Study into Performance and Human Resource Management

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Organizations weather public or private exists and grows because it provides goods or services which the community sees as worthwhile. To do this efficiently, the organization must function at an optimum level of productivity. This level is achieved through the collective effort of every employee of that organization though not every employee work at the level established by the standard of performance for the job he or she performs. Similarly, groups of employees may not consistently produce up to standard.

When there is a difference or gap between actual performance and what is required (i.e the standard), productivity suffers. Training can reduce if not eliminate this gap. It does so by changing the behavior of the individuals by giving them whatever additional specific items of knowledge, skill or attitude they need to perform up to that standard.

Fischer (1970:11-12) said that of all the tasks of management, managing the human component is central and most important task, because all others depends upon how well it is done.

The activities of any organization are initiated and determined by the people that make up that organization. The success of these activities depends on the competence, motivation and general effectiveness of its workforce. A growing number of management recognize that they can hope to find a major and lasting competitive edge not in superiority of their plant and products, but on the quality and training of their people.

Fischer went on further to say that training and development just like any other business activity, is expected to help achieve the goals of the enterprise. Training has no value unless it contributes to the better performance and thus to the organizational objectives. It may attempt to do this directly through reducing costs, improving quality and increasing production and indirectly through improving the skills and attitudes of its employees, increasing their knowledge and experience. To this end a company must regard training as a management tool for bringing change in individuals and improving the organizational effectiveness.

Flippo (1980:181) asserted that no company could long ignore the educational and training needs of employees without such seriously affecting their performance. After an employee has been recruited, selected and inducted, no matter how careful the selection procedure was, he or she must be trained and/or developed to enhance his/her job performance in the organization.

Singer (1969:15) also stated that there is need for continuous training as long as the person is working in the organization especially because of the accelerated tempo of technological, structural and human changes.

Most employers in Nigeria made conscious efforts to recruit Nigerians into manegarial positions, these young men who came in as management trainee underwent planned systematic training before being assigned to respective specialist function.

Though training and development has been effected in both public and private organizations in Nigeria, there are still some employers who still do not believe in the philosophy of training and development. Among the worst offenders are the small manufacturing companies, contracting firms and small shopkeepers as well as the micro-business operators who still think that so long as the employees could be used to make money, then there should be no need for a training and development programme in that organization. This training to them is not important.

To establish the importance of training and development in any organization, this research focus on the assessment of the impact of training and development programme in First Bank and oceanic bank. The banking system is chosen because of their nature of work, their importance to the economy and the complexity of their training programmes and practices. How an assessment has impacted to the level of job performance by employees in the two banks will act as a spring board through which its importance could be determined in other organizations be it public or private.


Due to the innovations and competitiveness associated with the banking sector in Nigeria, training and development is very important for almost all the employees to keep them in touch with development and changes in the sector.

The primary purpose of the existence of any organization is to accomplish some set goals. Since the degree of accomplishment depends immensely on the quality of its workforce, it therefore has to be concerned with the availability and improvement of the overall human resources, which constitutes its workforce in the organization. To be successful, it should ensure that there is an adequate supply of appropriate human skills. Lack of skilled personnel is identified as one of the major problems militating against the growth of training and development in Nigeria. Other problems identified include lack of proper evaluation and training exercise for better results by the organization and the failure of trained workers to apply the knowledge learnt on their job.

The inconsistency on the part of the organization to determine the training methods according to the needs of individuals is also one of the problems identified.

In view of these problems, this research is focused on investigating the staff training and development programmes in first bank plc and oceanic bank international plc, identifying the factors that hinder or promote staff training and development in these banks as well as evaluating the effectiveness of the training programmes in first bank plc and oceanic bank int'l plc.


The aim of this research is to examine and provide data on training and development programmes in first bank plc and oceanic bank int'l plc. In essence it seeks to:

1 critically evaluate and analyse the training and development programmes of the organisation, looking into the effectiveness of these training and development programmes as well as the problems that hinder regular staff training and development.

2 evaluate and analyse the different approaches to employee training and development.

3 compare the different ways these organisations conduct their training and development programmes.

4 Give recommendation based on study, to help management plan for a better, more effective and more productive training and development programme.

5 To identify areas of further research.


H1: Staff training and development is a useful tool for improving job performance.

H1: Employees are sent on training programmes which is relevant to their jobs.

H1: Successful completion of training programme enhances overall job performance in an organisation.

H1: Training and development enhances the overall self development of staff.


The scope of the study is limited to the corporate policies and procedures on the training and development programmes of First bank and Oceanic bank int'l plc.

The training needs, techniques and problems of these banks are going to be investigated.


This study is designed to make managers appreciate training and development practice, it aims to help them realise that such a practice is productive. It will also help them to design training and development programmes in such a way that is efficient, in other words using minimum inputs to achieve maximum output.

As stated in the background of the study, most organisations especially small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria do not have training and development programme, thus it is believed that this research would be helpful in letting them know and appreciate the importance of these training and development programmes as it helps their organisation prosper.



First bank of Nigeria for over a century has distinguished itself as a leading banking institution and a major contributor to the economic advancement and development of Nigeria.

Founded in 1894 by a shipping magnate from Liverpool, Sir Alfred Jones. The bank commenced as a small bank in the office of Elder dempster and company in lagos.

It was incorporated as a limited liability company in London on March 31, 1894 with head office in Liverpool and started business under the corporate name of the bank of Britain West Africa (BBWA}, with a paid up capital of 12,000 pound sterling. It commenced business upon absorbing its predecessor the African banking corporation, which was established earlier in 1892. In its early years of operation, the bank recorded an impressive growth and worked closely with the colonial government in performing the traditional function of the central bank.

To justify its West African coverage, a branch was opened in Accra, Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1896 and another in Freetown, Sierra Leone in 1898 , which marked the genesis of the bank's international banking operations. The second branch of the bank in Nigeria opened in the old calabar in 1900 and two years later the service of the bank were extended to the north of Nigeria. With a branch network of 301 in 1997 spread throughout the federation, including the London branch, the bank maintains the largest network of branches in the industry.

To satisfy the needs of the customers, first bank as presently configured has diversified into a range of merchant and international banking.

At the inception of the bank's operation in 1894, it had a staff of six, comprising three Europeans and three Africans. Today, the bank is fully comprised of Nigerians in response to the aspirations and yearnings of the Nigerian people and government, as well as the bank's determination to identify with the aspirations of the country in its match towards national development.

First bank of Nigeria plc got listed on the Nigerian stock exchange in march 1971 and has won the NSE presidents awards seven times, as the bank with the best financial report in the sector. The bank has 243,128 individuals and institutional shareholders in all parts of the country. Its leadership position in the private sector derives from its consistent record as a successful financial instituition.

The bank has continued to remain the leader in the financing of long-term development of the economy, which was first demonstrated in 1947 when such long-term loan was advanced to the colonial government. To demonstrate its commitment to its customers and the development of the Nigerian economy, the bank has since diversified its loan and credit facilities to various sectors of the economy.

Its rural banking records are incomparable to any other as it stands unbeatable while its agricultural credit facilities through community farming loan scheme afford peasant farmers easy access to bank credit.

First bank of Nigeria plc has improved tremendously judging from a number of parameters including number of branches, growth in deposit base, asset size, staff strength and size of loans and advances. Its track record of profitability and reliability in sound banking has continually placed the bank in the leadership position.



Arising from the FBN strategic plan which primarily seeks to radically transform and reposition the bank for improvement in all key areas, a human capital management resource function was created to address all the key people issues which must be effectively resolved, to enable FBN achieve its vision. In addition to the human capital management SRF, the following SBUs and SRFs were created:

Corporate banking SBU, to address the needs of the corporate end of the market.

Commercial banking SBU, to meet the needs, and dominate the mid-corporate segment of the market.

Consumer banking SBU, to address the needs of high net-worth individuals (HNIs) and upwardly mobile professionals/executives. This unit however would be nurtured initially from the commercial bank SBU.

Transaction banking SBU, to address the needs of the retail end of the market.

Technology SRF, created to use technology as a business enablement for all the SBUs and SRFs.

One common theme running the SBUs/SRFs strategy trusts is a radical shift from how the bank had hitherto served its customers. The new theme defines how the bank would basically raise the best resources, processes and technology to competitive advantage.

Of most relevance is the human resource plan, which is based on a shift of mindset of seeing people as costs, to a completely new business paradigm of using people as a key capital resource and proactively developing and managing them to competitive advantage.

The concept of human capital management necessitated by the strategic trusts of the SBUs and SRFs, has far reaching implications on how first bank of Nigeria (FBN) must henceforth manage its training function to achieve its long-term focused strategy. Training and development will play a major role in the attainment of First bank's corporate objectives, by equipping its people with the competencies required in effectively tackling the new challenges


Provide a professional system of managing people to ensure the workforce is fully deployed to build competitive advantage in the sector.

Equip people with the required skills, and competencies to be on top of the competition and to do better.

Create a work environment which encourages learning, initiative and high performance.

Adequate bank wide communication, welfare structures and staff monitoring systems to ensure industrial harmony and best care for our people.


The two key issues for training which distils from the analysis of the foregoing objectives are the need to:

Significantly upgrade skills and competencies and build a strong core of multi-skilled, flexible knowledge workers to drive successful implementation of the banks new vision.

Support the creation of a work environment which encourages learning, initiative and high performance. Following these issues are their vision and mission for training in FBN plc:

Training Vision - "consistently grow the quality of people poachers prefer"

Training Mission - "make our people love to learn, by providing them with the competencies needed to exceed present and future challenges".


The training function will proactively create out of FBN people a skilled/knowledge workers organisation, having the best people relative to competition and hence the place to poach from.


Training should as much as possible be job based and must also seek to assess the core and general skill requirements defined in relative job specification. Thus training designed around jobs (e.g. relationship managers' course/credit analysis workshops, etc) is to be preferred to general training (e.g. total excellence, etc).

The new training recognises the following broad levels of management viz:

Lower management - banking officers up smp 5

Middle management - AGMs to DGMs

Senior management - AGMs to DGMs

Executive management - Eds


Identification of the training and developmental needs is systematically carried out in the light of their corporate objectives, as enunciated in the various SBUs/SRFs plans. This is carried out through collaborative efforts between the training function, manpower planning unit, the relative SBUs/SRFs, line manager and individual staff.

The process basically involves:

Identification/specification of desired performance standards through the use of a combination of job specification, key result areas/key performance indices (KPIs), targets setting, competency model benchmarking etc.

Identification of available performance standards, through period reviews, annual reports etc.

Identification of performance gaps through the use of a combination of department/branch performance review and staff performance appraisal against targets etc.

Separation of performance gaps that are resolvable through training intervention only; for example performance discrepancies that are attributed to lack of skills, knowledge or the right attitude.


The bank commenced business on June 12, 1990 at the waterfront plaza 270, ozumba Mbadiwe Avenue, Victoria Island, Lagos. It was listed on the Nigerian stock exchange on June 25, 2004.

Oceanic has over 370 business offices with online real time facilities. The banks philosophy is rooted in ensuring empowerment for the individual at all grade levels as well as growing and nurturing indigenous entrepreneurs into corporate through its deep understanding of customer segments and needs.

Oceanic bank is one of Nigeria's leading one stop financial services institutions and is committed to providing world class financial solutions and products that create and preserve wealth for all its customers and stakeholders across the globe. Oceanic bank's impressive performance over the years accounts for the quality of its customer portfolio which includes corporate organisations, high net-worth individuals, the federal government and some state governments. To enhance response time, relationship management units have been structured as follows:

Corporate banking group (CBG)

Treasury and financial institutions group (TFIG)

Retail banking group (RBG)

Public sector group (PSG)

Staffs in each sector have profound knowledge of the various industries and are therefore able to respond to customer's peculiar need.


T - Transparency

E - Equal opportunity

A - Accountability

M - Merit

S - Service excellence


To provide excellent and comprehensive service to all our customers in a friendly environment using qualified and experienced personnel with the appropriate technology.


The bank recognises that their principal assets are their staff, therefore they have continued to invest in staff training and development both in and outside the country to enable its employees improve their skills in readiness for the challenges of the 21st century. Also they put in enough effort to ensure that the employees at all levels are well trained and given the type of development that will continue to enhance the employees as well as the overall performance of the company.


The training policy states as follows:

Training should aim not only at improving workers in their present job, but in preparing them for higher post in the future.

Training should be related to overall personnel policy and company needs.

All managers and staff should have opportunity of training appropriate to their jobs, positions, ability and potentials.

To attain the vision of the bank and meet the objectives of the stakeholders, it is necessary that staff is exposed to the best training available. Accordingly, at least 5% of the bank's annual profit before tax shall be committed to training annually.


In general, the bank only supports and promotes employees training and development which:

Introduces staff to the world in which oceanic bank operates and expose them to the attitudes that will enhance their career and personal development.

Ensure as far as possible that everyone in the bank has the knowledge and skills and reaches the level of competence required to carry out his/her work.

Seeks to ensure that people are developed in a way which maximises their potential for growth and promotion.

Conducting intensive and practical workshops and seminars on new skills and professional development programmes for staff.

Dissemination of the product of research studies and other policy analysis programmes through reports and training.

Ensure that the performance of individuals and teams are subjected to continuous improvements

To ensure qualitative management successions.


Employees have need for growth and self-fulfilment, which could be compatible with the goals of the organisation.

The identification of the training need of the employees lies primarily with their supervisor. Accordingly, the supervisor as part of the appraisal process, should ascertain any existing or potential skills gap that can be readily corrected through training. Depending on the identified needs, courses, seminars, and workshops are the organised for the staff to correct identified skills deficiency.