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This project is based on the study of Human Resource Management (HRM) and its relationship to the traditional personnel management and the power of work group management. It emphasizes the HRM application in Business ethics and spiritual values. And the difference in HRM practice applied in Western and Non Western work situations.
HRM is basically a term which describes various numbers of significant approaches to the people management. HRM is defined as formal system that is used for managing people in organization context. HRM values trust, care, teamwork, Encouragement, Development. It makes the government to be a good employer and thus they can motivate the staff and bring out their best. In a Human Resource Management, people are the most valuable assets but most organizations people remains undervalued, under trained, underutilized and they perform below their original capability.
Comparative and Integrative HRM
Comparative HRM comprises of the methodological examination of HRM practices between two or more countries. This makes an improvement in knowledge in a more analytical manner rather than the descriptive way. Comparative research of different multinational organizations is conducted in order to improve the efficient management of the organization. Since different ideas are incorporated in the management of an organization, different new ideas can be obtained.
Integrative HRM deals with the training and selection of the employees required for achieving the organizational goal. The two methods incorporated are either training of the workforce available or outsourcing workers from outside. The managers or top-level people maintain a good relationship with the employees, by hearing out their problems and answering their queries.
Traditional personnel management and HRM
People are the indispensible factor of a company. One of the most effective and valuable resources of an organization is its personnel's. Efficient management of employees is an crucial element required for improving and maintaining organizational performance. The most difficult feature of organizational management is the management of personnel's, as it deals with psychologically and mentally different people, Personnel management deals with the efficient management of a company's employees.
The main activities of Personnel management are as follows:
Strategy and organization: Organization strategy, structure and architecture and action, is provided, influencing culture and beliefs, thus developing workforce strategies and policies.
Employee reasoning : Associated with human resource planning, recruitment and choosing, as well as terminating employees.
Employee development : Associated with the training and development, enhancing management, developing careers and performance enhancement.
Reward management :
Employee and personnel administration :
Human Resource Management deals with the following points :
In any establishment, HRM deals with the decision, planning , factors, fundamentals, working, functions, actions of employee management.
It deals with all the aspects of employee relationship and all the forces that emerge from it.
It helps to maintain and enhance the organizational success in changing environments, by increasing the value of work life for the workforces and adding importance to the transfer of goods and services.
To be a support system, is one of the first common roles played by both human resource management and personnel management. For the efficient management of people in the organization, it provides assistance and administration. Human resourcing is the second task, which includes training, developing, recruiting and planning of employees , which are necessary for an organization.
The next function which plays a critical role in corporate strategy is, Strategic management.
The HRM and PM do not mean the same, which is usually assumed. There are many dissimilarities between HRM and PM, which are simple and clear, but can cause confusion. Firstly, HR is a proactive method which avoids problems by planning in advance. Whereas PR is a reactive method, that solves problems only as they emerge. The function of both terms also differs. HR is greatly related with training and development of employees, whereas PR acts as a support system.\
A no. of dissimilarities arise on comparing HR with traditional PM. First of all, PM is associated with decision- making in the HRM, whereas the traditional PM is less declared and deals with definite issues.
The second difference found out is that HRM is considered as a proactive method and is long- lasting, while the traditional PM is a reactive method and uses a short -term outlook. Psychologically comparing both the terms, HRM promotes commitment of the workers, whereas PM deals with the managing of the workers. The distinct difference found in the context of employees relation is that HRM is unitary, including no disagreements between employees and workers. On the other hand, PM is involved with controlling the relationship between employers and employees. Another difference is that HRM performs well in a natural, administrative structure, whereas PM operates in authoritative and rigid structures.
Comparison of the HRM and PM shows us that HRM is the accomplishment of a fit between employee management and critical thrust of an establishment. HRM is created on the basis that human resource factors exists within the high - ranking levels, corporate action of a company. Due to this, HRM assumes a long- term view. PM is viewed as a short-term answer to the problem.
Power of work group management in HRM
Group work responds quickly and relates action plans for every queries. This is found to be more effective than the artificial team building, outdoor explorations, or discussions of the group dynamics on a theoretical basis. When a team is combined with a common aim, they take a powerful action to let it happen so that they can be energized.
Business ethics in HRM
Those who are specialized in HR take the complete responsibility in the development of HRM practices which helps in increasing a company's competitive advantage. They are also responsible in ensuring that all the employees are treated equally. Majority of the HRM decisions leads to results that are ethical in nature. In spite of the numerous laws available for the well being of the employees at the workplace, the staffs are treated in a very bad manner. Due to certain circumstances, some employers avoid the law and sometimes the letter of the law is accepted but the staffs are never ill-treated by the management or by other employees. One of the major ethical issue concerns the decisions taken by the managers which is in relation with employment, payment, advancement and authority depending on favoritism.
HR professionals perform three major roles in the work area. First role being monitoring: the organizational members perform actions such that all the individuals are treated in a fair and legal manner. Second, HR professionals considers those complaints based on ethics, such as sexual harassment or violation of employees' privacy rights. Third, HR professionals act as the company's spokesperson by protecting the company when problems arise due to the regulatory agency or media.
In addition to this, HR professionals themselves must act in an ethical manner. When confronted with confusions in ethics, HR professionals takes a strong base even of their job is at a risk.
HR professionals are given guidance by the Society for Human Resource Management Code of Ethics, which explains that HR professionals must always:
• Preserve the high level standard of professional and individual behavior.
• Encourage the employers to treat all the employees equally and this is of a primary concern.
• Maintain reliability to employers and achieve company missions which are of public interest.
• Sustains all rules and regulations concerning employer activities
• Maintain the secrecy of confidential information.
Spiritual and cultural values in HRM
Industrial organizations are mainly related for the productivity and quality by the staffs. Spiritual values of the staffs are the pre- requirements for the organizational well being and they are considered in a very casual way. These factors made the organization consider that spiritual values of the personnel are an important resource in an organization rather than to be ignored. Quality of the products and services gives a high value to the personnel and hence creates a better working environment. To achieve this, the spiritual values must be possessed and trained by all the personnel.
People have different sets of cultures in domestic and international work areas. In domestic and global workplace settings, people in organizations reflect their respective cultures. By shifting the entire population, the people can be brought together which are of different cultural background. Hence HRM must be examined thoughtfully and changed to support the missions of the organization.
HRM practice in western and non-western work situations
The human resource management practices applied in both the western and non-western work situations is different. In the western work situation, the humans are considered as objects and interchangeable components in an organization, whereas in the non-western work situation, the importance is given to the whole person and his relationship with other people.
Western ways of managing organization has led to the treatment of humans as objects. The humans are treated as if they are replaceable parts of a machine-like organization. In this method, only a small portion of the features that make up the humans are utilized at work. The ideas have led to the deprivation of positive human qualities.
The work is seen as a separate part of a human's life. This utilizes only a small fraction of the employees logical and physical capacity at the establishment. The factors that are ignored can be innovation, emotions and devoutness. Those problems which arises out of the organization doesn't disturb the people in the workplace. Individuals personal events that are unpleasant and disturbing are kept aside their work life. The growth of people's status using their inherited and educated abilities in the organization will move at a slower rate. Human characteristics, interrelations, emotions, devoutness and special talents don't not have any influence in the making of an organization and sometimes these features are not used even for the recruitment purpose. Organizations that are business oriented aims at the completion of the task and the outputs that are attained. Combination of people takes place in a vertical direction. More significance is given to the human activity as a whole and not just the human beings, by the leaders in the organization. Mechanical organizations neither uses the entire depth and level of each person's abilities nor is concerned about what is achieved by multiple relationships.
Since the manufacturing and the coming up of knowledge industries are declining in some Western countries, the use of mechanised labour is being less common. In spite of all this, due to the universal and compulsive nature of the issues that arse from the West, the rest of the world has accepted this. Both in the West and the non- Western world, the division of the jobs and its specialisation are given high priority.
Bureaucracy doesn't promote the inter-personal relationship between the people in the workplace. The impassive rules and certain circumstances puts two different individuals in same situations which compels them to take a similar decision.
Bennis (1965) provides 3 parts for bureaucracy :
Firstly, bureaucracy is not intended for individual's growth and the improvement of established personalities. Secondly, entire ability of the humans was not considered due to distrust and fright of punishments. Thirdly, bureaucracy enhances the personalities of the individual which adds on light to the tedious organisation.
Mitroff ( 2003 ) reported that individuals are usually tired and become frustrated such that they leave a part of them at home and come for work with a half mind with no aim in success in their job. He also reported that they only bring their brainpower. Thus it utilises the entire resourcefulness and enlightens true employees individual development. Mitroff also commented that, those organizations which are mechanic in nature, is a hazard to mental health which is much more in the West.
According to Pransky, he concluded distressed mind occurs when work activities are reduced in scope or become so intense then there is no chance to improve the relationships. As a result, this mechanistic method of organizing leads to an increase in levels of stress, mental sickness, hostility and disappointment with work for the individuals and the society. The people entering the workplace may be limited as the working in this way increases. Hence the Western style must be remodelled either to preserve the mechanical model or to find a new one and change the way of working.
Most of the non-western ideas give preference to the relationship of the individuals to other people at the work place. In the non-western management of organization, the individuals are the main focus of the organization. The main focus of an organization can be described as the relationship of a whole person with other whole individuals, and this can be well illustrated with New Zealand Maori, African and Indian examples.
A Maori view:
According to the Maori saying, a great importance is given to the people. This enlightens the people as a whole and not just the individual. Maori is identified in other people. These people depict people in a good bond and society. Personal identity is considered to be communal.
Mana ( status ) is not achieved by oneself , it is given by the others. It is accorded for age and family birth. It is not done in an individual manner but in a group. Maori suggests that an isolated individual to be illogical as it doesn't agree to the communal nature. Self made individual is a very confusing idea as an individual concerns the relationship with others.
In a Maori society, leadership is given a position in projects, talents or circumstances. The circumstances keep changing and hence there's a change in the responsibilities of the leadership. Sometimes it is difficult to explain the organizational chart as high positioned leaders occupies the low position in the organization. An organic approach represents this change in the leadership. Few leaders are provided with leadership positions but which doesn't change, and older men come under this. Individuals who become leaders in one situation are the followers in other areas of expertise. But all these have equal importance as they are all interlinked. Over years, the history of the individuals and that of the group are significant in everyday life.
Maori also finds the idea of dividing self into distinctive parts very difficult which is a Western model that cannot be adapted. Maori also signifies interpersonal relations and the history in daily life.
An African view :
Boon ( 1996 ) suggests that a person becomes completely human through other people which is a well - known African belief. This indicates that the entire people and their relationship between each other is am important tool in an organization.
Ubuntu is a concept that is widely used in the African society.According to Boon, Ubuntu can be described as integrity, humaneness, consideration, concern and sympathy which results in a good relationship. It takes place in relationships and communication of people due to the good deeds that are done by one person to the other unknowingly. Individuals and groups are given an equal importance
All chances taken to work for this are honoured and encouraged and this contributes to human decoram, admiration and integrity. When interaction is narrowed down, humanity reduces in its importance. People are differentiated according to function and not the value of the person.
An Indian view:
According to Dana ( 2000 ), India is a diverse country with many traditions, variety of religions and a large population spread over a very large area. The Indian values that are dominant are closeness to family, humility, tolerance, harmony, cooperation, kindness and are in relation with the people and relationships.
In the Indian scriptures, work is considered to be a sacred duty of each individual. And hence it must be done with an increased dedication for spiritual growth. This results in a holistic life.
Dana (2000 ) finds numerous advocates of holistic management in India. They promote the integration of intellectual combined with physical and spiritual. All the psychological and the ethical features of an individual are occupied.
People in India conduct work only as a requirement to the employer and are more emotionally sensitive in the workplace rather than the productivity influenced by Western model. Organizations are having a high level of importance due to the social needs and the respect among the individuals.
India, in its modern times is striving for an increased industrialization which adopts Western models. But considering the cultural influences, differences exists between the management practices that takes place and actually taking place.
India was invaded by the foreign rulers which made an influence in its culture and customs. During this time, numerous manufacturing units were established and professional managers were created. At a later stage, this was taken over by the Indian industrialists. When the British came into play, there were improvements and also inherited Western systems. Those people who belong to the British system and those who didn't developed a misunderstanding between each other but a significant feature of the Indian administration was the status of the Head, to whom the employees or other people in grief were approached.
After attaining independence in 1947, India was in a total confusion of how to apply modern practices into a traditional culture. With the mixing of many cultures, Indian organizations implements, manufactures and redevelops management practices with Western ideas but of Indian culture.
In successful organizations, Paternalism has become the philosophy in workplaces which encompasses good responses from employees, as it is forms the foundation of Indian culture. Paternalism also directs, motivates and provides security, and on the other hand it divides and also rules people. It is surrounded by the older people and encompasses formal and informal responsibilities in the organisation.
In the non- Western countries, the Western culture is less than adequate. The West is forced to amend this view and to consider people as the focus of the organization. In a non- Western world, people are being interlinked and this is completed through membership and communication in team work and a broader family. In the non-western work situations, the individuals are the centre of the organizational life, whereas in the western work situations, the individuals are considered as replaceable components of an organization life, utilizing only a small fraction of their qualities and features. The western way of management can be improved by combining the non-western management style. This will improve the efficiency of the workers, give them an inspiration and which altogether leads to the increased efficiency of the achievement of organizational goal. The non-western ideas incorporated in New Zealand Mauri, Africa and India can also be improved by also implementing the western ideas, that is not only giving complete preference to the relationship of whole person to other individuals, but also to the organizational goal.
For organizational success, HRM comes out as a critical and a significant factor. For this, the performance is measured to examine whether managers implement the needed strategic HR processes in their group. If this is done accordingly, then only the entire structure would remain in its place and hence achieving the organization's strategy.
Western management model is the one that is being popular in the entire world. In this, they consider people as items, which can be similar, changeable and disposable. This kind of ill-treatment is less accepted in the West. And, this is being unaccepted in the non- Western parts of the world, who considers people as the main focus of the organization. Some Western countries, have tried to move to this kind of model where people are given a higher importance. But this is not a major rethink. Hence the West is trying to move to the non- Western model which leads to high awareness, less control by the managers, and increase in the level of happiness by the people.