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The world has been changing into the global village quite rapidly since the beginning of 21st century. Gone are the days of dark ages when employers could exploit their workers by receiving maximum output in exchange with no or awfully minimal rewards or incentives. In today's world, due to improved communication networks, one cannot keep others in dark about their rights and organizations have to fulfill their responsibilities according to the global standards. Similarly, the world of internet has enabled people to link themselves with others through websites. This new reality is working towards the objective of creating new sociological arrangements within the context ofÂ culture, and same is the case with corporate culture. After realizing the force of competitiveness in global markets and between individual organizations, it has become really essential for any organization to make certain that it develops and keep holding a kind of personnel that is dedicated and faithful with the organization for an unlimited time.
The workers or employees who are happy and satisfied with the work that they are assigned to do, or by the culture of the organization regarding relations with their employees ultimately feel motivated to continue their relationship with that organization as a faithful, devoted, committed and talented workforce. But many theorists feel that a great number of employees do not have this level of job satisfaction that they can be taken as motivated towards achieving the goals of the organization. Because of this unsatisfied nature of the employees, they keep seeking for alternate job resources where they may be able to experience a higher degree of job satisfaction. A high degree of job satisfaction shows high retention rate and low turnover rate. In other words, turn over rate can be taken as a measure of Job satisfaction level of the employees in any organization. The organizations that fail to retain their able and talented workforce and cannot make them loyal to the organizational goals face problems in escalating their production level and profitability. Finck, Timmers and Mennes (1998) highlighted the problem that the business excellence can be achieved only when employees are excited by what they do, i.e. the employees should be satisfied with their work and job conditions in order to achieve high goals of an organization.
Employee motivation and its link to job satisfaction of employees has been a matter of study for ages. Managers have to rely on their human resources to get things done and therefore need to know what factors would be most helpful for them in having a workforce that has a high level of job satisfaction.
Making employees motivated is considered as a factor that has a power of making workers satisfied with their jobs. But this is an understood fact that one cannot directly motivate others; one can just create the conditions where people feel motivated themselves. Spector (2003) says that a number of factors can help in motivating people at work, some of which are tangible, such as money, and some of which are intangible, such as a sense of achievement. The accomplishment of any organization greatly depends on the contribution of its labor force. This is also said that such contributions are triggered by those features of people's work environment that motivate them to devote more material and intellectual vigor into their work. In this way the organization's objectives are chased and accomplished. Motivation and job satisfaction are therefore regarded as key determinants of organizational success, both of which have an inter link between themselves. In order to have a highly productive and loyal workforce, organizations strive to take measures that would create a feeling of satisfaction and well being in their workers.
But does it really matter, or is it only a common myth that the aspect of motivation does have an influence on the job satisfaction level of the employees. The aim of this study is to observe the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction of employees and to authenticate it through statistical measures.
Aim of the Study / Research Motivation
As the topic of this study suggests, the basic aim of the study is concerned specifically to investigate the relationship between measures taken by the organization to motivate employees and their overall impact on the job satisfaction level of the employees.
The organizations need to have a smooth line of production and business functions on a consistent basis in order to be able to perform up to the mark in accord with international standards. For this purpose they have to collect, manage and retain proficient, well trained and optimally productive personnel. The personnel of an organization play an important role in higher production and profit making but the condition is that they should be highly dedicated, devoted and faithful to the objectives of that organization. But the staff can have these characteristics only when they are satisfied with the work that they do and who are consequently motivated to continue their relationship with the organization.
A systematic understanding of the nature and considerable causes of employee satisfaction and motivation, will facilitate employers in making the strategies to effect the required positive changes in motivation programs of their organization and ultimately to implement these programs to step forward towards optimal employee reliability and retention. Examples of such strategies may include selecting a number of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to boost employee motivation and to get rid of certain of its human resource policies and practices that can slow down the process of employee motivation and their satisfaction level.
A huge number of researches have been conducted on employee motivation, job satisfaction and their relationship with each other, as well as on a variety of combinations thereof. After having a thorough and deep examination of historical studies, the researcher of this study became able to produce a problem statement that is related to employee motivation and job satisfaction.
In this regard, this study aims to add to the already existing knowledge about motivation and job satisfaction and the implications of these terms in organizational psychology.
Some Theoretical Concepts About Motivation And Job Satisfaction
1.4 Problem Statement
Through a deep examination of historical studies, and after a thorough research on the existing literature, the researcher of this study came to know about a strong impact of motivation policies of the companies on the job satisfaction levels of their employees. There are also many studies that show the relationship of these two aspects with many other features in an organizational culture. According to Watson (1994) business in the contemporary era has realized that motivated and satisfied personnel will show an increased production level and deliver output powerfully even to the bottom line. Schofield (1998) conducted a convincing study in which he showed with certainty that the way people are managed has a powerful impact on both productivity and profitability levels of the organization. This study established the importance of job satisfaction, employee motivation and commitment, and corporate culture in organisational capability and limits.
By keeping in mind the existing literature about these two variables that are motivation and job satisfaction, our problem statement is that;
"Motivation techniques used by the organizations have an impact on the employees in boosting their morale and ultimately making them satisfied with their jobs."
1.4.1 Research Question:
We can construct the research question as follows:
"Whether there is a significant relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction?"
Our research hypothesis is:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction.
1.4.2 Brief definitions of the employee motivation and job satisfaction
According to Seligman (1990), MotivationÂ works as a driving force which is helpful for us to achieve goals. Motivation can be classified in two broader categories; one is intrinsic and the other is extrinsic. According to various theories of motivation, the meaning of motivation may be linked with the basic physical and psychological needs of the human beings. Basic physical needs can include hunger and safety needs and psychological needs may include desire of achieving an object or a specific goal, it may be state of beingÂ ideal, or it may be recognized by less-apparent reasons such asÂ "altruism,Â selfishness,Â ethics, or avoidingÂ mortality" (Seligman,1990). According to Pinder (1998), motivation at work site may be regarded as "a set of internal and external forces that initiate work-related behaviour, and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration." The notion relates to the work environment particularly, and includes the influence of environmental forces as well as a person's inherent thoughts on the work behaviour of that person. In the workplace, work motivation is attributed as a hypothetical concept that has to present itself in the form of noticeable and therefore measurable, behaviours.
Sempane, Rieger and Roodt (2002) hold that job satisfaction relates to people's own assessment of their jobs against those matters and concerns that are important to them. Since sentiment and thoughts are involved in such judgments, employees' levels of job satisfaction may impact considerably on their individual, communal and work lives, and as such, also manipulate their behaviour at work.
1.5 Research Methodology
The researcher has adopted a quantitative approach to analyze and assess the information gathered by the subjects. A quantitative research methodology, as opposed to a qualitative approach, was selected for this research study, for a number of reasons. The first reason why the researcher has opted for quantitative research approach is that the research is based on describing the concepts of motivation and job satisfaction and relationship between them. The plan of this study is not about exploring some new idea, but the purpose is only to understand meanings of these variables and significance of their relationship with the help of statistical measures.
The second reason for choosing quantitative approach is, as mentioned in the research problem of the study that the main objective of the research is to investigate relationship between two clearly defined variables, which calls for exact measurement of these variables, as they have been studied and perceived by a representative sample of the target population of employees of a company. Finally, some limitations surrounding ease, handiness, time and cost also influenced the decision to adopt a quantitative research approach.
The use of a survey research technique was preferred by the researcher, in which two questionnaires were built names as Motivation Questionnaire and Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were constructed in order to obtain the required data. This approach was considered more convenient, as well as more time- and cost-effective than a qualitative approach.
Population: The population of this study was the workforce of Motherson Sumi Systems Limited. The purpose for adopting the employees of this company as the population for our research study is that this is a huge company that takes pride in retaining their employees for good. The quote about the workforce of the company given on the website of this company is as follows "We atÂ Samvardhana MothersonÂ believe that our success as an organization depends on the collective abilities and commitment of our people. A force which is our most valued asset -Â our core strength."
So the basic purpose to choose this company was to assess whether the people at Motherson Sumi Systems are really satisfied with their jobs and whether this job satisfaction is a result of motivation techniques that are being implied by the company.
Sample Size: Sample size for the study was 150 employees working in the head office of the company.
Data Collection Method: The data is collected through survey method. Two questionnaires were constructed for this purpose. First questionnaire named as Motivation Questionnaire comprised of questions about the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that are the part of employee motivation plan of the company. Second Questionnaire was about the determinants of job satisfaction that had to describe the job satisfaction level that employees are accomplishing as a result of the employee motivation techniques being implied by the company.
As in this research study, we have to show the relationship between the two variables i.e. motivation techniques and job satisfaction of employees; we have constructed a linear regression model that is to be applied to analyze the data. The correlation between these two variables is analyzed using the software SPSS 17. The other information gathered from the questionnaires is analyzed by descriptive statistics method using SPSS 17. The results are shown in the form of cross tables and frequencies.
Scope of Research
The scope of this research is limited to the motivation theory presented by Frederick Herzberg. The Two-Factor theory of Herzberg distinguishes between Motivators and Hygiene Factors. According to Herzberg (1959) motivators are the features that give positive satisfaction to the employees, "arising from the intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as Growth and achievement, Recognition, Work itself, and Responsibility". Intrinsic conditions are the conditions that come from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. Hygiene factors are those aspects of a job, the absence of which would result in dissatisfaction, but it does not necessarily mean that the employees are satisfied because of these features of their jobs. The hygiene factors include, pay, working conditions, supervisors, company policies and fringe benefits given by the company. Our research is based on motivators and hygiene factors, or need theories of motivation, in a broader sense. It does not take into account the cognitive or reinforcement theories of motivation.
Secondly, the only factor that is considered to have an influence on the job satisfaction of employees is taken as motivation techniques only. Our research does not consider other factors that can be influential towards job satisfaction. These factors can be corporate culture of the organization or they may be demographic factors such as age, education, gender, ethnicity etc.
Also, the population for our study is the employees of a company only, from which the sample is chosen by the convenient sampling technique; although the results can be generalized on other companies and organizations as well.
Structure of the Research Report
The remainder of the dissertation is structured as follows:
Chapter 2 of our research report discusses the existing literature related to our topic that is, relationships between employee motivation and job satisfaction. In chapter 3 of the research report, ResearchÂ Methodology of the project is given. Chapter 4 comprises of analysis and interpretation of results after compilation of data that was gathered through survey. Chapter5 consists of findings, recommendations and conclusion of our research report.
This chapter has provided a brief introduction to, and overview of the research study. The background of the study its importance and aim is discussed in this chapter. The foundations of the study are set, and the variables that are going to be discussed in this study have been defined by means of reference to the literature. The chapter was concluded by a description of methodology and limitations of the study. In Chapter 2 the theory regarding the basics of the terms employed in topic are presented and discussed and a review of related literature is also given in chapter 2 of this study.