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ANALYSIS AND RESULT DISCUSSION OF SURVEY FINDINGS
DETAIL OF THE AREA:
Before starting the analysis it is necessary to know about the area on which this research has been done. So this research has been done on the economic impact of the foreign remittances of the village Manki Tehsil Chotta Lahor District Swabi.Manki is situated about 13 km from Jehangera and about 19 km from swabi.The population of the village is about 25,000.Basically most of the population of the village are farmers or they have their own small shops or mechanics.
This chapter of the study presents profile of the emigrants i.e. the information about age and year of schooling of the emigrants as well as size and structure of the emigrant families of the sample household. Similarly this chapter also presents the analysis of the interviews from the sample households. The sample survey for this study was conducted in village Manki, Tehsil Chotta Lahor, District Swabi (N.W.F.P. )The sample size interviewed was 25 which had men currently working abroad. These sample households have 40 emigrants.
- AGE DISTRIBUTION
- LITERACY RATE
- SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF EMIGRANTS FAMILY:
- OCCUPATIONS OF EMIGRANTS
- INCOME OF MIGRANTS
- DURATION ABROAD
- SOURCE OF FINANCE
The following table 3.1 revealed that the people in the age group between 31-40 were more mobile than those of other age groups. Our study has revealed that "4" (i.e., 10%) out of 40 emigrants were in age group <21, while 12 (i.e, 30%) out of 40 were in the group 21-30 and 18 (45%) were in the age group between 31-40 similarly 6 (15%) out of 40 were in the age over 40 years.
This shows the literacy rate or literacy levels of the immigrants that how much people (emigrants) are literate and how much are the illiterate.
The given data show that the higher percentage of emigrants consists of illiterate people, which confirm that illiterate people are more in demand for the kind of jobs for which workforce is required abroad. Moreover, even among the 16 literate migrants only 4 (25%) have completed 11-14 years of education and majority i.e. 12 (75%) have completed less than 10 years.
The reason of little attraction for literate people to migrate abroad for earning motive might be the kind of job market for which the countries demand labors i.e. the jobs are usually ordinary in nature and one more skill oriented rather than literacy oriented. Moreover, as less wage rate is offered in these job markets due to the nature of the jobs therefore literate people are themselves not much interested in migrating abroad. So from the above data it can be concluded that in Manki (Swabi) more migrants are illeterate and most of the people of this village are doing work abroad as a labour.
About the size of emigrant's families it was found that very small number of them were in the limit of <5 and 6-10 and those who were having the divide family structure most of them were consist of <5. The undivided family structure was dominant in the area. 30 out of 40 i.e. 75% of the emigrants were having the undivided or joint family structure, and most of them were in the limit of 11-15 and 16-20. Family structure information is depicted in following table.
So from the above data it is easily concluded that most of the migrants families are in joint family structure the ratio is that in total out of 40 ....30 are in joint family structure and only 10 are in divided family structure and mostly they are from 11 to 15 and less than 20.
It is important to note that ordinary laborers constitute the highest percentage of employed emigrants followed by the second largest job category of drivers. Rest of the 25 percent emigrants is distributed among the different job categories namely mechanics, shopkeepers and electricians etc., with 8,7 and 6 percent workers respectively.
Before emigration the job status of the people was quite alarming as the majority of the sample emigrants i.e. 48% emigrants were jobless followed by the second and third largest job category of laborers and farmers. Rest of the 22% emigrant's majority i.e. 6% emigrants fell into the occupational group of drivers and that of students.
It shows the income level of the migrants that how much they are earning abroad.
A major portion 60% of the migrants falls in the income bracket of RS. 12,000-15,000 and neither of the migrants are earning less than RS. 9,000 a month.
So the field survey suggests that none of the emigrants of the village are earning less than 9000 a month.Their income starts from 9000 .
It was found out that 50% of the total emigrants have been working abroad for five years or less, and 25% for ten years or more
In responding to this question most of the respondents were hesitant. But it was found out that most of the finances were arranged by the migrants from their own sources including borrowings from relatives, friends and sale of own assets. Most of the migrants told that their sources of finance are their( own money+reletives borrowings) none of them told that they have taken loan from banks to finance because of the high interest rates charged by the banks.So they mostly prefer to take borrowings from their own relatives.
Remittances are the income sent by the migrants to the households left behind. Here the data gathered from the sample regarding the average monthly and annual remittances, sources of income for the households and contribution of remittances to the households' income.
- PER HOUSEHOLD AND PER CAPITA INCOME
The finding of the survey were that an average annual of Rs. 187,768 or Rs. 15,647 per month for the year 2007-08 of the sample households taken in general. The annual per capita income was Rs. 16,620 or Rs. 1,385 per month.
So the field survey shows that the most important source of income for the villegers are the remittences which contribute 3479200 which is 81.02 % of the total 100 %.The second largest source is the transportation which share is 11.64 %.