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After the economic crisis of 1970-ies on enterprises in the USA, Western Europe and Japan escalated tension between the bureaucratic system of control and acceleration of scientific - technical progress. During this period intensified review of the basic principles of traditional technocratic administration, which in the 1980's. completed the scientific conception of human resource management, which has enriched the practice of progressive management techniques, technologies, people management in a complex innovation environment. Priorities are flexible forms of labor, continuous upgrading of human resources, new approaches to organizing and stimulating labor, access to cultural and ethical dimensions of performance and quality of working life. The most successful corporations today, without regard to national and industry sector, have common features. They provide guaranteed employment, promising a system of promotion, the internal development of staff instead of the global recruitment campaigns. They create a very broad opportunities for participation in economic decisions. They treat their employees not as a salaried individuals and as members of the general corporate network. They develop a system of shared values. Based on the critical importance of long-term welfare of the corporation, their leaders show a real dedication to the business instead of chasing only the financial results.
In general, trends in human resource management are global in nature and reflect the search for innovative companies to create high-performance systems implement creative and productive potential. Fundamental theoretical proposition of a new concept is the recognition of economic utility and social value of human resources development and development which requires an investment like other economic resources. This is not terminology, but the fundamental difference between the concept of personnel management from the concept of human resource management.
This past century in management theory and practice there was a change of concepts of personnel management, caused by changes in economic, social, technical development of society. In the evolutionary path of development of management thought can be distinguished stage technocratic management, which was characterized by the introduction of streamlined procedures for personnel management, strengthening of external control, the introduction of equal pay system. Concrete implementation of technocratic management tools has been proposed school of scientific management, the founder of which is F. Taylor 1. Taylorist concept is believed that the work - is primarily an individual activity, and therefore the impact on the working group is destructive and makes the worker less productive. From the worker did not require any high qualifications, or taking the initiative and creativity in the workplace. Workers were seen as a means of achieving organizational goals, like machinery, equipment, raw materials. Therefore, at this stage, a system of personnel management in which instead of as human beings is considered only its function - labor, measured in terms of staff time. Staffing Services performed primarily accounting controls and administrative and regulatory functions.
From 1950-60 he. When technocratic approach in the management of their inferior position, to replace the concept of human resource management comes a new concept of personnel management. The introduction of new technology demanded radical restructuring of the organization and management of labor: more complicated mechanism of motivation with the reorientation of his playing and training, a system of continuing professional education, developing social partnership, the role of organizational culture, reviewed the principles of employment with an emphasis on flexibility and individual forms of employment. In these circumstances, personnel management system encompasses a wide range of managerial problems: the selection and professional adaptation of new employees, development of social programs, involvement of workers in enterprise management, development of incentive systems of productive and creative work. In this conception, man is regarded not just as a performer working function but as an element of the organization, the subject of labor relations.
The main types of controls, widespread in the firms of developed countries, which reflect the fundamental principles of the modern concept of human resource management.
This system controls the assignment results in a decentralized organization leadership (corporate profit centers). Tasks are delegated to working groups and is determined to achieve concrete results. Such a system has various stages of the job results, the stages of measuring results and steps to control results. Delegated from the center of the problem are controlled on the basis of comparison with the results.
Performance Management - a system not only control but also thinking and behavior of members of the organization. The authors of this concept Santalaynen T., E. Voutilaynen, P. Porenne and J. Nissinen 2 is considered that the success of corporate strategies is the desire of employees to achieve certain results. Therefore, the target management focuses on the motivation of human resources, ensuring cooperation among all members of the personnel, development workers, a constant enrichment work.
Thus, performance management can be defined as a process aimed at achieving the goals and results, in which:
through the planning process are determined at different time intervals aspirations of the organization and its members (in other words, performance requirements and expected results);
insistence on the implementation of plans is supported by a conscious daily management of the affairs, human beings and the environment;
Results are estimated to make decisions that lead to the follow-up
Management through motivation
This model is based on a study of the needs, interests, moods, personal goals of staff, as well as the ability to integrate motivation to production requirements and goals of the enterprise. Personnel policy in this model focuses on human resource development, strengthening the moral and psychological climate for social programs.
In his book "The Concept of Management" EM Korotkov determines motivational management as "control type, in which priority is given motivation of business conduct, activities, relations over the administration and strict control", ie to create conditions of interest in outcomes 3.
Motivational management is a building management system based on the priorities of motivation, based on the selection of effective motivational model.
As is known, management science has developed various motivational models, which have found wide application in the successful firms in developed countries. Among the most traditional are:
rational motivation model, based on the use of material incentives, that is, by rewarding or penalties for performance;
motivational model of self-realization, the essence of which is to enhance the inner motives of human possibilities of self-expression, creativity in work, recognition of merit, the expansion of autonomy and responsibility, career prospects and professional growth;
motivational model of involvement (participation), through cooperation, partnership and participation in management, ownership, delegation of authority.
This model assumes that employees can make their own decisions within predetermined limits (frameworks). Frame can be given the importance of the process, its unpredictability, the rules are not violated. Technology management framework involves the following steps: definition of the job, getting his staff, the creation of an adequate information system, defining the boundaries of autonomy and ways of intervention of 4.
Management framework creates the conditions for development of the initiative, responsibility and autonomy of workers, increases the level of organization and communication in an organization, promotes job satisfaction and develop a corporate style of leadership.
More perfect system of human resource management is management by delegation, in which employees are transferred competence and responsibility to make decisions and implement them. Based management delegation
Delegation of authority has long been used in management, implying the transfer of subordinate functions assigned directly behind his head, then there is the translation task to a lower level. Management based on delegating authority and responsibility, is fundamentally different from the above. This model of governance is often called Bad Gartsburgskoy model (founder Professor R. Hen, who worked in the German town of Bad harzburgite), whose essence is the union of three actions:
a clear statement of the problem
clear definition of the framework decision
clear delineation of responsibility for actions and results 5.
By design, this model seeks to change employee behavior through the guidance of unity and co-workers. " Development zgoy model was dictated by the conviction that the traditional authoritarian style of management is no longer corresponds to the democratic social system, in particular the needs and abilities of modern and highly skilled employees to think independently. Gartsburgskaya model was designed to enhance the untapped potential of employees and create an easy Artists soaping and acting as entrepreneurs. Gartsburgskaya model is based on the following principles:
production decisions to be taken at the levels at which there is a need for them and where they are implemented;
production decisions must be made not by individual senior and middle managers in the job hierarchy, many employees;
instead of individual assignments to each employee should provide a clearly defined field of activity within which it can make their own decisions,
liability should not concentrate only in senior management, it often must be delegated to unit employees who are engaged in these issues;
allocation of tasks should not follow the top down and bottom-up on the principle of transfer to a higher level only those decisions that can not competently be made at the lower level;
principles of relations between managers and staff should be clearly defined and are decorated in a special document to guide the enterprise. Following these principles is mandatory for all.
The main advantage of gartsburgskoy model of human resource management is the development of staff initiative, independence and motivation to work that, in general improves the performance of the organization it a competitive advantage.
This model is based on the premise: if an employee takes part in the affairs of the company involved in management and gets satisfaction from this, it works more engaged and productive 6. Participatory governance can be realized based on the following premises:
workers have the right to make decisions about planning their working lives, the rhythm of work, technology, problem solving, etc.;
management involves employees in preparing and making decisions on resource use, the form of wages, work schedule, etc.; workers entitled to quality control and establish responsibility for the final result;
employees take part in an innovative, entrepreneurial activities with various forms of compensation.
In terms of methodology, human resource management professionals from the object management become the subject of management, which solves the problems of their own organization. On the basis of self-government worker can realize their need for self-expression, recognition and participation, and the company achieves high productivity and product quality.
At the heart of the business management concept of intrapreneurship, which received its name from two words: "antreprenerstvo - Entrepreneurship and the" Intro "- internal. The essence of this concept is used development of entrepreneurial activity within the organization, which can be represented as a community of entrepreneurs, innovators and creators.
The main thing that differentiates entrepreneurial organization is developing a business philosophy that permeates the entire system of governance, including management of human resources. Spirit of creativity, constantly looking for new opportunities, collective self-learning, partnership and trust encourages employees to self-realization, innovation and collaboration within their own organization. Feature of intrapreneurship is to focus on democratic, rather than forced management mechanism, the integration of business initiatives with the plans of corporate strategies.
In modern science and practice of management, as evidenced above, the analysis, there is a constant process of improvement, updating and searching for new approaches, concepts and ideas in human resource management as a key strategic resource and business organizations. On the choice of a managerial model influenced by the type of business, corporate strategy and culture, organizational environment. The model successfully in one organization may prove to be not effective for another, because they do not manage to integrate into the organizational management system. For all the diversity of the world's approaches to managing people in an organization, the differences in the means and methods for their implementation, we can formulate the fundamental principle of the modern concept of human resource management: the main thing - it is the recognition of human resources as a decisive factor in the efficiency and competitiveness of the organization as its key resource having economic value and social value.