Study of organization design


Organizational design is a deliberate process of configuration, procedures, incentive systems, and people practices to create an effective organization to achieve business strategy. The organization is not an end in itself; it is only a vehicle to complete the strategic task of the business. This is an invisible building, energy use and direct use of the people who do. We believe that most people work their daily mission to contribute to their organizations. In many cases, however, the organization is an obstacle, rather than create individual tireless efforts have observed that when they leave their equipment, smart people figure out how to solve the obstacles they encounter, but they waste time and energy They can be direct, rather than improve the product and services, creating innovative, or for customer service. One of the main purposes of the organization is designed to make personal motives and interests of organizations and individuals can easily make the right decisions for their employees every day. In addition, well-designed organization to collectively complete the complex task much easier. This chapter first outlines star models, trademarks; organizational design provides a policy framework. We emphasize the main concepts and the star of each point, we expand in other chapters. The chapter concludes with a summary theme, as our design principles.

A Framework for Decision Making

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Organizational design is a decision-making process with many steps and many choose to make. Decisions made early in the process of selection will be limited, the exclusion means of exploration, and the elimination of alternatives, leading to far-reaching impact on the final form of the organization. Make the right decisions in these early, critical time needs a theoretical framework, providing a credible alternative to another. However, many leaders and their teams can still form design decision is mainly based on my personal experience and observation. A common framework, making the number of benefits.

It: to provide a common language debate options and articulating why a better choice than the other objective, the objective conditions determine force design is based on long-term business strategy, rather than the more direct the person sought to provide a clear political concept choose to consider and explain the impact of these choices based on communication and change management success.

Allowing decision makers to assess the results, to understand the root causes, and make the right adjustments, star in the implementation process model, as our framework, has been used and refined past 30 years. The basic premise is simple but powerful: the strategic needs of different organizations to implement different.

Star Model

Strategy means that a group in an organization's ability to be good at in order to achieve strategic objectives. While culture is an important part of an organization, it is not an explicit part of the model, because the leaders can not directly design culture. An organization, Walk of Fame, including the common cultural values, ways of thinking and behavior norms, has been for some time, and most of the employees share. This is a cumulative outcome of design decisions have been made in the past leadership and management practices, leading to those decisions. In the ideological line is fundamental to star model. Each component of the organization, from a point on the model, should work to support this strategy. In the more structure, processes, incentives, consolidate and people practices and conduct expected of the action, better organization should be able to achieve its goals. Alignment is also important is the ability to adjust to changes in circumstances. Resource allocation, use the process, mental models, will help today, the Avenue of Stars will affect the success of plans for the future. Stability in time, this will create efficiency. Changes in time, this static alignment can be a constraint. The organization must have the same, but it also needs the flexibility to recognize and respond to opportunities and threats. It is always easy to change a business strategy, not to change an organization, simply because it is easier to change than the prior process is to a large ship is already in progress. The organization can adjust more quickly, more quickly the leaders' can, "turn the ship",. This is particularly important competition of large companies, must be smaller, more agile organization. Therefore, the best ideological line as an ongoing process not a one-time event.


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Strategy is a company, Avenue of Stars formula for success. It provides the organization, leadership, and including the Administrative Officer, the company, the vision and mission of the Avenue of Stars, and their short and long long-term goal. The strategy stems from its external leadership, the Avenue of Stars understanding of external factors (competitors, suppliers, customers, and emerging technologies), the company's commitment, coupled with their understanding of the organization's strengths in these factors. The group, the Avenue of Stars is the cornerstone of the strategy of the organization's design process. Without knowledge of the target, no one can make a rational choice to move forward. In other words, if you do not know where you are going, any road will help you. The aim is to gain strategic competitive advantage: the ability to provide customers better value, or by lowering prices or greater benefits and services than its competitors can (Porter, 1998). These advantages can be obtained by external factors, such as a favorable location, or government regulations. They can also get superior internal organizational capacity. We define organizational skills, unique combination of skills, processes, technology and human discrimination between companies. They created an internal, making it difficult for other people copy. Creation of superior organizational ability to achieve competitive advantage as the goal of organizational design. We will also refer to metastasis. In order to transfer, if necessary, to adapt to the company, ability, or advantage of the Avenue of Stars is one of the key jobs of any manager when you open a new location or unit.

Factors that distinguish the organization and provide competitive advantage. This is important because there are many things a company has been good at of its competitors, but only a few really needs is better.

Organizational Frameworks

The main objectives of human resource management including. FRAM is to create a human rights organization, in the right jobs, at the appropriate time. All the processes and sub processes in the model objective is to achieve this goal. FRAM's that the method of recruitment, retention and discharge personnel.

The issues involved in human resource management can be divided into operational and strategic human resource management. As an example, business personal, such as career planning, and strategy will focus on the entire system.

Strategic human resource management is a common way to manage human resources in accordance with the intent of the organization to take on the future direction. It concerns the long-term people issues and macro concerns structure, quality, culture, values, commitment and supporting resources, future needs. The overall strategic human resources management framework is to decide the shape and delivery of individual strategies.

Human resources management operations is tactical. Examples of activities are the processing of employment applications to fill current vacancies, supervisor training, safety issues have been resolved, wage and salary administration. Human resources management operations should match the overall human resources strategy.

Human Resource Management FRAM that six high-level processes. In the management of the life cycle and management of business processes, and review and planning of human resources needs and human resource development and the maintenance of strategic process is strategic. Although human resource management processes and human resource development and maintenance of business policies and strategies are a process, they are considered as a business, because most of the sub-process more operational, rather than strategic.


The Internet to organize a large number of candidates reached easily and efficiently. Thousands of candidates may visit the company web site and submit an application.

Roles and responsibilities


Conflict of interest


Selection criteria

Selection should be based on the job description, and should focus on the qualifications, experience and skills needed to assume positions. The selection criteria should be divided into necessary and desirable. Basic standard is that it can not perform those who do not work. Appropriate standard is that to make work more effectively executed. The basic criteria for all positions should include: arrangements for recognition of prior learning (such as job experience, education and life experience overseas).

The ability to work positively with people from different cultural, linguistic and educational background of the nature and the ideal standard should not include requirements of specific groups at a disadvantage. For example, the need to understand the local geographical area will not include the most recent arrivals. College degree requirement is not necessary to position more often exclude applicants from different backgrounds.

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The selection criteria should be specific enough to allow the selection panel to choose between the applications, but broad enough not rule out the good applicants.

Short listing

Short listing process

Applications should be nominated on the selection criteria, first consider the basic criteria, then the appropriate standards. Applicants should be excluded in the following order:

Those who do not meet basic standards of all

Those who do not comply with any appropriate standards

Those who do not meet all necessary standards

Those who do not meet the standard necessary and desirable and other applicants

Recruitment steps

Step 1:

Three steps to establish an effective recruitment process

Step 1:- Make sure an up-date job description which includes information on:

• specific tasks and activities of the work required

• knowledge, skills and abilities needed to effectively perform the work obligation.

Step 2: Develop an effective recruitment strategy that:

• appropriate recruitment sources (ie, advertising, personal referrals, employment Institutions, direct application)

• appropriate recruitment (for example, supervisors or colleagues)

Step 3: Assessment of recruitment strategies, to determine its efficiency. For example:

• Payment terms to conduct a cost analysis of the number of applicants referred to the interview, select, and hire

• More effective to hire applicants from different sources. Evidence-based best practices of the three most commonly used selection techniques are outlined below.

Curriculum vitae

Conducting interviews

Reference checks

Induction and orientation of new workers

An effective inducement to help new workers understand their role and their "fit" within the organization. It is also equipped with the tools they need to perform their work role. Two useful tools, summarized as follows:

Induction manual / package may include:

• An induction list

• Organization of philosophy / ethics / history

• The organization's strategic value

• An organization chart / structure

• An employment policy and procedures manual

• A familiar in the workplace (including parking and safety issues)

• Information events concern, accountability, supervision, staff meetings, etc.

Organizational culture

The success of any company depends in part on the match between individuals and cultural organizations. Organizational culture is a set of operating principles, to determine how people act in the context of the company. Related to observable acts of faith, values and assumptions dominate their actions.

Managers need to accurately understand the organization of cultural activities, in order to direct production, to protect against disruptive effect of staff who is committed to the company's. A common sense of purpose began in the recruitment process and continue to pay close attention to how to motivate employees and reward their efforts. Managers need to constantly transmit the cultural values, through efforts, such as storytelling, ritual and corporate-sponsored social activities, and consistently positive feedback, each Member of the importance of organization.

Create an environment where people appreciate and value their work is the key. In order to effectively do this, leaders must set clear expectations, to communicate to each member of the organization. These expectations should support the management of words and actions often let people who know their work is important organization. Individuals should be given the task is in line with their own strengths and interests, and opportunities for continued learning and growth, and should be provided.

The importance of understanding organizational culture can not be ignored. The bottom line managers who want to build a culture of success first and foremost to create a positive environment. The concept of people's culture and with the organization and continue to recognize the success and involved in the maintenance of the environment throughout the organization so that people enjoy working hard to meet the objectives of the company.

Disciplinary and grievance procedure

Disciplinary rules and procedures, help to promote the employment relationship, an orderly, fair and consistent treatment of the individual. Disciplinary rules tell employees what behavior to expect from their employers. If an employee breaks specific rules about behavior, which is often referred to as misconduct. Employers use disciplinary procedures and actions to deal with an employee suspected of breach of discipline. Disciplinary proceedings can also be used to refer to an employee does not meet the expectations of employers, the way they do their job.These cases, often referred to as poor performance (or capacity), may require different treatment from improper procedures and discipline, should allow this. The first formal action -

Unsatisfactory performance

After the meeting, an employee who is found unsatisfactory, should be given in writing, setting out:

• performance issues;

• The need to improve;

• a timetable for achieving this improvement;

• review date; and

• Any support to assist employers to provide employees.

Employees should be informed, stating that the first stage of formal procedures, if not improved, could lead to a final written warning and ultimately dismissal. A copy of the custody and use should be noted that based on the monitoring and review of implementation in a specific period (eg 6 months).

First formal action misconduct

Where the disciplinary meeting, employees were found guilty of misconduct, usually the first step is to give them a written warning, set the nature of misconduct and behavior change needs.

Employees should be informed that the warning is part of the formal disciplinary procedures, what the consequences will be a can not change behavior. The consequences may be a final written warning and ultimately dismissal. Employees should also be informed, they can appeal the decision. The warning should be kept a record, but the purpose of discipline should be ignored after a specified time (eg 6 months).

Final written warning

Where there is no improvement or change the behavior of the timetable set at the formal stage, or is a very serious crime, employees should be given final written warning - but only if they get chance to present, their situation at the meeting. Final written warning should be given the details, and reasons for complaints. It should remind staff not to improve or modify the behavior may result in dismissal or other punishment, is entitled to appeal. Final written warning should normally be ignored disciplinary purposes, the specified period (eg 12 months).

Dismissal or other penalty

If the employee's conduct or performance is still not improved, the final stage in the disciplinary proceedings may be dismissed or (if the employee's contract allows, or both parties agree) some of the other penalties, such as demotion, disciplinary transfer, or loss of information / payment. If the decision to dismiss only by a manager who has the right to do so, employees should be notified as soon as the reasons for dismissal, the date will terminate the labor contract, the appropriate time to inform and appeal.

Importantly, employers must bear in mind that they fired an employee or impose sanctions such as demotion, loss of wages or loss of seniority, they must, as a follow statutory minimum dismissal and disciplinary procedures. Standard legal procedures, for almost all cases, require employers to:

1st Step

Letter to employees informing them of the charges against them and the basis of the allegations and invite them to attend the meeting to discuss matter.

2nd step

To discuss the allegations - in the employee accompanied by the right - and notify the employee's decision.

3rd step

If the employee wishes to appeal, hold an appeal meeting, at which accompanied by an employee is entitled to - and inform employees Final decision.

Dealing with grievances in the workplace

Employees should be resolved informally the most dissatisfied with their line manager. This is good, because all places, especially if there may be a close personal relationship between managers and employees. It also allows the problem be resolved quickly.

If the employee can not be resolved informally the complainant should raise it formally with management. There is a statutory appeals procedure, staff must call, if they wanted to use the complaint was based on some applications a employment Tribunal.

Raising a grievance

Employees should generally appeal to their line manager, unless it was specified in the procedures of the organization. If the complaint is against the person and the complainant will usually be made to the employee's manager or other management personnel in the organization. In small businesses can not do this, managers at all levels should listen to complaints and deal with it as a fair manner.

Managers should handle all complaints, whether the complaint in writing. However, employees must understand that if the statutory procedures apply, nor will later be the case to the Employment Tribunal, unless they first submit a written complaint to wait 28 days before the court to make further claims.

Set up a complaint in writing is not easy - especially those employees first language is not English or who are difficult to express themselves on paper. In this case, employees should be encouraged to seek help, for example, from a work colleague, trade union or other employee representatives. According to the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 employers must make reasonable adjustments may include assisting staff to develop a written complaint, if they can not do so because their disability.

Grievance meetings

Upon receipt of a formal complaint, the manager should be invited to attend a staff meeting and informed them as soon as possible, they have the right to be accompanied. This is a good practice, agreed time and place for the meeting of the employees. Small organizations may not have a private meeting room, it is important that the meeting without interruption, and the employees that their complaints are confidential. If the employee's companion can not attend the proposed date, the employee may propose another date, as long as is reasonable, and not more than 5 working days after the date the employer initially proposed. This 5-day period may be extended on mutual agreement.

Employees should be allowed to explain their complaints, saying that they think we should solve the problem. If the employer reached a point in the meeting did not know how to handle complaints, or that the need for further investigation of the meeting should be postponed any comments or further investigation. This may be particularly useful for small organizations, the lack of experience of dealing with formal complaints. Employers should be given serious consideration before grievance response.

Employers and employees expected to go through the statutory complaints procedure, unless they are reasonable grounds for you, If you do, they may be subject to such as violence, abusive or threatening sexual conduct or face harassment. There will always be some degree of stress and anxiety in dealing with complaints both cases, but this exemption applies only to employers or employees have reason to believe that they will come to some serious physical or mental harm, their property or some of the first the other three parties threatened or harassed them, and this may continue.

Similarly, the statutory procedure was not required to comply, if the situation beyond the control of one or more of any of the parties steps to prevent being tracked within a reasonable period. This sometimes is the case where there is a lack of long-term illness or long-term abroad, but the employer should consider appointing another manager to deal with as far as possible the procedures.

1st Step : statement of the reasons for inviting the meeting and action

2nd Step : meeting

3rd Step : Appeal