come in. Encouraging to carry on whatever the initial results maybe targeting on a well-deserved finish.

Personality

Personality is the overall pattern of an individual's belief, feelings and behaviours. It is created by a variety of factors, both intrinsic and environmental.

In order to identity, express and clarify the differences between people, psychologists use the concept of personality.

Better still, Personality could be described as entire pattern of distinctive ways of thinking, reaction and behaving that make up the individual's distinctive method of relating to the environment.

Personality Described

Effort to describe the components of personality, or the ways people hold opposing views, centers on two broad concepts: traits and types

i) Personality traits are fairly constant, enduring qualities of an individual's personality which cause a tendency to behave in particular ways. For instance, we might say that someone is impulsive.

ii) Personality types are distinct clusters of personality characteristics, which reproduce the psychological preferences of the individual. If we say that someone is an extravert for example, we may be signifying that she is sociable, expressive, impulsive, practical and active.

Managing Personality

An individual's personality should be well-matched with his or her work

Requirements in three ways.

1) Compatibility with task

Different personality types suit different types of work. A person who appears unsociable and introverted will find sales work, involving a lot of social interactions, extremely stressful and will probably not be very good at it.

2) Compatibility with the systems and management culture of the organisation

Some people hate to be controlled, for example, but others want to controlled and dependent in a work situation, because they find responsibility threatening.

3) Compatibility with other personalities in the team

Personality clashes are a prime source of conflict at work. An achievement-oriented personality, for example, may become frustrated and annoyed by laid-back sociable types working (or not working) around him.

Where incompatibilities occur, three options are available.

1) Reinstate compatibility. This may be achieved by reassigning an individual to tasks more suited to his personality type.

2) Achieve a compromise. Individuals should be encouraged to understand the nature of their differences and adjust their behaviour if necessary.

3) Eliminate the incompatible personality. In the last option, obstinately difficult or disruptive people may simply have to be weeded out of the team.

Better still, Personality could be described as entire pattern of distinctive ways of thinking, reaction and behaving that make up the individual's distinctive method of relating to the environment.

Personality Described

Effort to describe the components of personality, or the ways people hold opposing views, centers on two broad concepts: traits and types

i) Personality traits are fairly constant, enduring qualities of an individual's personality which cause a tendency to behave in particular ways. For instance, we might say that someone is impulsive. 

ii) Personality types are distinct clusters of personality characteristics, which reproduce the psychological preferences of the individual. If we say that someone is an extravert for example, we may be signifying that she is sociable, expressive, impulsive, practical and active.

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