Study of project governance

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It was found that organizations and people require each other, and the main purpose of the manager is understanding the character of the people-organization relationship. And structure it is establishment of the interrelation between the group and individuals, which is originated by managements, and optimizing the processes such as work task, contour the management and reporting hierarchy. The people performance within organization is influenced by organizational structure, systems of management, knowledge, styles of leadership etc,. It was discovered that is not a simple mission to gauging the success or effectiveness of the organization, but through the effective management of people it is possible to reach a success result.

Also report is opened the concept of the behavior of employees within the organization and project, and viewed in terms of multi related dimensions of the leaderships. The mechanism of leaderships and orientations to work cannot be comprehend fully in conditions of a single discipline or search.

The report is clearly illustrated that leadership is the way of being and contributing, at the same time that is convincingness, but not a prevalence. The effectiveness of the leaderships is depends from big specters of the factors, as the result of the leadership is directly having impact on the organization's bottom line.

It have cleared that subordinates have a unique position on the way of leaders effectiveness, furthermore implication for evaluation of leadership effectiveness is a position of subordinates. The appraisal of managerial productivity the effective leadership is the act of " interaction between managers and their subordinates".

It was designated that the strategy is the way of selecting and doing, any strategy can be describe as a choice between what it have to be done and what is not have to be done.

During the report arose the picture on how the global business surrounding has changed the management structure. It was recommended that the management considerations should be directed to developing the organization ambiance with the right balance between the operating of the project and interrelated fundamentals from which is consisting the total organization. As was founded that one of the role of the managements balance between the needs of people and the needs of organization and at the same time managerial role does not require the advancement of knowledge but rather the achievement of the organizational task and maintenance goal.

It was considered that Decision Making is the way of adjusting desirable and realizable. Every decisions involve a large specter of risk. As alternative option for decision was suggested to use the following theories and methods: Multy-Voting, The Delphi Technique, Critical Thinking, Decision Trees etc.

During the report it was recommended that managers have to reevaluate the concepts and models of governance when the problem have to be applied to the diverse societies. In order to have a effective governance of the project or company it have to be a balance between theory and practice. Because of report is showing there are not the best way how to manage as neither straightforward solution for manager.

Introduction

In order to get the picture on what is the project governance and what kind of role is playing it is necessary to have a look into this conception, by addressing it not to particular company, but to take it in general. Just based on the fact that every company have own organization structure, management and rules etcetera. As the project governance the extensive concept and have a many-sided, it is necessary to take under considerations the main pieces .

"Each project creates an episode for learning and an opportunity to develop new capabilities" (Watson, T.J 2002).

Main body:

Project Governance

Governance that is the way of arranging and managing.

In order to understand what is Project Governance it is necessary to have a look under the conception of Corporate Governance. By Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) the Corporate Governance is possible to defined as connection between company's shareholders, boards, management, stakeholders and make available the objective of the companies which are set throughout structure and decided the things of reaching those goals and monitoring performance (OECD, 2004).

Corporate Governance focal point and relations between the part of corporate governance and project activities, which is enclosed the following points such as project management and competence, revelation and reporting. By eliminating the project downfall it is possible to determined the effectiveness of the project governance structure. The forecasting and the monitoring that is the key factors which is influent on the effectiveness of Project governance.

Character of Organizational Behavior

When it is possible to look on the people as members of the work organizations, than will following that execution and behavior are complexity of interrelated factor. The role of management is very important to distinguish as an integrating actions and business surroundings, which is progressively global. If to take a step deeper then it is possible to say that the organizations and people require each other. The main purposes of the manager are understanding the character of the people-organization relationship and the major influent on behavior in work organizations (Laurie J. Mullins, 2007).

Organization Structure, Types, Forms and Role

The groups as well as individuals and the formal organization influent on each other within the structure. The establishment of the interrelation between the group and individual is the structure, which is originated by managements, in order to grant order and systems into goal-seeking actions and one more fact which is created by managers is to straight the efforts of the organization. Regarding the objectives and achieving the intention it is possible to reach it throw the formal structure of organizational activities that the people are carrying out. Than it is possible to conclude that the performance is influenced by exemplar of organizational structure, systems of management, knowledge, styles of leadership and all the way through it the organizational processes are considered, planed, guided and controlled.

There are different types of organizations, which are need to provide and set up a purposes and follow a diversity of needs, that is why the organization can came in variable forms and sizes. In order that the company be effective and profitable , the structure should be fixed. There are following types of structure : Simple, Bureaucratic, Matrix, Adhocracy, Spaghetti etcetera.

In order to the organization to have a success than it is needed to have in place the form of the structure. The structure is optimizing the processes such as work task, contour the management and reporting hierarchy. The structure can be easily broken for example by the purpose of each unit, so the structure is appeared as not so stable organism.

It is important to have the understanding in how the organization is function, operate, act but more than important to pervade influences that the company train over the behavior of employees within a project or organizational setting. The key impact in the conception of organization consist from the understanding of interrelationships through supplementary variables which can trade-off the total organization. It is not an simple mission to gauging the success or effectiveness of the organization, but although the one single vital element is the significance of achieving the efficiency through the effective management of people. Then in order to get the success it have to be defined the form of the structure, the following forms it can be: Functional, Divisional, Matrix, Federation etcetera.

Leadership and Orientations to Work, Work Ethic.

In order to find out how the governance is working within the project and how the leadership can increase the effectiveness, it is necessary to start to find out the orientations to work. According Coldthorpe there are three key types of orientation to work.

- Instrumental. The work is defined as economic or calculative participation, because of the work in terms of means to an end but not in a central existence matter. The differentiation for this type is behavior work-related and non work-related.

- Bureaucratic. The work is defined as a central life issue. Within the project there are obligation to the work and the career structure have positive participation in period. The differentiation for this type is the connection between behavior work-related and non work-related.

- Solidaristic. The work is defined as a entity. The differentiation for this type is behavior work-related . (Coldthorpe, J.H, 1968).

The behavior of employees within the organization and project is viewed in terms of multi related dimensions of the leaderships. The mechanism of leaderships and orientations to work cannot be comprehend fully in conditions of a single discipline or search. In order to open the process of orientation to work it is necessary to approach more disciplines, for example psychology, sociology, anthropology and different type of analyses for instance benchmarking. One more thing that should be taking under considerations is orientation to work and work ethic, which can be influent by diverse situations. Managers is have to have the comprehension that the most important issue for employees is personal adherence and balancing work.

Correlation of Leadership and Subordinate

Leadership that is the way of being and contributing.

Leadership that is convincingness, but not a prevalence. The effectiveness of the leaderships is depends from big specters of the factors, as the result of the leadership is directly having impact on the organization's bottom line. More than a few models of leadership behavior have a connection with satisfaction and performance of the subordinates (cf. Bass, 1990; Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 19 93; Yukl, 1989). There are meaning that high-quality leaders may put compression on their people. But from the healthy pressure to the incompetent and abusive there are not long distance and that is distance very personal from one person to another. Each leader have to know, understand, recognize and get a feeling of it, in order do not get a millions of lost productivity , which can have a place if the leadership is too dominant. The consequences of bad/ineffective leadership always influent on the bottom line in a negative way, that is fact also is showing the important of the leadership role. The way to measure leadership is effectiveness of the results, and one more implication for evaluation of leadership effectiveness is a position of subordinates. According Sweetland's (1978) appraisal of managerial productivity the effective leadership is the act of " interaction between managers and their subordinates" ( Sweetland, J., 1978).

By Murphy and Cleveland (1991) conclude that partly the manager's performance is depend from the relationships which is establishing with subordinates (Murphy. K. R., & Cleveland, J. N., 1991). And Hegarty (1974) confirm that the managers/leaders can definitely change or improved their performance, if they have a possibility to get the feedback from subordinates (Hegarty, W. H., 1974). Based on the research by D. P. Campbell (1991), Harris and Hogan (1992)., and Lombardo, Ruderman, and McCauley (1988) subordinates have a unique position on the way of leaders effectiveness.

- Managerial Competence

The description of managerial competence, which will help to approximate closer the effective result: extraversion, sociableness, amenability, honesty, ambition or attainment, self-confidence, measures of supremacy, mood and emotional control, diplomacy, and cooperativeness were certainly connected to developing leadership.

- Managerial Incompetence

The description of managerial incompetence, which will bring the ineffective result : micro- management, unreliability, exploitation, petulance, over control, reluctance to use discipline, and an incapacity to create high-quality staffing or business decisions (or both).

Organization Environment, Management and Culture.

Extensive circumstance that is phrase is describe the management activity within organizational surroundings at the same time that is the area under discussion for organization atmosphere and culture. Often the style and variation of management depends from the selection of managerial behavior.

According Simon, the differences in culture can have carriage on how the organizational structure connecting to the behavior inside organizations which include a different combinations of nationalities (Simon, H.A, 1977). If to take a view from Trompenaars explanations, than by structuring knowledge and providing a novel approaching for them in the organization into the real basis of problems will be faced by managers by conducting with differentials and across the culture. From the following it is possible to conclude that managers have to reevaluate the concepts and models of governance when the problem have to be applied to the diverse societies. There are seven areas by Trompenaars in which cultural diverse will influent more or less the management style and will affect the parts of organizational behavior: Rules and relationships, Payment systems and responsibilities, Public emotions, Verbose culture, Achievement, Meaning of time, Environment.

In the way of archiving the organizational objectives the manager should to guided, coordinate, showing and controlling through the member of the organizations. Very important issues is how the manager is exercise the responsibility with the meaning of implementation the organizational processes and effecting of work. The global business surrounding has changed the management structure, as in a present that is big challenge to manage the organization because of increasingly environment. For example in global context the manager call for understanding, recognition the collision of national culture. But the culture today is the context which very difficult to manage and pin down. The reflection for the effective management based on the, understanding, studies of work place behavior.

Balance Management

In order to make an atmosphere in which the employees will work effectively, freely and gladly, and manager should provide the logical prototype of activity, which will be the best suited to the external surroundings in which the organization is operating and internal objectives. That is why the management considerations should be directed to developing the organization ambiance with the right balance between the operating of the company and interrelated fundamentals from which is consisting the total organization. Organization and people need each other (Laurie J. Mullins, 2007). Based on it is possible to say that the relationship between organization and people have to be improving and that is the right duty of managers to integrate the relationship of this two parts, because one of the moist purpose of managements is integrating activities and balance between the needs of people and the needs of organization.

By Chowdhury, in the novel millennium the management processes should be much more behavioral in essence and should be focused on the most important person resource driving points: " learning, team-based visions, driving human resources processes, incentives to enhance growth, holistic budgeting and proactive control" ( Chowdhury, S, 2000).

Management and Leadership Development

Managing the business is often came from practical skills than from applied knowledge. In current work organizations, what is related to the management or leadership, in order to have a effective governance of the project or company it have to be a balance between theory and practice. By looking at the management theories and principles it is possible to say that is very useful will be if to have a look at the past on the same issues and then they can provide a suggestion of the success of any novel approaches in order to prepare the background for the managers for the future. There are a lot of aspects which each manager should have under consideration, because there are no the best way how to manage as neither straightforward solution for manager (Flores, G.N. 2000).

Management Strategy

Strategy that is the way of selecting and doing.

Very thoughtful and receptive have to be the planning on the way of management, as there are a lot of different strategies today, and the question take a place which one is going to be useful and less risky?

In order to defining what kind of strategy should be used or chosen, than it is good to remember the following:

To have under control the "brutal facts" and be aware with.

The objectives have to be clearly understanding , and highly recognized between what is hoped-for from what is realizable.

It is have to be clear view on the purpose of the strategy, with the intention of keep focus on the notice of the effort.

If to conclude what is the strategy then it is possible to say that any strategy can be describe as a choice between what it have to be done and what is not have to be done. But the key role between this two activities have to be given to the several perspectives and a growth of shared stretching.

Decision Making and Alternative Approaches.

Decision Making that is the way of adjusting desirable and realizable. Table 1.

According to John B. Miner, managers very often make decisions based on information, which is available or collected on the moment before the decisions will be made or manager will act. Also before decision will be made, managers should accumulate the information (John B. Miner, 2007). Every decisions involve a large specter of risk. Managerial role does not require the advancement of knowledge but rather the achievement of the organizational task and maintenance goal (John B. Miner, 2007).

Ordinary decision making procedure have to follow the steps like:

- Demarcate the problem.

- Accumulation of essential information.

- Evolving options.

- Conceive a plan.

- Performing

- Following

Table 1. Decision Making.

As alternative option for decision making can be suggest to use the following theories and methods : Multi-Voting, The Delphi Technique, Critical Thinking, Decision Trees (Appendix 1).

Conclusion

Project Governance is presenting framework of the management or the way of arranging and managing. Project Governance is very extensive and many-sided concept, moreover every small pieces and details, from which is consist the notion , is highly important and by understanding of it , it will be easier to fathom and penetrate into core of the concept, in order to have well running , successful organization. The project governance is working and based on: Management and Leadership, Structure and Strategy, Information and Governance, Subordinates.

It is not a simple mission to gauging the success or effectiveness of the organization, but through the effective management of people, through understanding of the character of the people-organization relationship, through the balance between the needs of people and the needs of organization, through the achievement of the organizational task and maintenance goals, through the cooperation among managers and their subordinates - it is possible. Project Governance is responsible for this chain and it is possible to say that the key word for the project governance concept is - connection between. One more thing which is influent on the effectiveness of project governance is forecasting and monitoring.

Project Governance also is the structure within will be made any decisions of the organization. The framework on which decision making based - consisting from : Leadership, Strategy and Governance. Decision Making is the way of adjusting desirable and realizable.

Recommendations

During the report was sum up that the Project Governance have to follow the key rules with the purpose of make certain the effectiveness of the organization , such as:

- For the project success it is have to be under the amenability every piece of the picture /Project Governance

- It is have to be divided the activities of making project decision and the stakeholder management.

- It is have to be split and understand why it have to be split, the organizational governance and project governance frames.

References:

Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's handbook of leadership (3rd ed).New York: Free Press.

Chowdhury, S. (2000). Management 21 century, Financial Times Prentice Hall. P. 119.

Coldthorpe, J.H., Lockwood, D., Bechofer, F., & Platt, J. (1968). The Affluent Worker, Cambridge University Press.

Cyert, R.M., & March, J.G. (1992). A Behavior Theory of the firm. Second Edition. Blackwell

De Bono, E., & Heller's, R. Thinking Managers. http://www.thinkingmanagers.com

Flores, G.N., & Utley , D.R. (2000). Management Concepts in Use - a 12-years Perspective. Engineering Management Journal. vol 12, no. 3, September 2000, pp11-17.

Hegarty, W. H. (1974). Using subordinate ratings to elicit behavioral changes in supervisors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59. 764-766.

Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. A., & Curphy, G. J. (1993). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience. Homewood, IL: Irwin.

Murphy. K. R., & Cleveland, J. N. (1991). Performance appraisal. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Simon, H. A. (1977). The new Science of Management Decisions. Revised Edition , Prentice Hall.

Sweetland, J., (1978). Work in America Institute studies in productivity. Managerial productivity. Scarsdale, NY: Work in America Institute.

Watson, T.J (2002). Organizing and Manage Work. Financial Times Prentice Hall. p.254

Yukl, G. A. (1989). Leadership in organizations (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

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