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This chapter presents in brief the methodological framework of this research and the way in which its conducted. The chapter begins with identifying the research design going through presenting the research problem, research objectives and research questions. After that the research hypotheses will be presented to highlight the suggested relationships between the various independent variables and the employees' intentions to leave their organizations. At final stages of this chapter the data collection instrument which is the questionnaire is explained as well as explaining the sampling and data collection procedures and data analysis techniques.
3.2 research design and methodology:
In this section the research delivers a comprehensive view of the intended methods that were applied to get the research purpose by answering it questions. In this section of chapter three the research designed model, approach, purpose, strategy, methodology will be covered.
3.2.1 Research Approach
In social science research two theoretical research approaches are mostly used, they are inductive and deductive approaches. Saunders et al. (2007) defined the inductive approach as the one that is used to improve or develop an existing theory on the basis of comprehensive study resources. This approach begins by collecting data after finishing the process of data viewing and obtaining complete data resources study, the former step is then followed by research hypothesis recognition. Finally the samples are chosen to interpret it and obtain the desired results. According to Robson (2002) the deductive approach contains five main stages, it begins by taking hypotheses from the existing theory, then it defines the hypotheses in forms that enable the researcher to measure it, afterwards the different hypotheses are investigated and the outcomes of the analysis are properly studied. At the final stage the researcher decides to accept or reject the theory and suggests some adjustments.
Conversely, Saunders et al. (2007) defined the deductive approach as the application of research strategy that was especially developed in order to assess and examine a theoretical proposition. This approach begins by the step of data collection which is analyzed later to drive a theory on the basis of the outcome of the analysis process. The inductive approach is considered as an instrument that aids the researchers to develop a new theories s. The inductive approach drives from "down" to "top", as it begins by gathering data and perceiving precise variables then develops bigger generalization and new theories (Johnson and Christensen 2007; Burns and Burns 2008).
As the aim of the research is to investigate the factors that affect the ministry of information employees' intentions to turnover, we can say that this research is following the deductive approach. Based on the above review a précised survey questionnaire will be distributed based on the data gathered from the literature. This research is clearly using deductive approach because it is created from theories to data and clarifies the relationships between different variables. According to the results of the data analysis and findings procedures, the theoretical framework would be rejected, moderately accepted or fully accepted.
3.2.2 Research Purpose:
According to Yin (2003), the research purpose can be viewed as exploratory, explanatory or descriptive purpose. In some cases the researches can have multiple purposes (Marshall and Rossman, 1999). Saunders et al. (2007) indicated that descriptive research is crucial for the researcher to gain a clear picture of a specific phenomenon or situation and it is used to determine the characteristics and distinctiveness conveyed in the research question. The descriptive research defines the relations between the diverse variables of the research without investigating the cause and effect connections among the independent variables and the dependent variables of the research (Creswell 2008).
According to Saunders et al. (2007) explanatory research explains the rational reasons of given phenomenon or specific situation to assess or build a theory. Explanatory research attempts to spot the light on the cause and effect relationships among the research variables.
The exploratory research is used for researches in which the problem is not well-defined. Researchers use this kind of researches to improve their knowledge about specific variables that might impact a given phenomenon. Exploratory research aims to find out new data and facts that could help in the coming researches (Saunders et al., 2007).
This research can be considered on the basis of its purpose as explanatory and descriptive where it tries to describe the causes and effects of numerous independent variables on the employees' intentions to leave the organization. It's considered to be descriptive one because it delivers descriptive analysis to the relationships between the several variables that are suggested to affect the employees' intentions to leave the organization.
3.2.3 Research strategy:
It is significant thing to the researcher to determine the strategies he/she can appropriately use so as to achieve the research objectives. According to Saunders et al. (2007) a research strategy can take different formats such as survey, case study, ethnography, experiment, action research, grounded theory and archival research. The researcher can use these different strategies for descriptive, exploratory or explanatory research purposes. It also can be used in both research approaches deductive and inductive. Obtaining the best research strategy can be reached through focusing on many aspects such as time constraints, locations, data, money and ethical aspects.
According to the former explanation, we can conclude that the survey strategy is very appropriate one for this research because as it is following the deductive approach the questionnaire will be used to collect the data about the several factors that influence the employees' intentions to leave the organization.
This research used one strategy, survey, as the purpose of this research was to collect a questionnaire answers for a sample of employees in Kuwait ministry of information to investigate the different factors that affects their intentions to leave the organization.
3.2.4 Research methodology:
The research methodology has two different types quantitative or qualitative. Researchers use both methodologies to collect and analyze the data; researchers select the methodology according to different factors such as the data type, the nature of research and the data analysis procedures (Creswell, 2008).
According to Saunders et al (2007) quantitative method is defined as the degree to which data are closely associated with theoretical influences. It has been termed as mathematical examination of hypotheses, by recognizing hypotheses ensuing from the theory. The questionnaire used in this methodology is commonly seen as the primary data collection procedure in which the collected data will be analyzed through using mathematics and statistics. According to Newman and Benz (1998), quantitative method starts with different hypothesis that examine a study, where researchers begins with statements of theory where hypothesize are implemented from, after that an investigational design is created where the variables (dependent) in question are measured while calculating the impact of chosen variables (independent).Yin (2003) stated that the quantitative methodology uses mathematical ways to find out the relationships between the several variables and uses the different statistical methods to analyze the collected data and make a decision to accept or reject the hypotheses.
On the other hand, qualitative methodology is considered to be less data-driven where it deals with less sufficient evidence to find out the relationships between the different variables; and this is the reason of calling qualitative methodology as "soft approach". In Qualitative research method, researchers' deal with different research variables in their original conditions, trying to make sense in regards to the meanings people offer to them (Newman and Benz, 1998). Qualitative methodology seeks to originate theories and hypothesis through drawing a comprehensive detail of the theory through testing and indicating concepts that are associated with some tough phenomena, situation and problems. Qualitative methodology works on the basis of gathering, analyzing and illustrating the data and information through observation. The following table shows the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods.
Based on meanings that are derived from numbers.
Depends on meanings that are expressed in words.
Data is collected in numerical and standardized manner.
Data is collected as a result of non-standardization which required further classification into categories.
Data analysis is done using statistical packages and with the aid of diagrams and tables.
Data is analyzed through the use of conceptualization.
(Source: Saunders et al, 2003)
This research will consider the quantitative methodology as it uses a questionnaire to gather the data about the several factors that affects the employees' intentions to leave the organization. As the research lies on rich data, literature and methodical information enriched from theory testing, the relationships between the several variables will be explained by statistics and mathematical expressions.
3.2.5 Research time horizon:
As said by Saunders et al. (2007) cross-sectional research is the one that uses the survey (questionnaire) strategy and work on the basis of the data collected through interviews that are performed over a short period of time, the questionnaire is considered as the case of the research. This research can be considered to be cross- sectional one more than being a longitudinal one due to the study time constraints. This research is more a snapshot than a long time of several events. The former concept is supported by the nature of this research where it investigates and studies the different factors that influence the employee's intentions to leave their organization at the present time.
3.3 Problem Definition
Nowadays, talented, educated, skilled and key workers are considered as the most valuable assets of different organizations. The turnover of the skilled employees is one of the most difficult challenges that face organizations in different fields of business environment.
The state of Kuwait is one of the developing countries that aim to develop the different aspects of life in order to provide its people with the desired welfare. Lately, Kuwait government started applying the initial steps of the development plan that is intended to make Kuwait a financial and economic center of the GCC region. Kuwait economy is growing in gradual way as a result of different factors such as the high prices of oil which is the main resource of the country GDP as well as the foreign investments established after the collapse of Iraqi regime and the political stability the country has. The former reasons made the talent human force a scarce coin in Kuwait business market due to the several job opportunities the skilled labor could find.
A lot of employees who work within the public sector think to leave their jobs and shift for another place which is less bureaucratic and routine than their jobs in the public sector. The employees also search for job opportunities in organizations that pay bigger attention for the employee creativity and help him to improve his competencies. The public sector in Kuwait is perceived to be a place where the employees are not rewarded appropriately as well as having a non-supportive working environment. WASTA (connections of influence) is one of the main reasons that motivate the skilled labor to leave the public sector where they feel that they have very low opportunities to get a promotion and enhance their positions within the organizational hierarchy. Nepotism is another cause that pushes many of the public sector employees to search for new jobs because they feel that they are not treated fairly in their jobs and the family relations play a vital rule inside the public sector regarding the promotions and performance appraisal. When the talent employees leave the organizations, the organizations will lose their experience and may face a problem with the additional costs spent to recruit, train and develop new candidates. The immigration of the skilled employees knowledge badly influence the learning curve of the left organization along with the low productivity of the new recruited employees which result in deterioration of the overall organizational performance.
This research attempts to explore the factors that crate intention to turnover among Kuwaiti ministry of information employees as it's the first step of treating the problem of turnover. This research went through many academic articles and cases to verify and identify the several conditions that lead to create the intention to leave among Kuwait information ministry employees. This research tries to assess these factors in order to give recommendations that may help to improve the human resources practices in the public sector generally and in the Kuwait ministry of information especially.
3.4 Research Objectives:
The objectives of this research are set as follows:
- To assess the existing literature on employee intention to leave their organizations generally.
- To examine the several factors those influence employees' intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information.
- To specify the influence of the employees' perception of support on the employees intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information.
- To specify the influence of the employees' perception of commitment on the employees intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information.
- To specify the influence of the employees' perception of complexity on the employees intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information.
- To evaluate the influence of job engagement and job satisfaction on the employees intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information.
- To offer recommendations for Kuwait ministry of information to implement new rules or exercise new strategies that will decrease the problem occurrence.
3.5 Research questions:
To reach the objectives of this research, we should try to answer the next questions:
What are the factors that mainly affect the employees' intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information?
What are the factors that affect the employees' perceptions of support leading to higher intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information?
What are the factors that affect the employees' perceptions of commitment leading to higher intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information?
What are the factors that affect the employees' perceptions of complexity leading to higher intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information?
How can the employees' perceptions of job engagement and job satisfaction affect the employees' intentions to leave the ministry of information?
3.6 Research Assumptions
In this research the following assumptions were considered in order to complete the process of data collection appropriately:
- The distributed questionnaire contains clear questions that can be easily understood by the respondents.
- All the respondents have to be working within the selected population (ministry of information).
- Respondents have sufficient experience regarding their jobs responsibilities and organization practices.
- Respondents can specify several reasons of their intentions to leave the ministry of information.
- Respondents have enough awareness regarding their organization rules and regulations.
- Respondents will offer their opinions and answers frankly away from complements.
On the basis of the literature review and the proposed conceptual model of this research, several hypotheses were developed in order to achieve the objectives of this research; the developed hypotheses were as follows:
H1: Employees' perceptions of support (social support, supervisory support, training and empowerment) have negative significance on employees' intention to leave Kuwait ministry of information.
H2: Employees' perception of commitment (rewards and recognition, job security, organizational justice) has negative significance on employees' intention to leave Kuwait ministry of information.
Jun, Cai and Shin (2006)
Yavas (2003) and Masri (2009)
Rewards and recognition
McKnight et al. (2009)
Saks (2006) and Price (2000)
Locus of control
Sezen (2008) and Arocas and Camps (2008)
Brown (2003) and Yavas (2003)
Intention to leave the organization
H3: Employees' perception of complexity (job stress, role ambiguity, locus of control) has positive significance on employees' intention to leave Kuwait ministry of information.
H4: engagement and job satisfaction have negative significance on employees' intention to leave the Kuwait ministry of information
3.8 research questionnaire:
This research is prepared in order to investigate the factors and elements that influence Kuwait ministry of information employees and leads to create intentions to leave the organization amongst them. The questionnaire is the survey instrument that is used in this research to gather the data about the several factors that are proposed to affect the employees' intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information. The questionnaire of this research comprises five pages and includes two main sections. The questionnaire used in this research is adapted from different empirical researches illustrated in the following table:
This section collects the respondents 'general and personal information such as gender , age group , monthly income , level of education , the current position in the organization and the nationality of the employee (Kuwaiti or Non-Kuwaiti).
The second section includes 6 parts. The first five parts attempt to measure the independent variables of this research Employees' Perceptions of support (social support, supervisory support, training and empowerment), Employees' Perceptions of commitment (rewards and recognition, job security and organizational justice) and Employees' Perceptions of complexity (job stress, locus of control and role ambiguity), Job Engagement and Job Satisfaction..These sixth parts try to measure the relationship of the independent variables with the dependent variable of this research which is the employee' intentions to leave the organization.
Part A of the questionnaire tries to investigate the employees' perceptions of support through measuring four variables which are: social support (4 statements), supervisory support (4 statements), training (4 statements) and empowerment (4 statements). Part A uses five-point Likert scale that ranges from one to five. As
1= strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree.
Part B of the questionnaire investigates the employees' perceptions of commitment through measuring three factors which are: perceived rewards and recognition (4 statements), job security (3 statements), and organizational justice (4 statements). Part B uses five-point Likert scale that ranges from one to five. As 1= strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree.
Part C of the questionnaire tries to investigate the employees' perceptions of complexity through measuring three factors which are: job stress (4 statements), locus of control (4 statements) and role ambiguity (4 statements). Part C uses five-point Likert scale that ranges from one to five. As 1= strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree.
Part D of the questionnaire tries to measure the job engagement and includes four statements. Part E tries to measure the employees' job satisfaction and includes four statements; both parts use the same explained 5-pint Likert scale.
Finally, Part F is measures the dependent variable of this study (the employees' intentions to leave the organization). This part includes 4 statements and uses the same five-point Likert scale.
3.9 Research limitation:
Several limitations were faced during the preparation of this study as follows:
- The lack of new articles related to this topic examined by the research especially what has been done in the state of Kuwait.
-As the research was applied on information ministry, it was very tough to gain typical information concerning some sectors as they were termed secret.
-Academic papers regarding information ministry were rare. There were insufficient data, which examined intentions to leave among information ministry workers.
-Some respondents have not completed the questionnaire appropriately because they were not serious to answer the questions or incapable to understand the questions correctly.
- Overcoming the previous limitations might result in higher man hour along with man power to finalize this study.
3.10 Targeted Sample and Data Collection procedures
Uma Sekaran (2003) focused on the importance of sampling method and the sampling size as an essential factors for desired outcomes of any study. An appropriate sample size must be carefully considered by the researcher so as to have reasonable conclusions for his study (cited by Masri, 2009).
This study tries to examine the several factors that affect the employees' intentions to leave Kuwait ministry of information. By studying the case of the ministry of defense to highlight the factors that affect the employees' intentions to leave the Kuwaiti public sector.
This study is targets the employees of the Kuwaiti Ministry of information who are estimated with more than 1300 employees spreading through different departments in order to understand the factors that affect their intentions to leave the ministry of information.
This study uses a five-page questionnaire to gather the required data from a sample of the employees from different departments in Kuwait MOI. Questionnaires were written in English language and distributed in hardcopies format directly to the employees so as to assure sufficient responding level and appropriate understanding of the questions as the researcher was ready to clarify any unclear questions for the employees. The questionnaire was distributed in the different departments and a number of 234 questionnaires were completed, the number of practical questionnaires was 210 and it was used in the data analysis process.
3.11 data analysis method
The data of this study was analyzed using SPSS version 17 (Statistical Package for Social Science) and applied several analysis techniques. Descriptive statistics were applied to describe the employees 'answers for the different variables in the questionnaire. Cross tabulation was used among employees' demographic variables and the other variables of the study. Two reliability tests were employed. The first one is Cronbach's alpha that was implemented to ensure that the different variables are reliable which result in the exclusion of weak responses, as it is considered as the most common measure for reliability (Hair et al., 2010). The second reliability test was Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) that was used to test the chance that a correlation is present among variables. Factor analysis was used for data reduction. It is a method used to reduce the number of questions into a smaller number of dimensions. Factor loading was used as a measure of the extent of connection between a dimension and its variables as well as offering the percentage of variance explained for each factor.
The correlation analysis was deployed in this study followed by the multiple-regression analysis that was used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses of this research. Finally T-test method was used to assure significant differences. It was prepared to evaluate whether the mean values of two groups are statistically different from each other.