Tasks on organization management and leadership

Published:

Organizational structure refers to the way in which an organization's activities are divided, grouped, and coordinated into relationships between managers and employees, managers and employees.

An organization's departments can be formally structures in three major ways: by function, by product market, or in matrix from.

TYPES OF STRUCTURE

1.1.1. FUNCTIONAL SRUCTURE

Perhaps the simplest structure is the functional structure. The functional structure organizes the firm around traditional functional areas such as accounting, finance, marketing, operations, and so on.

This structure is one of the most common organizational structures in part because it separates the specialized knowledge of each functional area through horizontal differentiation and can direct that knowledge toward the firm's key products or services.

Firms with operations outside their domestic borders might also adopt a functional structure. The key difference between a purely domestic organization and a multinational organization with a functional structure is the scope of responsibilities for functional heads in the multinational firm.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Professional

Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

In a multinational, each department would have worldwide responsibilities. Thus, while each subsidiary would have a local human resource manager, the top human resource manager would be responsible for directing worldwide human resource activities such as hiring, training appraising, or rewarding employees.

This structure is most common when the technology and products of the firm are similar throughout the world.

CEO

Financial

Production

Marketing

R&D

Human resource

Figure 1.1

ADVANTAGES OF FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE

Well suited to small to medium-sized firms with limited product diversification

Facilitates specialization of functional knowledge

Reduces duplication of functional resources

Facilitates coordination within functional areas

DISADVANTAGES OF FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE

Often creates problems of coordination across functional groups

Creates restricted view of overall organization goals

Can limit attention paid to customers as functional groups focus on their specific areas

Can lead to slower organization response to market changes

Often burdens chief executives with decisions that involve multiple functions

1.1.2. PRODUCT STRUCTURE

In a product structure, the firm is organized around specific products or related sets of products. Typically, each product group contains all the traditional functional departments such as finance, marketing, operations, human resource management, and so on.

Each product is generally treated as a profit center. That is, the related expenses are subtracted from the revenues generated by the sales of located in the headquarters of the company. However, this not necessarily the case.

Multinational firms also use global product structures. This typically happens when customer needs for a given product are more or less the same the world over.

CEO

Product D

Product C

Product B

Product A

Finance

R&D

H/Resource

Product

Marketing

Figure 1.2

ADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT STRUCTURE

Individuals in different functional areas within the product group focus more on the products and customers

Performance of the product is typically easier to evaluate

There is usually greater product responsiveness to market changes

It often reduces the burden of the top executive in making operating decisions compared to the functional structure

DISADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT STRUCTURE

Duplication and lack of economies of scale for functional areas

Can create problems for customers who purchase products across multiple product groups

There can be more conflict between product group objectives and overall corporate objectives.

There is an increased like hood of conflict between product groups and greater difficulty coordinating across product groups

1.1.3. DIVISION STRUCTURE

The division structure can be viewed as an extension of a product structure. Divisions typically consist of multiple products within a generally related area, though specific products may not necessarily be closely related.

Like domestic firms multinational firms can and do use this structure. In this case, each division is charged with worldwide responsibility. Because division structures are generally extensions of product structure, they have many of the same advantages and disadvantages. For large diversified multinational firms, the division structure is of the more common structures.

CEO

Finance

Division

Consumer

Division

Agro

Division

Paint

Division

General

Manager

General

Manager

General

Manager

General

Manager

R&D

Product

H/Resource

Finance

Marketing

Figure 1.3

ADVANTAGES OF DIVISION STRUCTURE

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Comprehensive

Writing Services

Lady Using Tablet

Plagiarism-free
Always on Time

Marked to Standard

Order Now

Organizing various product families within a division can reduce functional duplication and enhance economies of scale for activities

To the extent That product families within a division serve common customers, customer focus can increase

Cross-product coordination within the division is eased

Cross-regional coordination within product families and within the division is often eased

DISADVANTAGES OF DIVISION STRUCTURE

Typically only appropriate for diversified, large companies with significant numbers of specific products and products families

Can inhibit cross division coordination

Can create coordination difficulties between division objectives and corporate objectives

1.1.4. CUSTOMER STRUCTURE

As the implies customer structure are organized around categories of customers. Typically, this structure is used when different categories of customers have separated but broad needs.

Multinational firms find this organizational form difficult to implement because of differences among customers across region and countries.

CEO

Vice president

Military

Vice president

Industrial

Vice president

Retail

Small

Army

Domestic

Mid-size

International

Navy

Figure 1.4

ADVANTAGES OF CUSTOMER STRUCTURE

Facilities in-depth understanding of specific customers.

Increases responsiveness to changes in customer preferences and needs as well as responsiveness to moves by competitors to better serve customer

DISADVANTAGES OF CUSTOMER STRUCTURE

Typically leads to duplication of functional resources in each of the customer units.

Often crease difficulty in coordinating resources in each of the customer units and corporate objective

Can fail to leverage technology or other strengths in one unit across other units.

1.1.5. GROGRAPHIC STRUCTURE

Firms can structure themselves around various geographical areas or region. Within this structure, regional executives are generally responsible for all functional activities and products in their regions.

A number of multinational firms employ geographical structures. This is primarily because customers demands. Government regulations, competitive conditions, availability of suppliers, and other factors vary significantly from one region of the world to another. The size or scope of the region is typically a function of the volume of business.

CEO

Vice president Africa

Vice president America

Latin

Vice president

North America

Vice president

Europe

Vice president

Asia

Figure 1.5

ADVANTAGES OF GOEGRAPHIC STRUCTURE

Typically leads to in-depth understanding of the market, customers, governments, any competitors within a given geographical area.

Usually fosters a strong sense of accountability for performance in the regional managers.

Increase responsiveness to unique changes in the unique market, government regulations, economic conditions, etc. for the geography.

DISADVANTAGES OF GOEGRAPHIC STRUCTURE

Often inhabits coordination and communication between regions.

Can increase conflict and coordination difficulties between regions and corporate office

Normally leads to duplication of functional resources across the regions.

Separating production facilities across multiple regions can inhabit economies of scale

Can foster competitive behavior among the regions, which is particularly frustrating for customer who have operations across multiple regions

1.1.6. MATRIX STRUCTURE

A matrix structure consists of two organization structures superimposed on each other. Consequently, there are dual reporting relationships.

That is one person essentially reports to two bosses. These two structures can be a combination of the general forms already discussed. In multinational companies, matrix structure comes and goes with some frequency.

They come into play quite often because while economies of scale for global product, division or even customer structures are compelling, often-regional differences relative to governments, culture, languages, and economies are also strong. In multinational firms, matrix structure goes out because they are difficult to manage.

PRESIDENT

MARKET

HRM

R & D

FINANCE

DEP 2

DEP 3

Figure 1.6

ADVANTAGES OF MATRIX STRUCTURE

Typically Facilitates information flow throughout the organization

Can enhance decision quality because before key decisions are made, the organization considers the two interesting perspectives.

Is best suited to a changing and complicated business environment

Can facilitate the flexible use of human resources.

DISADVANTAGES OF MATRIX STRUCTURE

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

This Essay is

a Student's Work

Lady Using Tablet

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

Often increases complexity of performance evaluation because people often have two bosses

Can inhabit the organization's ability to respond to changing conditions quickly

Can diffuse accountability

Often leads to conflicts as the differing perspectives and objectives of the intersecting units come together

CULTURE

Culture is expressed by handy's has been "The way we do things" around here. The concept of culture involves how people want to view their relationships to one another around the globe, you can expect to find divers experiences, traditions, and practices regarding power in human relationship.

TYPES OF CULTURE

Power Culture

Power and influence stem from a central source. Perhaps the owner - directors or the founder of the business. The degree of formalization is limited, and there are few rules and procedures. Such a firm is likely to be organized on a functional basis.

Role culture

These organizations have a formal structure, and operate by well-established rules and procedures. Job description establishes definite tasks for each person's job and procedures are established for many work routines. Communication between individuals and departments, and the settlement of dispute and appeals.

Task culture

Task culture is reflected in a matrix structure or else in project teams and task forces. In such organization, there is no dominant or clear leader. The principal concern in a task culture is to get the job done.

Person culture

In the three cultures, the individual is subordinate to the organization or task. A person culture is found in an organization whose purpose is to serve the interest of the individuals within it.

Now we will move on to selected organization structures and culture

ABX is internationally well performing company. This is communicating all over the island. And three of the branches are operating as franchise branches. ABX provides those with affiliation of UK universities. Therefore, the Matrix structure is most suitable for it. But, the ABX is under Flat structure.

ABX is defined by their functions, that is, the work that they do. It is a traditional, common sense approach and many organizations are structured like this.

It is based on work specialism and managers can be technical experts. ABX can benefit from economies of scale and division of labor.

CEO

B15

B14

B13

B12

B11

B10

B 9

B 8

B 7

B 6

B 4

B 5

B 3

B 3

B 2

B 1

STAFF MANAGERS

STAFF

STAFF

STAFFS

Figure 1.7

When compare the Flat structure with Matrix structure mainly hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim in all branches

The matrix structure sometimes referred to as a multiple command system." Is a hybrid that attempts to combine the benefits of both types of designs while avoiding their drawbacks.

ABX has two types of structure existing simultaneously. Employees have in effect two bosses-that is, they work in two chains of command. One chain of commands is functional or divisional, the type diagrammed vertically in the preceding charts.

The second is a horizontal overlay that combines people from carious divisions or functional departments into a projects or business team led a projector group.

Advantages of the structure

Easy communication among specialist- people grouped together according to similarities in their position can easily communicate and share information with each branches.

Decisions - people who approach problems from the same perspective can often make decisions more deeply and effectively than can people whose perspective differ.

Learning - makes it easy for people to learn from one another's experiences. Thus a helps employees to improve their skills and abilities and thereby enhances individual and organizational performance.

Facilitates communication - between functions improve decision making, thereby increasing performance.

Facilitates teamwork - people are sometimes able to pool their skills and knowledge and brainstorm new ideas for products or improved customer service.

Even though there are some disadvantages :-

Coordination - as organization attract customer with different needs, they may find it hard to service these different needs by using a single set of functions.

High operating and managing costs - because each division has its own set of functions, operating costs - the cost associated with managing an organization-increase.

Poor communication between divisions - Structures normally have more managers and more levels of management than functional structure have communications problems can arise as various managers at various levels in various divisions attempt to coordinate their activities.

Conflict among divisions - divisions may start to complete for organizational resources and may start to pursue divisional goals and objectives at the expense of organizational ones.

IF A COMPANY OR INSTITUTE FOLLOW THIS STRUCTURE (MATRIX) IT WILL MOST SUITABLE :-

BOARD CHAIRMAN

(FRANCHISE)

(BRANCHES)

B 5

B 4

B 3

B 15

B 14

B 13

B 12

B 11

B 10

B 2

B 1

B 9

B 8

B 7

B 6

KIDS

MSC

BSC DIVIS

SHORT COURSE

TRAINEE PROGRAME

(DIVISION) Figure 1.8

And the selected organization depends on mix of power and task culture. Power culture tends to rely on central figures for its strength and has lines of communication which not only radiate out form this centre but link sideways across the organization.

The boss is sits in the centre, surrounded by ever widening circles of intimates and influence. Power does derive simply from an individual's level in the organizational hierarchy.

The culture supports a belief that power in organizations should be unequally distributed. Power has long been a subject of considerable interest.

Task culture is concerned with the continuous and successful solution of problems. Judged in terms of results and problems solved. A different set of variables internal to the ABX are prominent in the task culture approach to ABX design that emerged in the 1990s.

Unit production refers to the production of individual items tailored to a customer's specification. The span of management for first level management increases as we move from unit to mass production, but decrease when we move from mass to process production.

Because lower level employees in both unit and process production division usually do highly skilled work, they tend to from small work groups, making a narrow span inevitable.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

ABX structure has a vertical component of hierarchy and a horizontal structure of working groups. These can be arranged by territory; function; product; brand; customer; staff number and work patterns; and equipment specialization.

ABX culture is part of the wider culture of society. It emphasizes aspect of behavior that is acceptable in the ABX context.

Culture is both internal to ABX and external to it. The culture of ABX is embedded in the culture of the wider society.

It is true if a management culture is developed, all the managers will adopt the same way of performing the task.

if we observe the selected organization that management styles adopted in different areas we can well know that though they have mostly the same management culture, the styles adopted by these areas have distinction in between them.

There are two reasons why the management culture is differing. Firstly, which have varied purpose, size, the environment in which they have to operate etc. thus is becomes difficult rather unreasonable to adopt the same type of management culture.

Stability in negotiations process is a major concern of structure and their culture counter parts because their relationship is one that they usually anticipate will continue into the future indefinitely.

It is also a concern because, generally speaking across industries in the ABX and over many decades stability has been elusive in structure - culture relationship.

FACTORS INFLUENCE THE INDIVIDUAL

BEHAVIOR

The individual's expectation of the organization

This is mainly reflected in is word call psychological contracts formal contracts between people are written documents, which state rights and obligations. However, the same contracts can sometimes be mentally entered into without it being in writing.

These are psychological contracts. These contracts can now exist between employees and the organizations.

The employee is willing to put forward effort and intern has certain expectation of the organization. The employer intern has certain expectation from the employee for which to take salaries and benefits.

Does if a person's expectations are not properly met by the organization. This can have an adverse effect on performance and it can demotivate problems.

The job fit

Effective performance comes through when the person and the job have a good fit. The person knowledge, experience and skill levels need to match with the requirements of the job.

1.3.3. The employees' personality

A person's personality can have three traits, which effect their behavior at work

Agreeableness - effects how people get along with others

Conscientiousness - a person's commitment towards work and dedication

Attitude - this could form through experience, family background level of education, religious believe etc…

TASK 02

2.1 DIFFERENT ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES

2.1.1 Contingency Approach

A contingency approach is one which argues that the ability of a manger to be a leader, and to influence the subordinate work group, depends on the particular situation, and will vary from case to case.

Contingency theory asserts that when staffs take a solution, they should have into responsible all aspects of the current situation and act on those aspects that are steps to the situation at hand. Basically, it's the approach that "it depends."

This approach is linked to the theories to designing organizations, which rejects the notion of universally applicable principles and proceeds via a consideration of the dominant factors in a given situation.

Contingency approach to ABX developed as a reaction to the idea that are "universal principles" for designing ABX and moving staff and so on. Newer research indicated that different forms of ABX structure could be equally successful, that there was no inevitable effectiveness, and that there were a number of variables to be considered in the design of the ABX and their styles of management.

Essentially it depends on the total picture of the internal factors and external environment of ABX.

2.1.2 Systems approach

There are 4 concepts underlie Systems approach.

Which is :-

Specialization :- To allow more specialized concentration on each components the system is divided into smaller components.

Grouping :- It becomes necessary to group related disciplines or sub disciplines, to avoid generating greater complexity with increasing specialization.

Coordination :- It is necessary to coordinate the interactions among the group when the components and subcomponents of a system are grouped .

Emergent :- Dividing a system into subsystems (groups of component part within the system), requires recognizing and understanding the "emergent properties" of

a system; that is recognizing why the system as whole is greater than the sum of its parts. For example, 2 forest stands may contain the same tree species, but the spatial arrangement and size structure of the individual trees will create different habitats for wildlife species. In this case, an emergent property of each stand is the wildlife habitat.

Let's look at ABX. Inputs will include things such as raw materials, money, technologies and people. These inputs go through a process where they're planned, organized, motivated and controlled, ultimately to meet the ABX's goals.

Outputs would be products or services to a market. Outcomes would be, enhanced quality of life or productivity for customers/clients, productivity. Feedback would be information from human resources carrying out the process, customers/clients using the products, etc. Feedback also comes from the larger environment of the ABX.

The systems approach emphasizes the existence of sub systems, or parts of the bigger system. Trist and bam forth developed an approach which suggested that an organization can be treated as an open "Socio-technical" system.

2.2 MANAGEMENT THEORIES

2.2.1. Scientific management

Concerned with improving the performance of individual workers.

Fredric Taylor developed this system, which he believed would lead to a more efficient and productive work force.

Develop a science for each element of the job

Scientifically select employees and then train them to do the job

Supervise employees to make sure they follow prescribe methods

Continue to plan replace employees who do not show high achievement

2.2.2. Administrative management

Whereas scientific management deals with the jobs of individual employees, administrative management focuses on managing the total ABX. Administrative management laid the foundation for later development in management Theory. It is more appropriate for stable and simple organizations than for today's dynamic and complex ABX.

14 principle of management

Division of work

Authority with responsibilities

Discipline

Unity of command

Unity of direction

Subordination of individual interests

Centralization

Scalar chain

Order

Equity

Personnel tenure

Initiative

Spirit de corps

2.1.3. Bureaucracy management

Outline the concept of Bureaucracy based on a rational set of guidelines.

Most logical and rational structure.

Traditional authority

Founded on legal or rational authority, which is based on law, procedures or rules.

Charismatic authority stems from personal qualities of the individual.

Foundation of contemporary organization theory. Works not know in English until 1947.

Efficiency in Bureaucracies comes from:

Clearly defined and specialized functions.

Use of legal authority

Hierarchical form

Written rules and procedures

Technically trained bureaucrats

Appointment to positions based on technical expertise.

Promotions based on competence

Clearly defined career paths.

2.1.4. Elton mayo - the Hawthorne experiment

The Hawthorne experiment was originally done by the western electric company in the US within their hawthorn plant.

The main purpose of the experiment was to examine how different working conditions had impact on worker output & efficiency. In lieu with this lighting, heating, the working week, working hours within a day, breaks were altered to see its effects on output.

However the results were contradictory in that no matter how adverse working conditions were made outputs was still rising. Since this scenario could not be explain a professor Elton Mayo was called in.

Mayo continued the experiment by isolating six vary workers in a special room. They were given changing working conditions. Productivity was still rising. Mayo concluded two factors to be causing this.

1. Group Atmosphere

The workers enjoyed in the company and had well inter personal relationship. Their social needs were effectively affected.

2. The experimenter effect

Mayo himself was having an impact on the result; since the workers were isolated for the study they felt special and recognized. This was motivating well.

The overall conclusions of the experiment indicate people are not nearly motivated by money and working conditions as indicated by Taylor. They want to be treated with respect and have their social needs main in their work place.

We shall compare ABX with another organization.

For an example,

We shall compare ABX management theories with DIALOG.

DIALOG uses Entrepreneurial style. Every human is innovative and thus always tries to initiate unfolding the mysteries of nature.

Conservation leads to survival whereas entrepreneurship leads to seeking, rather creating opportunities for growth. This very fact nurtured the inherent qualities of innovation, probing and adventures.

This has breaded entrepreneurship in the world of trade and commerce as well as in all fields of life.

ABX management theory follows Taylor's scientific management; man is an economic creature, responding directly to money. Therefore, workers follow management's orders and work harder if they can earn money.

An employee related to their work, rather like machines, and made as efficient as it was theoretically possible to make them. Extend of work in a task performance is determined by employees physical capacity.

Therefore productivity increased by the efficiency of the workers. The managers approach their jobs in arbitrary rule of thumb way.

If ABX use entrepreneurial style,

That which leads the ABX to the ditch of failure. If ABX ignores any of the fundamentals of management excellence, it is sure that it may not give desired results.

If all the powers and decision making, rights are concentrated in one person, his decisions, may be overpowered. Aged are more conservative on the other hand younger's that means new generation possesses entrepreneurship.

But unless this style is backed with conservatism in true sense, it may lead to over enthusiasm which is prone to unnecessary risk taking and thereby landing in trouble.

TASK 03

3.1 DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEADERSHIP

3.1.1 Autocratic leadership style

Under this all the authority and decision making powers are wasted as leader himself. He is workcentred or leadercentred. He designs the workload and work situation for his employees.

3.1.2 Democratic leadership style

Under this style leader allows the participation of subordinates in decision making process. Leader gives responsibility as well as freedom to the subordinates.

3.1.3 Group centered leadership style

Under this style a leader gives full freedom to his subordinates to take decisions. Entire authority in decision making is given to subordinates. Under this type of leadership, a little direction is involved.

3.1.4 Bureaucratic leadership style

As is clear from the name of the style all activities of the groups are governed by the rules and regulations already framed and brought into operation. The leader are not supposed rather are not required to take any decision, as even the procedures are already laid down.

3.1.5 Manipulate leadership style

This is typically style of leadership. The leader uses his acquaintance with the subordinates for achievement of his goals. As the subordinates believe in their leader they tell him all their needs and desires with an expectation that the leader will help them in fulfillment of these needs and desires.

3.1.6 Expert leadership style

This type of leadership style is basically meant for meeting critical situations. A regular leader needs not be expert in all the matters and therefore may not be able to sort out some problems.

In selected organization following an autocratic leadership style, all the decisions are taken by him only; subordinates are not to participate in decision

Making process. Autocratic leader directs, motivates and controls his subordinates. The subordinates are bound obedience and adherence to his directions.

In this type of style, quick decisions and its quick implementation is possible. It is a style of one way communication. In this style the leader instructs the subordinates and the subordinates have simply to follow.

Leadership function is a matter of pushing people in ABX until they do what the leader wishes them to do. Leadership is primarily a matter of removing barriers so that people can act with freedom and independence. Leadership encourages and stimulates action from workers by innovating them in planning and decision making activities.

3.2 MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES

There are varieties of Motivational theories in practically.

3.2.1 Abraham Maslow higherarchy of needs

Maslow is a clinical physiologist presents his fighting on motivation after doing research amongst his patients according to him. Man is motivated towards achieving fire category of needs which can be arranged in a higherarcy or order of importance.

The theory is based on two important principles

The deficiency principle

The progressive principle

Self needs

Self esteem needs

Social needs

Safety needs

Physiological needs

Figure 3.1

Once the need met the next need on the higheracy now motivates behavior.

Physiological needs: The need for food, water, shelter, which must we met for survival.

Safety needs: The need for order security, certainty and predictability in life and freedom from the eat.

Social needs: The need for friendship, affection, love and relationships.

Self esteem needs. The need for recognition and respect and to sealed as important in the eyes of others.

Self actualized needs: The need to reach once fullest potential.

3.2.2 Hertz Berg - Two Factor Theory

Hertz Berg research indicates two sets of disinfectors are responsible for

Preventing dissatisfaction at work

Causing satisfaction at work

The factors which prevent dissatisfaction are referring to as the hygiene factors and our normally associated with the job contexts. However just because hygiene factors are made job satisfaction doesn't occur.

Simply prevented dissatisfaction for satisfaction occurs the motivational factor needs to be presented these are connect to the job content.

Hygiene Factors Motivations

Looking conditions Recognition

Pay Achievement

Job security Responsibility

Interpersonal Relationship Feelings of personal growth

Status Look itself

Supervision Personal life

Company policy & admin

3.2.3 Mc Gregor - Theory X, Theory Y

Mc Gregor user theory x and theory y to describe two sets of contrasting assumptions managers can hold of their subordinates.

The assumption will influence how managers attempt to motivate and behave towards their subordinates. The term X and Y is used in order to be natural as to what is assumption is correct.

Theory X assumptions

These assumptions are based on the traditional man they assume the average worker dislikes work and avoids it all cost. They lack ambition, which to be directed, avoids taking positions of leadership, resist change and is primary driven by self interest.

Based on these assumptions managers will now attempt to motivate their subordinates through a cane and carrot approach.

Theory Y assumptions

These are based on the nontraditional man. They assume for most people work is as natural as rest or play, they exercise self discipline and direction, wish to accept responsibility are creative in thinking and embarrassed change.

Based on the assumptions motivation will now include placing responsibility on trust, providing greater autonomy and flexibility in work and decision making.

3.2.4 Mc Cleland - Acquired needs Theory

He uses thematic apperception tests (TAT) to understand human needs. TAT asks people to view pictures and write stories about what they see. He argues people acquire or develops needs over time as a result of individual life experiences. He identifies three needs which influence behavior.

1. Need for power.

Such people are seeking positions of leadership are good at conversation to argue and hard headed.

2. Need for affiliation

A need for social belongings and to be integrated in groups.

3. Need for achievement

Those who have an intense need to success. They are often themselves challenging goals and wished to go challenged by others.

Process Theories of Motivation

A particular need can be satisfied through a variety of behavior. A process theory is attempted to explain how individual choose between alternative causes of action to satisfy a given need.

3.2.5 Victor Vroom - Valance Expectancy Theory

According to the theory motivation or force is a function of three interconnected variable.

Expectancy

Instrumentality

Valance

Mathematically Express

FORCE = Expectancy x Instrumentality x valance

This Implies

Zero on one variable results in no motivation how high the other two are

If one is low but the others are high motivation can be strong.

1. Expectancy

A person believes that working hard will result in a desired level a task performance being achieved. It is a probability that the particular action will lead to a successful outcome.

2. Instrumentality

A person believe that successful performance will be followed by rewards and other potential out comes

E.g.: If you are successful and doing job assigned to increase salary, phrase, increase reputation,

3. Valance

Company benefits, foreign placements.

The value a person places personality to the possible outcomes and rewards as a result of successful performance and (having understood about management in order to increase motivation and influence each variable).

E.g.: Maximize expectancy management could

Correct confidence and support provide accessory training or even select employee to display correct abilities to do a job. In order to increase instrumentality mat. Could clearly communicate what out coming open up as a result of successful performance.

In order to increase valance managers could adjust the work out comes that are in line with the individual's valance.

For ABX McGregor X,Y theory is most suitable. Because,

Managers who held this view have following assumption about their subordinates

Employee inherently dislikes work and, whenever possible will attempt to avoid.

Few want or can handle work that requires creativity, self direction, or self control.

Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.

Since employee dislike work, they must be closely supervised. Coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.

Work is not inherently distasteful. Employees can view work as being as naturals rest or play.

People want to contribute to meaningful goals that they have helped established.

People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives

The average person can learn to accept, even seek responsibility.

Therefore managers should make use of underutilized human resources.

Managers must create an environment in which all members may contribute to the limits of their ability.

3.3.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION THEORY AND THE PRACTISE OF MANAGEMENT

As the limits if the mechanistic approaches become clear, ABX began to seek out of Making jobs more varied and challenging.

ABX argues that employees who have responsible jobs that they understand are more motivated and satisfied with their positions. People whose jobs involve high levels of skill variety identity, and task significance experience work as very meaningful.

A high level of autonomy makers more responsible and accountable for their acts. Feedback gives them a useful understanding of their specific roles and functions.

The closer a job comes to having all five characteristics, the more likely it is that the person who holds it will be high motivated and satisfied.

The ABX attempted to enhance the care environment as perceived by students and their families by redesigning studies and empowering workers. This was a project that included the creation of student-care associates, which entailed the collapsing of several work roles into one.

Another basic strategy was inspired by motivational theory. Job enrichment tries to deal with dissatisfied workers by increasing the depth of their jobs. Work activities from a vertical slice of the organizational unit are combined into one position to give employees more autonomy on the job.

Workers may also be shifted routinely from job within the same company so they can develop a variety of skills.

Job rotation of this sort motivates workers by challenging them and enabling them to learn new skills, Job rotation may be combined with job enlargement and job enrichment.

TASK 4

4.1 GROUPS AND BEHAVIOR

Groups are central to organization life. Teams have a 'sense' of identity which a random crowed of individual does not possess.

Unlike a random collection of individuals, a group of individuals share a common sense of identity and belonging. They have certain attributes.

A sense of identity

Whether the group is formal or informal, its existence is recognized by its members: there are acknowledgement boundaries to the group which define who is "in" whom is "out" who is "us" and who is "them".

Loyalty to the group, and acceptance by the group

This is generally expresses itself as comformity, or the acceptance of the norms of behavior and attitudes that bind the group together and exclude others from it.

Purpose and leadership

Most groups have an express purpose, whatever field they are in: most will, spontaneously or formally, choose individuals to lead them towards the fulfillment of those goals.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF GROUPS

Informal groups

Informal groups include workplace cliques, and network of people who regularly get together to exchange information, groups who socialize outside work and so on

The purposes of Informal groups are usually related to group and individual embers satisfaction, rather than to a task.

Formal groups

Put together by the organization will have a formal structure and a function for which they are held responsible.

Advantages of group

Pooling skills, information and ideas

Could increase the quality of the decision

Participation in the decision making process makes the decision acceptable to the group, whether because it represent a consensus of their views, or simply because they have been consulted. Acceptance of the decision by the group may be important if it affects them, and they are responsible for carrying it out.

Disadvantages of group

Group decision takes longer to reach than individual decisions.

Group decision tends to be riskier than individual decisions. this may be because:

Shared responsibility shadow the individuals sense of responsibility for the outcome of the decision

Contradictory information may be ignored, to protect the group's consensus

Cohesive groups tend to feel infallible: they get over confident

Group cohesion and motivation may be founded on values like innovation, boldness and flexibility

Group decision may partly be based on group norms and interests - the group's own "agenda" - rather than organizational interests

4.2 THE FACTORS INFLUENCE THE TEAMWORK

4.2.1 Supportive sponsors:

The items under this heading considered at the outset of a manager should define what support they needs, and whether the organization has, specialized groups that offer the various types of support required.

4.2.2 Focus on stake holder outcome:

Those groups or individuals who are the directly or indirectly affected by an organization's pursuit of its goals.

4.2.3 Smart goals:

Goals are the ends toward which activity is aimed. They represent not only the end point of planning but also the end toward which organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling are aimed. While enterprise goals are the basic plan of the firm, a firm may also have its own goals.

4.2.4 Committed leadership:

Vision, communication and trust are the essential elements of leadership. But, different leaders may assemble and express these elements in very different ways. There is no specific personality type, management style or skill which can guarantee the success of a leader. Every successful leader represents unique blend of abilities, values and temperament.

4.2.5 Mutual trust:

Trust is the foundation of loyalty. Leaders always attempt to change people. Insecurity and uncertainly always accompany change. In view of such, earning the trust of the follower is mandatory task of a leader. In order to inspire trust, a leader must have integrity. Honesty is one essential component of integrity.

4.3 IMPACT OF TECHNOLGY ON TEAM WORK

E-mail is an effective and efficient communication with the team members who do not need to be in the same place at the same time. As well, e-mail has negative impacted sometime.

Mobile phones allows the team members to communicate with each other and function effectively even when they in different places. Conference calls will be able to communicate with 5 numbers of persons simultaneously.

In some cases it might hinder their functions having always access to team members.

Highly sophisticated Phone technologies with 3G calls (face to face video calls) helps team members to work and communicate, even they are in different locations or with clients.

In computers such as Skype 5.0 allows conferences video calls and communicate with an efficient manner.

In personal computers Laptop computers are taking a vital role in communicating more effectively. They are lighter to carry in hand having long lasting powerful battery life. This allows the team members to carryout various tasks.

When using internet access, Wi-Fi router gives easy access to internet without having separate cable connections or HSPDA modems (Dongle) to every computer in the demarcated atmosphere.

"TEAM VIEWER" software allows to solve the problem in one computer from another computer anywhere.

Within the office the team members can share their documents through "My Network Places" with an efficient manner.