Summary of western human resources management theory development


From the perspective of management theory, the West has experienced human resources management theory represented by Taylor's scientific management classical stage and to act on behalf of Mayo as the school of scientific management and modern management phase of the evolution of scientific theory.

In the classical scientific management stage, Taylor in his "Principles of Scientific Management" and "scientific management" describes the scientific management theory (1903) core: (a) management to scientific, standardized; (b) promote the spirit of revolution, both sides interest. Details are: 1. Conduct action research; 2. Scientific selection of workers; 3. To develop the scientific process as standard; 4. Implement remember pieces of wages; 5. The separation of management and labor.

In behaviour science management stage, Mayo opened a trial by Hawthorne on the organization of human behavior study of the prologue, the results shows that the fundamental factors affect the productivity of work is not the external conditions, but groups of workers were self-acceptance factor and sense of harmony and security, which proposed the "theory of human relations" (1938) pointed out that the workers are "social", not simply "economic man"; enterprise's informal organization existing must be balanced with the formal organization; increase worker satisfaction degree is a prerequisite to improve the efficiency and high satisfaction from both material and spiritual needs of reasonable satisfaction. On human research, then Maslow's theory "hierarchy of needs" (1943), McGregor's theory "assumptions and human nature" (1960) and so on.

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As Western companies to further expand the scale, technological progress is accelerating, increasing socialization of production, business environment has undergone a major changes, the impact of environment on an increasingly important business and management gurus analysis in a study that how companies operation in a complex environment which is based on the formation of a series of different theoretical perspectives and schools of thought called "management theory jungle".

Contemporary Western development of human resources management theory emergence a new climax with a representative theory of human capital theory. people management and learning organization theory from the macro-investment in human resources, human resources management thinking, sustainable development of human resources management, the perspective of human resource management. in the new era of development, there has also been strategic human resource management, international human resources management and political trends in Human Resource Management.

comparison the source between Chinese and Western ideas of human resource management

2.1.Source of ideas for human resources management in China --- "REN(benevolence)" and "HE(kindly)"

Human Resource Management Thought in Ancient China mainly in the philosophical understanding of human nature on the two camps on the struggle that "human nature is basically good" and "human nature is evil." Later, with the feudal ruling class establishment and the various rule-based means of obscurantist policy changes, "Chong Shang Ren shan"(based on human) theory which is advocated "benevolent" and "virtue" of Confucius and Mencius finally occupation the ideological position of the Chinese nation.

Confucius said"REN"(benevolence) as the core to the rites for the rule, and "HE"(kindly)as the goal, advocating moderation ethical thought is the essence of their management thinking. "Precious" and "polite way of making money" concept is a common business sense. Pay attention to recognize and grasp the doctrine of the mean things "degree." Mencius advocated the view as the philosophical foundation of human nature is good, with "benevolence" as the management of the core, "Righteousness and unity" as the values attached great importance to the character building managers, advocates "virtuous" emotional management, while emphasizing the contingency concepts.

Later, as the core of China to establish a centralized feudal society, the imperial examination system to establish and perfect management system, the establishment of various officials, and the majority of the working people of obscurantism, the Chinese Human resources development is not a breakthrough, still for the ruling class. Until the tide of Western ideas bring into the modern China, especially the the view of Marxist point on the overall development of people in China have a role in promoting Human resources, mobilizing the people's initiative and enthusiasm for production.

2.2 Source of ideas in Western Human Resource Management --- Systems Thinking

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Plato is the first person attempt to explain human society, foreign political, social and economic order in the formation of the philosopher, it is the first system to apply the theory of social management. Aristotle said "the whole is greater than the parts" and "organic whole" which is the famous thesis. French philosopher and sociologist Auguste Comte come up with a theory called "social organism theory" to the field of biological principles for the introduction of Sociology. To the era of classical management theory, in the view of Taylor's "Principles of Scientific Management" that the interests of employers and employees is the same, that emphasizes the application of science to create a collective coordination and cooperation. Fayol said that in principle about the stability of staff and the administrative organization of Weber's ideal theory in the "industrial management and general management" . German psychologist and founder of the Carter group dynamics theory's writer Lewin made of precious human resources exploration of systems theory, the behavior of well-known formula proposed B = F (P, E), that human behavior is between the individual and the environment which is the role of function or result.

Modern systems theory in the late 20th century froms tBertalanffy who find a new discipline, and later evolved into many schools. Management process school representative Harold Koontz said in the "management" that an organized survival and development of enterprises is dependent on the external environment is one of many of the larger part of the system. Empirical school Peter shown that managers have two specific tasks, namely to create a greater than the sum of the various components of the true overall, and second, in its every decision and action Coordination of the current requirements and long-term requirements.

In summary, the Western theory of human resource management system development process is basically in two ways: 1. On the human aspect, by the "economic man - social man - Super Y theory - complex man," a understanding of the process; 2. management systems of the human, by "Bureaucracy system - up and down the dialogue system of information exchange - a high degree of coordination, highly motivated and cooperative, open system interaction with the environment," the process. Changes in today's complex social environment, the case of the theory of integration of the parties is the logical thing, because the human resources system is a spontaneous order and the order of creation comprehensive integrated body.

Contemporary thinking in human resource management abroad, to the human management of the transition process, the performance of their way of thinking are the following characteristics: 1. The combination of rationality and irrationality; 2. Formal organization and informal organization of the combination; 3. Systematic, planned and flexibility, combining contingency. The design team work, flexible working and other new systems thinking is the thinking of contemporary human resource management practice in a vivid expression.

Source of ideas between Chinese and Western Comparative Human Resource Management Review

The different ideas of human resources management from the respective differences in the philosophical basis, the time dimension, social patterns, economic background, thinking, and analytical methods of the seven angles are compared in Table 1.

Comparison Project



Philosophical basis

"REN""HE", Emphasize harmony

Systems thinking, Pay attention to science

Time dimension

Long history, originated earlier,slow evelopment

Short history, origin later, the rapid development

social formation

Feudal society as the main

Capitalist society as the main

economic background

Mainly in peasant economy, industry and commerce developed

Dominated the industrial economy, industrial and commercial development

thinking pattern

Emotional thinking

Rational thinking

Research perspective

Political point of view, more services for the rulers

More for social and business services


More qualitative analysis

More quantitative thinking


The practices between Chinese and Western comparative human resource management

4.1 Characteristics of Chinese Human Resource Management

China has always been paid attention in human resources management. Before 1978, Chinese human resource management is a typical stage of the traditional personnel management, national, business, community non-market measure of labor in nature, the individual and the state and enterprises is a "dependency" relationship and there is no liquidity. Personnel system, there followed the "turnkey system with fixed wages", "factory manager responsibility system, distribution according to work, remember pieces of salary and bonus systems in the former Soviet Union model", "factory manager responsibility system, Employee Representative Conference, workers involved in democratic management "," strengthen the 'iron rice bowl job is stable, iron wage' three-iron period "changes.

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Since the Third Plenary Session, especially in the 1980s, China's greater emphasis on human resources management, especially management talents, basically through the following four stages: 1. The implementation of delegating powers and benefits, strengthening of material incentives to . Wage adjustments and restore the result of the "Cultural Revolution" to cancel the reward system. 2. "Profit delivery" and the contract responsibility system implementation. January 1985, the State Council issued the "wages of state-owned enterprises reform on notice", the implementation of total wages and business benefits are no longer linked to the national unity and the wages of workers; director responsibility and mandate to implement the responsibility system, and from 1988 "Enterprise Law" to provide legal protection. 3. Labor Contract Contemporary system implementation. July 1992, "state-owned industrial enterprises in transforming operational mechanisms regulations" were promulgated. January 1995 China's first "Labor Law" and the labor contract for the production of the basic system of employment, out of a total system of fixed past, and promote the labor market-oriented employment system. 4. Establish a modern enterprise system. January 1993, the Third Plenary Session of the CPC Central Committee fourth, "on the establishment of a socialist market economic system, a number of issues" to determine enterprises to establish modern enterprise system, that property rights clearly established, separation of enterprise and scientific management. After 1994 the "PRC Company Law", and selected 100 as a corporate pilot enterprises of all types. The focus of reform of personnel system for senior corporate managers, especially the "number one" act of incentives and constraints, and strive to eliminate "internal control" and "post consumer" and "personal spending account" unlimited expansion of the phenomenon. Both countries to enhance old-age insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance and industrial injury insurance and other social security systems of the building, trying to solve the "enterprises running social" issue.

4.2 Features of Western countries' human resource management

Western human resource management model is to focus on market allocation of labor resources, any employment policy, the implementation of systematic management, confrontational labor relations and stressed the material incentives of the wage system for the characteristics of human resources management in late 19th and early 20th century, and its human resource management is characterized by: 1. confrontational labor relations; 2. market in regulating the allocation of human resources play a key role; 3. Human Resources Management highly institutionalized; 4. the talents and enhance The Leap; 5. wage rigidity. In addition to human resource management functions of the department concerned also has the following characteristics: 1. Human resource allocation depends on the external labor market; 2. Human resource management, to achieve the highest level of professionalism and institutionalization; 3. Human Resources use, the multi-port access and rapid increase, the U.S. business and abilities, do not re-qualification, foreign affinity and non-discriminatory; 4. human resources incentives, and to material incentives based.

4.3 Chinese and Western Comparative Human Resource Management Review

Western values in the most fundamental difference is between "personal first" and "collectivism", in the West they emphasizes the "capacity doctrine", which resulting in confrontation between employers and employees can hardly be effective tender management; in the East they emphasizes the "harmony", "order" and "benevolence," "propriety," and so on, all kinds of business organizations tend to follow the order of the invisible and the pursuit of stability. In addition, human resource management practices in the West in the another meaning is for management purposes, management, content management, incentive methods, department status, nature of business, management, staff relations and other aspects of depth and there is a big gap from China.(Table 2).

Comparison Project




Collectivism, after the first group of individuals

Individualism, the first individual of the Collective

Management purposes

In the cost-conscious, the protection of the short-term business goals

Self-development to meet the needs of employees to protect the interests of achieving the long-term business

Management ways

Focus on sense

Focus on legal

Management content



Incentive Method

Mental stimulation

Material incentives

Sector Status

Executive level, focusing on control

Decision-making, focusing on strategic

Nature of business

Tactical, operational

Strategic, tactics

Management depth

Passive, focusing on management, single, scattered

Initiative, focusing on development, system integration

Staff relations

Management, control, confrontation and conflict

Help, service, harmony and cooperation


5. Enlightenments and thinking: to reference from human resource management of enterprises in our country.

Comparison and investigation is a convenient method to communicate the direction of management of enterprises in our country and research the thinking about management and a way which own the characteristic of china. "We can refer to mistakes made by everybody else. "By comprising between the same point and the difference in the aspect of management system of enterprises and management way, moreover, to summarize the experience, to assess the advantages and disadvantages, in the meanwhile, presenting the regular pattern of management of enterprises and learning to make use of these regular patterns. In a word, advanced technology and opinions of human resource management from westerns apply widely to enterprises practice in our country. There is a saying in china,"perfect things can be used by us."

5.1 change the idea of human resource management and improve the comprehensive management returns of the enterprise

Because of the different states of the country, Chinese human resource management of enterprise has stayed at the stage of management of humans. In other words, human resource management departments haven't get the ample emphasis in a long time .the enterprise have the present state-owned background ,there are outdated ideals in the aspect of human resource management ,and the bad atmosphere in management.Thus,it is important and effective to change the opinion

5.2 make more investment in human resource management in order to improve the degree of people's satisfactory

by making a general survey on the comparison and analysis, it is not hard to see the important point of human resource management has turned to workers benefits needing .now human resource management of enterprises is gradually merging western system thinking and eastern peaceful thinkings,to form the human resource management pattern which is approved as works' satisfactory and improve the level of working and living, which has been the new direction of human resource management of enterprise . In summary, we must make more investment on human resource management and improve workers' satisfactory, including the development of workers salary and freeware system , improving salary system and salary composition increasing malleable wage shares ,advancing workers living facilites,enforcing the law sections, loving workers difficult problems, setting up workers training system, promoting workers individual development, and so on.

5.3 Implementation of strategic human resource management, improve the overall competitiveness of enterprises

With the gradual improvement of market economy and the deepening of reform and opening up, business competition is fierce. Future competition will be the quality of competition, services, competition, quality and service play a decisive role is --- the talent competition. Therefore, the development of human resource management and organizational strategic goals together, the implementation of strategic human resource management, from a strategic perspective of sustainable growth and business to examine the corporate human resources and the value of human resources management, human resource management on the overall consideration of China the significance of the future development of enterprises and the role of relentless competition, training, use and motivate talented people, and to improve the overall competitiveness of our enterprises.