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In this report more analysis about aspects of New JICA organisation has been clearly and in deep explored. The introduction part has covered about the Aim of this case study, the Background of JICA organisation covering its evolution starting where the organisation was first found.
The use of SWOT analysis as a tool of evaluating the performance of the organisation has been in large covered where also the recommendations have been pointed out to cope with the organisation's internal weakness and its external threats
Also this report has covered the area of the organisation structure, importance of organisation structure, advantages and disadvantages of each type of structure and the organisation structure used by the New JICA.
Also this report has explained the concept of management change, the meaning of change, principle of change, how to affect the management of change in the organisation. The last part cover the conclusion and recommendation of case study.
1.1 THE AIM OF THE REPORT
The aim of this report is to determine whether the objectives of NEW JICA have been archived particularly in Tanzania. The action plans for Tanzania development as well the precise understanding of the development needs of Tanzania through supervision of country office and the close support of JICA Regional Strategy unit for Africa (RSA).
The "Creation and promotion of sustained and stable growth of economy and poverty reduction by support of development policy ( MKUKUTA that means The national strategy for growth and reduction of poverty 2005-2010 ).New JICA help Tanzania to promote productivity and competitiveness by supporting the development of agriculture and infrastructure, good governance through financial management systems and public administrative development. Also JICA uses different aid modalities like loan, grants, technical cooperation such as training and dispatch of volunteers to different area of field in order to archive its targeted objectives
JICA will boost the impact in the following approach.
A more planned structure focus on average to long term development goal
More expected aid functioning rolling plans of candidate projects for individual developing countries
Speeder project formulation through preliminary survey
Assistance tailored to actual requirements synergy of aid schemes
1.2 COMPANY BACKGROUND
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is an organisation which was established since August 1974 and undergoes some organisational reforms which lead to formation of Independence administrative Institution from the special public institution. All these was possible after the passage of the law for partial amendment (November 2006) from the Japan International Cooperation Agency law. This influences the thousands of (Japanese Overseas Cooperation Volunteers) JOCV to volunteer in different activities around the world.
1.3 JICA RESEARCH INSTITUTE
JICA established the JICA Research Institute (JICA-RI) to improve research function on development by drawing on its abundant field experience and to contribute to research findings and leading consultation on global development support.
1.4 NEW JICA
Was officially launched on October 1, 2008 with combination/ integration between the existing Japanese International cooperation Agency and the overseas economic cooperation section of the Bank for the cooperation (JBIC)
The figure below illustrate the combination of different organisation hence the formulation of NEW JICA
1.5 JICA TANZANIA
In Tanzani JICA was established since 1980 with basic objective of cooperation in various aspects that aimed into supporting the self initiatives of Tanzania citizens in archiving their social and economic development vision 2020 and 2025 as well the Tanzania growth strategy and poverty reduction (MKUKUTA-The national strategy for growth and reduction of poverty 2005-2010)
JICA concentrated on "field oriented management, human security and effectiveness, efficiency and speed as the target of the organisational change. JICA also has overseas offices in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Oceania, Middle East, and Europe. These overseas offices has facilitated smooth operation, hence the authority for decision making have been moved to these offices with an aim to ensure the flexible response to the widely varied needs of developing countries.
According to article of 30 years of JICA Tanzania office (1980-2010) there is some project which was implemented as shown below
The Africa office is located in Nairobi Kenya which was established since October 2009 and become the Regional strategy unit for Africa (RSA) with aim to smoothen JICA operation in the region as well to ensure the flexible response to the widely varied needs of developing countries. This office has been given the authority in order to strengthen activities in project formulation, monitoring and evaluation as well the aid strategy in sub Sahara office.
1.6 JICA OPERATING STRATEGIES
To undertake the mixing of management modalities of backing, that is
Such elements will provide inclusive support such as policy and institutional improvements, improvement of infrastructure, human resource development and capacity building
Encouraging development affiliation through precisely grasping of demanding needs of developing countries that spotlight on the field and promoting their own self help effort promptly and through a focus on results. JICA has also promoted the joint venture between public and private sectors so that they can contribute to the experience, technologies, resource of local government, non government organisation and other actors.
Enhancing research and knowledge chipping in through the use of JICA Research Institute, NEW JICA will use the understanding acquired in the field of work, building extensive networks of academic from Japan and elsewhere around the world. also to take part in a leading role in guiding the most recent development trends, improve research and knowledge sharing capacities
"Inclusive development" represents an approach to development that stimulate individual to be conscious of the development matter they themselves face, participate in addressing them, and gain from the fruits of such activities. The role of JICA is to offer the successfully backing on this process.
"Dynamic development" refers to the organization of self reinforcing virtuous cycle of mid to long term economic growth and poverty cutback in constantly shifting environment of developing countries where different issues happen simultaneously and get entangled each other. New JICA will offer creative, highly successful support in the direction of archiving the objective
Addressing the global Agenda.
The advancement of globalisation brings positive effects, speeding up economic development and providing individual with new opportunities. Also it has the negative side such as the issue of climate change, infectious diseases, terrorism and the raise of economic crises. New JICA will make full use of experience and technologies as it concert with international society to deal with the different globalisation interconnected issues that the developing countries are facing in comprehensive manner.
Reduction of poverty through equitable growth
JICA will help to shrink the poverty to the society through promoting employment opportunities, providing education health care to the society while JICA supply support for provision of social and economic infrastructure, capacity building, and perfection of policy as well the support in terms of human resource improvement.
JICA play a very important role to the stable economic development of developing countries. However the undeveloped legal and juridical system and administrative organs symbolize obstacles to efforts and decrease poverty through economic growth.
Archiving human security
The advancement of globalisation imposes many people in dangers like civil trouble, disasters, poverty and other threats. Human security helps to build abilities to protect themselves against an assortment of threats. New JICA present support bolsters social and institutional ability to deal with threats themselves. Bellow figure illustrate the vision, mission and strategy of New JICA
SWOT ANALYISIS FOR NEW JICA
Efficient and transparent procedure- JICA overseeing and evaluate operations professionally and transparently and remain constant committed to renewing and streamlining organisation by maintaining high level of accountability.
Tackling complex , difficult issues flexibly with the field based approach- JICA accurately grasp the development needs on the ground and design activities with their focus on the field , they deal flexibly with complex, difficult and knotted development issues
Fostering expertise for providing professional solution - JICA specialised in international cooperation, they perform international competitive work and using expertise and knowledge sharing capabilities to quickly and accurately address wide range of development issues.
Archiving synergies of the merger- by smoothly combining diverse and modalities, we make use of our synergies by speeding up the old process, scaling them out in other regions communities.
Poor planning- which caused by unchanged aid policy as well the biasness
Lack of human security against threats like civil war , terrorism
Lack of sustainable development due to escalation of conflict in various part of Africa and Asia like Somalia, Darfur, Afghanistan
Lack of incorporated support infrastructure and human capacity development
ODA offer loan assistance to developing countries beyond a certain income by providing low interest long term and concessional fund
JICA provide Grant Aid for counties which have low income levels without the requirement of repayment; grant can be used for recovering essential infrastructure such as schools, water supply, hospital, roads facilities, health and medical care.
Dispatch of expertise and provisional of compulsory equipments and guidance
JICA dispatch volunteers from (JOCV) handle project via the JICA finance and improvement of education. JICA work together with NGO'S , local government , universities, and other stake holders
JICA in case of the happening of a large scale tragedy, JICA dispatches Japanese catastrophe relief team in reaction from the government affected. example rescue of lost people, support and medical management
Declining of foreign support which has been decreasing by 40% in last few years. This give hard global situation including the Japan itself and it has become difficult to turn round the trend in merely financial terms. Constantly the assistance from ODA (Office Development Assistance) continues to go down.
In coming decade Africa will be one of the most affected regions by climate change. This is due to extensive spread of poverty , drought, unbalanced land allocation
Some counties in Africa are likely to face severe water scarcity in the next three decade.
Misuse of fund and corruption on fund allocated for projects.
2.0 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
According to Mullins (2005: 596) defined the organisation structure as the pattern of relationships among positions in the organisation and among members of organisation. Structure makes possible the application of the process of human management and creates framework of order and command through which the activities of organisation can be planned, organised, directed and controlled. The structure defines tasks and responsibilities, work roles and relationships, and channel of communication. With the increase size of organisation, there is greater need for carefully designed and purposeful form of organisation, also continual review of structure to ensure that it is the most appropriate form for the particular organisation and in keeping with its growth and development.
2.2 TYPES OF ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
According to Fontaine (2007) argued that Organisation structure is crucial component of the overall business strategy, just as important as planning, leading and controlling an organisation. Organisation structure is the frame work for answering the following questions; how do we organise jobs into department? "Who does what" and "who report to whom" in the chain of command.
Some organisation consider their organisation chart as confidential, while other organisation do not and dare to post their organisation chart on the public accessible website.
The most common organisation structures are as follows:
Horizontal linked structure
2.3 FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE:
Is the way organisations support themselves into a range of department example productions, sales, research and development and accounting department.
Advantages of functional organisation structure
It tolerate the decision making and give management control in the administration
encourage individual profession path through assuming decision making
Functional structure inspire stability and efficiency
Disadvantages of functional organisation structure
It leading to inter departments conflict and poor communication
Staff will have a preference to classify themselves with their department or section but not with the organisation.
Communication and alliance between the department is hard
2.4 DIVISIONAL STRUCTURE
Divisional structure is not formulated on the grouping of people according to their skill rather in placing them according to their similar abilities where they are required in the organisation.
Advantages of Divisional structure are
Due to answerability , the reaction to customer is excellent
Divisional structure can facilitate to stimulate managerial skills and executive skills, since staff are concerned to all other functions
Disadvantages of Divisional structure
There is decline of specialisation as well the professional skills
Due to departments performing the same odd jobs within the administration, there is redundant of effort and resources.
2.5 MATRIX STRUCTURE
Matrix structure involves the combination of functional and divisional structure, but yet the matrix operation remains in its own unique style.
The manager of each project does not have possession of employees at all. He is accountable to manage his staff from their functional area in so that to monitor his project from conception to finishing point
Advantages of matrix structure
It is very well-organized especially when resources are limited
Project can start quickly since there is no need to employ workforce from outside
Cross functional skills to employees due to their attachment in various projects
Disadvantages of Matrix structure
Employees turn out to be upset and puzzled with chain of command ( who is the head of department or project manager)
The project manager may apply for the best project support workforce from organisation as the results can be the root of competitions
matrix structure is the most challenging and stressful than others
2.6 HORIZONTAL LINKED STRUCURE
A horizontally linked structure groups people along the value of chain of process that produce market, and service the firms offering.
5.0 The figure below illustrate the horizontal organisation structure
2.7 DIMENSION OF ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
According to Fontaine (2007) argued that "think of any organisation structure and visualise an organisation chart in two dimensions. There is vertical dimension in which the organisation is considered to be either a Tall or Flat structure and there is the Horizontal dimension in which an organisation is considered to be either wide or Narrow
The vertical dimension organisational structure
The vertical dimension basically describe who is in charge of who is in charge of whom and who is responsible for decision making inside the organisation. It is hierarchy of authority and within it we find the span of control
Broader span of control and fewer levels of authority results in a flat hierarchical structure while the narrow span of control and more level of authority results in tall hierarchical structure
6.0 & 7 The figures below illustrate the Tall and Flat structures.
Tall Organisation structure has (5) five number of level while the span of control is (2) two. The above structure represents TALL STRUCTURE
Flat organisation structure has (6) level of span Control, while the number of level is (3) three. The figure above represents FLAT STRUCTURE
2.8 SPAN OF CONTROL:
According to Mullins (2007. 577, 5780) explains that the Span of control arises in line authority and refers to the number of subordinates who report directly to a manager or supervisor.
V.A. Graicuna developed a mathematical formula for the span control. The limitation of the number of subordinate who can efficiently be supervised is based on the total of the direct and cross relationships.
R= n (2n /n + n-1)
Where "n" represent the number of subordinate,"R" is the number of interrelationships.
Factors that influencing span of control
Span of control can be affected by the following factors:
The nature of organisation , the complication of the work and the likeness of functions and the scope of tasks
The amount of time the manager has accessible from other activities to use up with subordinates
The availability and training of subordinate staff, the strength of their motivation and commitment and the extent of direction and guidance needed.
The usefulness of coordination and the nature of communication and control systems.
The physical place or geographical spread of subordinates
The length of scalar chain - this implies that if the span of control is too wide will create the following problems; it will become not easy to administer the subordinate successfully and cause further stress to the manager, they may be short of time to carry out all activities properly, limited opportunities for encouragement and may lead to slowness to take on change or the introduction of new change or process.
Also if the span of control is too narrow may present the trouble of coordination and uniformity in decision making that obstruct effective communication across the organisation. Narrow span of control increases administration costs and may lead to extra level of authority
Need for a balanced structure
The combination of span of control and chain of command determines the overall pyramid shape of the organisation whether the hierarchical structure is flat or tall
2.9 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE USED BY NEW JICA
Figure 8 below represent organisation chart of jica
The New JICA operates its activities in a well selected structure which suits its unique strategy of operation and management activities. The organisation is considered to have 14 span of control (regional strategy unit for Africa) (RSA) therefore the structure is Tall with
Matrix organisation structure.
This is due to decentralisation approach which is applied, where some of decision making are carried out by regional office (RSA) instead of head office in Japan.
The channel of communication is highly structured and is open to allow flow of information
Advantage of matrix structure
It is well-organized especially when resources are limited
The project can be quickly established because there are sufficient staffs
Cross functional skills to employees are encouraged
They deal with numerous projects
Working with and learning from other professional with variety of skills
Disadvantages of matrix structure
It leads to confusion and disappointment to employees due to approach used that is chain of command and order.
It can lead to conflict due to observation of deadline
Since the advantages of matrix organisation structure exceeded the disadvantages, it is wise to keep on use this organisation structure because it is more efficient than others.
It is an environment in which the individual excel
Matrix combine functional structure and divisional structure, but at the end it operate like neither
3.0 ORGANISATION CULTURE AND BEHAVIOUR
According to Cook, C et al (1997, p 112) defined organization culture as the fundamental assumption people share about an organization's values , beliefs, norms, symbols, language , rituals and myths. All of the expressive elements that gives meaning to organization membership and are accepted as guide to behaviour.
Organizational Behaviour (OB) is the learning and application of knowledge in relation to how people, individuals, and groups perform in organizations. It interprets people organization affairs in terms of the entire person, entire group, entire organization, and entire social system. Its intention is to build better relationships by achieving individual objectives, organizational objectives, and public objectives.
The following are the JICA organization culture:
According to capacity development handbook for JICA staff (2004) urged that JICA staff, especially those in the regional departments at the headquarters and at the field offices, have the important role to play in ensuring that JICA'S programs/projects support partner countries capacity development process. Staff must have a broad knowledge and understanding of the country context including the latest status of development and the direction such as economic liberalisation and governance reforms.
JICA staff needs to have the vision of JICA in cooperation in the capacity development process such as, when and how JICA can contribute to the process. With such broad knowledge and understanding, the staff will be able to ensure the relevance and effectiveness of JICA programs and projects through all its stages.
JICA staff is responsible for appraising appropriate project objectives and approaches (which approach is appropriate for each recipient, how large the scale should be, and when the cooperation should start.)
JICA staff is responsible for appraising appropriate project objectives and approaches (which approach is appropriate for each recipient, how large the scale should be, and when the cooperation should start.)
Addressing the universal agenda of climate change , water, food, energy, infectious diseases and financing
JICA fight to reduce poverty of an individual all over the world through inclusive and equitable growth.
Networking - JICA has a network of 17 domestic offices and 96 overseas bureaus and has undertaken missions in approximately 150 countries
Efforts to support the independence of individuals with physical disabilities by reinforcing message and sign language in partnership with physically disabled alumni
Motivate employees and communication between superior and subordinate staff.
4.0 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
4.1 What is Change Management?
Change management is a set of processes engaged to make sure that important changes are implemented in a controlled and organized manner.
One of the objectives of change management is the arrangement of people and culture with considered shifts in the organisation, to defeat opposition to change in order to boost engagement and the attainment of the organisation's goal for successful change.
Achieving sustainable change begins with apparent considerate of the present situation of the organisation, followed by the execution of suitable and targeted strategies. The centre of change management is on the result the change will create - the new activities that must be understood. Change processes regularly relate to a task and/or structural change.
A broad change management approach should show the way to the required objectives and generate a sense of ownership, facilitate
4.2 Leading and managing change
The implementation of any major change process often succeeds or fails because of the leadership of that change procedure. Leadership engages people to make, adjust and meet the demands of the predictable future. Management plays a vital part in creation and make changes happen, it motivate the 'doing'. Leadership encourages the change; it is what energises the hearts and minds of staff and develop and build ability to act in response to future change
Leadership and management are two distinct and complimentary systems of action. Each has its own function and characteristic (Kotter, 1999:51).The table below outlines some of the characteristics essential to driving significant change initiatives at JICA
Implement the vision
Plan, budget and organise the team
Maintain order and system
Manage the impact of change
Control and problem solve
Contribute to teams
Seek step-by-step improvement
Create the vision
Align people and inspire them
Create and build processes
Create change proactively
Keep the values visible
Motivate and inspire
Continue to challenge the status quo
4.3 Why is organisational change difficult to accomplish?
According to Mckinsey (2006) and Thomson (1998) argues that People are afraid of the unknown, many think things are fine the way they are and don't understand the need of change. Recognising the need to change and acting on it can be difficult decision for leaders and manager to make.
Resistance is a natural defence mechanism for those losing something. The closer we are to something or someone the greater the grief or loss. The resistance can be due to loss of security, money, pride or satisfaction, friends, freedom, responsibility, good working conditions, status lack of respect, objectionable manner, negative attitude, personal criticism, not having had input, bad timing, challenge to authority or second hand information.
Change must absorb the people and must not be imposed upon the people. If the organisation imposes new stuff on people there will be difficulties due to participation, involvement and open, early and full communication are the important factors.
People and team need to be empowered to find their own solutions and responses with facilitation and support from managers and tolerance and compassion from the leaders and executive.
4.4 Change management principles
At all times involve and agree support from people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relationships, behaviours, etc., whether personal or organisational).
Understand where you/the organisation is at the moment.
Understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there.
Plan development towards above No.iii in appropriate achievable measurable stages.
Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate involvement from people, as early and openly and as fully as is possible.
4.5 John P Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change'
John P Kotter (b 1947) is a professor and leading thinker and author on organizational change management at Harvard University. Kotter's highly regarded books 'Leading Change' (1995) and 'The Heart of Change' (2002) explain a supportive model for understanding and managing change. Each stage acknowledges a key principle identified by Kotter relating to people's response and approach to change, in which people see, feel and then change.
Kotter's eight step change model can be summarised as:
Increase urgency - inspire people to move, make objectives real and relevant.
Build the guiding team - get the right people in place with the right emotional commitment, and the right mix of skills and levels.
Get the vision right - get the team to establish a simple vision and strategy focus on emotional and creative aspects necessary to drive service and efficiency.
Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to people's needs. De-clutter communications - make technology work for you rather than against.
Empowers action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognise progress and achievements.
Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve - in bite-size chunks. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.
Don't let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones.
Make change stick - Reinforce the value of successful change via recruitment, promotion, and new change leaders. Weave change into culture
4.6 JICA AND MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
JICA reforms was stared since October 2003, when was public announced as the independent administrative institution. The reforms was intended specifically in organisational and operations for the purpose of implementing aid activities more successful and resourceful
The integration of the existing JICA and the overseas economic cooperation section of the Japan Bank for international cooperation (JBIC) result into formulation of New JICA. The new JICA is headed by Mrs Sadako Ogata who was formally the head of UN Refugees Agency (UNHCR) between 1991-2000
Formulation of new JICA increases the number of its operation through establishment of 17 domestic offices and 96 overseas offices while the number of projects increased up to 150 projects worldwide.
The changes has lead to the establishment of New JICA Research Institute that enhances research activities on development by drawing on its abundant field knowledge and to contribute to research result and leading dialogue on international development support.
The reforms of the JICA focus on integration of 3 schemes of Japan development assistance
Concessionary loan extended by (JBI) for overseas economic cooperation operation
Grant Aid with no obligation for repayment
New JICA impact the changes in the following manner
To focus on medium and long term development through encouragement of public and private partnerships, pooling of resources as well the experience and technologies.
Predictable aid; operational" rolling plans of current project for a particular developing country. JICA play role of strengthening partnership with international organisations and other donor to widen the framework for development assistance.
Speedier project formulation: seamless identification through preparatory survey JICA offer support in ways that finest match the stage of development in every recipient nation, taking a long term perspective and present seamless support to ensure sustainable growth into the future.
Assistance tailored to real need synergy of three (3) aid schemes