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The systematic process through which we can gather information regarding the duties required of a job and the human characteristics are necessary to successfully perform those duties is known as job analysis. The work products of job analysis are job description, which describes the job and job specifications, which describes what kind of person to hire for the job. Job analysis can also be described as the foundation of human resource management activity in every management organization. However, with increasing competition, shorter product life-cycles, rapid technological innovations and the changing nature of the organizational structures, the assumptions of job analysis are becoming big questions in today's dynamic work environment. The role, which outlines and is used in day to day tasks and responsibilities, is termed as job description. It potentially helps the applicants to decide whether they should apply for the job or not, and it also can be a useful aid for employers when devising job advertisements and employment contracts. Job descriptions also include to whom the position reports, it also specifies the qualification needed by the person in the job, salary level for the position, etc. Job descriptions are used especially to fill a vacant position determining compensation on the basis of performance reviews.
The other element of job analysis is the job specification. According to the Business Dictionary.com the meaning of is explained as the statement of employee characteristics and qualifications that is required for satisfactory performance of specified tasks and duties that is included in the job.
The information collected is then used by the Human Resource analysts of the organization to evaluate the Recruitment and Selection Procedures. This is a process of identifying and hiring a well qualified candidate that can be internally or externally to the organization for a vacant job. Where as selection is a process of putting the qualified candidate to fill the vacant position.
As per the overall analysis of the work flow the information collected can be useful in Human Resource Planning. This is where what kind of workers is needed in the organization is known as well as what resources are to be provided to each of them in order for their duties and tasks to be carried out.
Job design is the process through which organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work..
Due to the working trend changing in today's period the changes are affecting the way people work and the way organization provide jobs. This trend is so called De-jobbing. This is where today's organization are finding people who are multiskilled and are able to carryout different activities rather then just having a particular single position.
2 Job Analysis :
Job analysis the backbone for the Human Resources in order to evaluate activities such as training, transferring or promotion. Training is required for the employees for their advancement, as no job remains the same as world is changing so as the world environment, and so as working patterns.
Job are changing now and then and it's the responsibility of the human resource staff for keeping the job description up to date. (www.peerpapers.com)
The information gathered are in the form of jobs tasks, roles, and a job holder attributes related to performance of the job, and the material collected may be used on the current job that is being performed in the future time. (Jirasinghe D, Gevffrey L, 1996)
Some people may think why job has to be analyzed, to answer this statement, one can say that job are rapidly changing, and in order to keep the pace and not lose the productivity and image of the organization the industry has to know what kind of skills are required. (Prien E, Goodstein L, Goodstein J, Gamble L, 2009)
2.1 Job Analysis Methods :
There are no specific methods that are used for job analysis. For Example for the focus group methods following methods can be used. (Franklin M, 2005)
a) Interviews: In interviews range of questions are used to capture the information about the job that a person does. This is done one to one with the job holder and/or supervisors the major problem to this is that the person does not specially remember everything what they do.
b) Survey or Questionnaire: Surveys or Questionnaires are set of questions which are handed to the performer to collect information about their job. The limitation to this method is that only the overview about the job is described.
c) Observation: This is where the performer is observed on the tasks he/she carry out and recording the tasks as they occur. The limitation to this is that the performer does not carry out all the tasks as in the job description in every day span.
2.2 Approaches to Job Analysis:
a) The Position Analysis Questionnaire System (PAQ): It is one of the method of collecting data which covers 194 different workers tasks orientation. It uses a fire point scale, PAQ tries to determine the degree to which job elements or different tasks that are involved to perform a particular job.
b) The Critical Incident Method (CIM): Helps to identify the critical job tasks, these are the important duties and responsibilities that lead to jobs success and are performed by the respective job holders. The information with the managers or by statement that are written by employees so called self report. (Bohlander G, Snell S, 2009)
2.3 Uses of Job Analysis:
Job analysis is the basic step in designing, training that will make a difference in the way work is performed. Job analysis is the 'secret ingredient' that makes training the agent of behavior change and that distinguishes training from the simple process of dispatching information.
Use the checklist to determine a structure for the job analysis that fits your needs.
Break down the performance in question into major responsibility areas. Use the job description as an initial guide.
Categorize these responsibilities as people responsibilities (e.g., greet each client by first name), data responsibilities (e.g., total accounts receivable daily), or things responsibilities (e.g., water the office plants); that is, list the job responsibilities according to the people data thing focus of each one.
With the help of the person doing the job in question, assign each category a rough percentage that reflects how much of the job it accounts for. This will give you a picture of what the job actually is and allow you to design only the training you need.
Draft a questionnaire or interview schedule that addresses the nature of the job. Use closed questions to get the facts and open questions to get opinions. Put the closed questions with a section of open questions.
Consider organizing an expert observation session in which a would be expert uses a checklist to record observations about what the expert does differently from the ordinary worker. Gets the regular worker involved as an auxiliary needs assessor, directly observing the high performance. Structure the observation checklist with the help of the expert to be observed.( Nilson C, 2003)
To provide a resource for employers to ensure that they are informed and prepared for the practicalities of employing a person with a disability. The guidelines are relevant to the recruitment of a new member of staff or the requirements of a staff member who acquires a disability.
2. Ensure company compliance with federal and state laws, including reporting requirements. Evaluate job positions, determining classification, exempt or non-exempt status, and salary. Plan, develop, evaluate, improve, and communicate methods and techniques for selecting, promoting, compensating, evaluating, and training workers.
3. Job analysis is an essential component of effective human resource management. It provides the data to fully integrate the five key components in human resource utilization;Â selection and hiring; career development; succession planning; performance appraisal; and compensation.
4. HumRRO The job analysis results served as the foundation for the design and development of a performance appraisal system for all special agents (i.e., 26 positions) within ATF. HumRRO worked with subject matter experts to develop behaviorally-based rating scales for each grade level and job specialty.
5. Staffing, Recruitment and Placement professionals are often viewed as a crucial part of HR. This is because staffing is the first entry point for prospective employees to the company.
3 Job Description:
A job description is mainly clear specification of job's duties what is required. They may be in many forms but are mainly grouped in four parts.
A Job Summary: This gives the overall impression of the position, as well as a brief description the functions that are most important. This will be the first information that an applicant would record, it can be used to attract the candidates who are capable and can achieve the target as described.
A List of Job Functions: This is where a detailed description of duties are mentioned.
A Requirement Section: In this section the list describes certification, education, experience and licenses that are necessarily needed to do the job.
Other Information: In this section save other important facts such as travel requirements reporting relationships, location and working hours and so on about the position is described. (Clark, M, 2008)
3.1 Job Description are Used for:
At times job description is a little thought as a document which is bureaucratic, which is represent mainly to a newly appointed staff. Since jobs change over the time as duties are added up or disappeared, but till then the jobs description are not updated.
Further, more some management writers suggest that there is no need of job description at all. They argue that any formal definition of a job inhibits flexibility by restricting its activities to what has been written into description, and creates too rigid a distinction between the job and the person in it.
The most important job description areas are as follows:
=) Selection, Recruitment and Induction.
=) Performance management and appraisal.
=) Job evaluation (Job Sizing)
=) Possible training needs.
(Fowler A, 2000)
3.2 Limitations of Job Description:
It is must to remember that the use of job description does not perfectly reflect to the job. The object of a job description is to differentiate it from other jobs and set its outer limits. Further, executives tend to carry work patterns with them into new jobs, thus modifying the job drastically.
It cause unfair job evaluation and job performance review if job description is not fairly agreed by the relevant parties. There by appropriate information has to be recorded.
Job description are quickly getting out of date. There by jobs are to be constantly revised and are to be kept up-to-date. (Cartwright S, 2005)
6. YOUTH MEDIA The Program coordinator will oversee the implementation of this program at the central level and in the countries involved. He/She will be based in Washington D.C., but will be travelling extensively to the region. At least 25% of his/her time will be spent in the
7. The student organization advisor is responsible for advising numerous student leaders; providing comprehensive direction and guidance as student leaders plan projects and events; serving as a resource to students; assessing and maintaining risk management practices; assessing and maintaining appropriate electronic databases; participating in staff trainings and meetings; and participating on committees and other programs promoting student activities on campus.
8. NCAAHPERD.org Assist the Director with the day-to-day administrative and operational activities of the "In-School Prevention of Obesity and Disease" Initiative.
4 Job Specification:
Job specification has an important role to play since it clarifies about what people are responsible for and to whom they are responsible.
Job specification also helps the employees to know how and to whom they are to refer when they have reached the boundaries of their own decision making role. (Poster D, Berington M, 1991)
Job specification is also known as person specification, recruitment or personnel. It defines the qualification and experience of a person, education and trainings as well.
Job specification or person specification are set under the following headings.
Behavioural and Attitudinal Requirements: Under this it helps the organisation to acquire the types of behaviours that are required for the performance or role that has to be successfully carry out. The roles are or can be related to competency framework and core values of the organisation which makes it possible the achievements of culture fit when an organisation selects people.
Technical Competencies: It's the know how of the individuals for carrying out their role which can include any special required skills or aptitudes.
Qualifications and Training: The academic qualification, professional, technical skills or qualifications that are required or any training that have been under taken by the candidate.
Experience: This is a category of a particular work of the organisation, the type of achievements and activities that predicts or would predict success is present or future for the organisation.
Specific demands: There will be specific demands that an organisations would expect the job holder to achieve in specific arrears for example improvement in sales introduction of new system and so on.
Organisational Fit: the formal or informal culture that a candidate would expect to work within and to flexibly adapt it.
Special Requirements: This can include activities such as travelling unsocial hours, mobility and so on.
Meeting candidate expectations: This is the view of organisations, and to understand how the organisation can meet candidate's expectation in terms of career opportunities, security, training and development and so on. (Armstrong M, 2006)
4.1 Problems Associated with Job Specification:
The biggest problem that has to be avoided at the stage of job specification is of overstating the competencies and qualifications required.
Another problem is of dissatisfaction of the candidates when they find that their talents are not being used. This is be cause of setting an unrealistically high level for candidates.
It is equally problematic when the requirements are understated.
9. Britannia Building Society recruits on the basis of the candidates attitudes first, and skills and abilities second. (Armstrong M, 2006,)
10. Service Ontario Centres are situated in a large number of communities around the province. Through the Service Ontario Centres members of the general public and business people can access information and services provided by the provincial, municipal and federal governments or by local community agencies.
11. MICHIGAN CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
Employees in this job in the Department of Community Health serve as either the Chief Medical Executive responsible for providing medical advice and direction relating to all program and policy issues, or as the Surgeon General responsible for health promotions, publications and public awareness.
5 Job Design:
According to the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (2002) the definition of job design refers to the way a set of tasks or the entire job is organised.
Job design enhances the level of individual satisfaction with their jobs. People become monotonous, bored and tired with their daily repetitive job which makes them dissatisfy.
Job design helps the organisation to determine.
=) What task are done?
=) How the tasks are done?
=) How many tasks are done? And
=) In what order the tasks are done?
(McLean G, 2005)
The motivational approach to job design is mostly used by many organisation now a days. This helps the organisation to capture more challenging tasks and provide them to their employees in order for them to not feel monotonous with their daily respective job.
Motivational approach to job design includes.
=) Job Enlargement
=) Job Rotation
=) Job Enrichment
=) Job Enlargement: This includes a number or variety of different tasks.
=) Job Rotation: Job rotation increases the scope by using horizontal enlargement. This is the process done in a different manner by moving people between different elements. (Rollinson D, 2005)
=) Job Enrichment: Job enrichmentÂ is an attempt toÂ motivateÂ employees by giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities.
12. Job Design as such appears to have begin with a a project initiated at IBM in the mid 1940s (Walker 1962). At that time the approach was called job enlargement. However, it includes both adding tasks to a job horizontally, and adding requirements for greater skills and judgment, thus enriching the job vertically. The intent even at this early point was to introduce more interest variety and significance into the work.. (Miner J, 2007)
13. When Ford Motor Company purchased Volvo, it bought its quality. At Volvos Torslanda Sweden plant, the new 560 model is built with a unique combination of high technology and human contribution. The assembly line appears on a platform concept where large components come together in modules. It offers ergonomic advantages to the workers to facilitate movements and to keep reaching the stretching to a minimum. (Hunt J, Schermerhorn J, Osborn R, 2004)
6 DEJOBBING WORLD OF WORK
The new buzz word dejobbing is widely spreading and has been regarded as a feature of manual work, but it came into the debate when it started affecting the white collar workers for example in particular when it affected in software firms across the United States.
14.There are no regular working hours in Microsoft, but the main concern is the output, people have to interact with different departments in order to accomplish their task.
Dejobbing comes in the context of flexible production patters, differentiated conditions of working that is connected to the transformational trends in individualised employment conditions, multi-skilling and a move towards greater employment mobility.
15.A redeployment manager of Microprocessor Company quotes that they are no longer looking job as a single function, but we see it as a set of skills and competencies. (Watson T 1996).
Companies are just not cutting jobs; they are re examining the concept of job. The organisation have to create post jobs as they have to better in hiring right people with skills, ability and attitude to learn and to change. In order to achieve this, the organisation has to be flexible enough as well their policies and training and career planning programmes have to be evaluated. (Thaku M, Srivastava B, 2001).
16.In the study of British Telecommunication Company the word Job had been deliberately removed from the corporate vocabulary in order for people to know themselves as a member of the over all company and not just what their department had. (Watson T, 1996).
Dejobbing becomes one of the external problems which affect the importance of job analysis. As it's said dejobbing means "broadening the responsibilities of the company's job and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what's on their job description." (Randhawa G, 2007 pp50).
17.The British Petroleum Exploration Division is inspired by the most efficient, faster acting, empowered employees. This replaces the job description with matrices listing skills and the skill levels. (Dessler G, 2004).
The concept of dejobbing is now coming in the view of many economist and management experts. William Bridges predicts that the job we have now is entirely disappearing and is replaced by flexible work assignments, flexible hours and flexible organisation itself.
18.In the company employees are give the freedom of coming to anytime they want at any hours, as long as they are responsible of bringing the outcomes in their respective team assignments. (www.independent.co.uk).
Another reason for this changing trend in work is the rule of the economic game of survival among organisations that employ workers. In order to stay successful in the hitech economy of today's business, they have re-model into a so called agile companies. These are the companies which are quickly responding to ever changing condition, framing, competitive markets.
19. In independent.co.uk article by Brealey N, cited what was said by William Bridges, in Apple Company it was seen that half of the new product development team left after the launch of the new product and returned back after six months.
20. "You won't last at Microsoft if your job is just a job." That is how Teresa Stowell, a software design engineer, describes what it is like to work at the Seattle software powerhouse. To begin with, people work any time and all the time, with no one keeping track of their hours, but with everyone watching their output. They are accountable not to conventional managers but to the project teams of which they are a part. Those teams, in turn, are likely to be sub-sets of some larger group, and in a very big project, such as the development of the Windows operating system for PCs, there may be many project-within-larger-project groupings.
21. IDEO Product Development of Palo Alto, California, is the largest industrial design firm in the US. Inc. magazine has reported: "At IDEO, no one has a title, or a boss, for that matter. Designers form teams around specific projects; each of those teams has a leader whose authority lasts only as long as the project, so today's manager may be tomorrow's subordinate."
22. At Intel Corporation, Marile Robinson, the redeployment manager, says: "We no longer look at a job as a function or a certain kind of work. Instead, we see it as a set of skills and competencies." In many parts of Hewlett-Packard, managers are using "ranking" as a way of evaluating people. To do this, they take everyone in a particular group and put them into a numbered list according to their "value" to the group. Such a value cuts across all job categories.
23. David Glines, head of employee development at San Diego Zoo, tells a story that illustrates the point. Glines had started working at the zoo as a grounds man. His job was to keep the zoo's paths and public areas free of litter. When there was a lot to do or when he was tired, "sometimes I'd sweep a cigarette butt under a bush. Then it was the gardener's problem, not mine." In a job-based organization, work doesn't get done. It gets passed around.
24. At the advertising firm Chiat & Day, account executive Sean Hardwick said, "I've been here two years and I've never seen a job description." Lori Sweningson, chief executive of Minneapolis-based Boss Software, says: "I think of the company as a volleyball team. It takes three hits to get the ball over the net, and it doesn't matter who hits it."
25. JOBS, and the "job-mindedness" that they create, make it difficult for any organization to respond quickly to a rapidly changing market. At Conde Nast Publications, former executive Veronique Vienne complained that "employees who try to keep a tight hold on their job miss the point and fail to comprehend the reason why they were hired in the first place: to contribute to the molecular activity at the magazine . . . "
Dejobbing is also taking place because firms that need to keep pace with number of factors that are accelerating product, and technological changes, globalised competitors, deregulation, political instability, demographic changes and the arrival of information. (Aswathappa K, 2006).
As we see from the above analysis that dejobbing does effect the work patter of the job and it also effects the employees as well as the organisation. To understand if dejobbing is good or bad is well explained and I would say dejobbing has to take place in order for organisation to succeed in this competitive environment. It can even be seen that it affects the employees but at the other side of it dejobbing helps in getting employees more diversified in their skills as they are able to share their knowledge and skills into other areas as well and not only in which their job description describes.
As William Bridges said that what jobs we had 200 years ago is disappearing, so as the job description used by the organisation. As we said job descriptions are the statements through which the job for a particular person in assigned for this is viewed as presenting to the new employees who join the organisation, and later on just lies in the office as a junk, there by the organisation has to implement a job description which can be amended now and then.
In this nature of dejobbed working environment job analysis is very important to be carried out in order to know the value asset that the organisation has in order for them to achieve their goals.
We don't say that jobs are completely disappearing but the changing trend to contractor workers, part timer, multi skilling and so has taken place which emphasis people not to just concentrate in one particular scope but to expand their knowledge, as they have to understand that the organisation today likes to rotate their employees at work, they would not want to have an employee just for a particular task. Since in this dejobbing working trend it is analysed that company broadens the responsibilities of the job and people are to rotate and interact with other departments as well in order to accomplish their tasks.
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