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"Change management and competitiveness in the organisation"- A study of the effectiveness of change management in an organisation and What are the challenges and opportunities faced ? Master of Business Administration(MBA).
As the people live in a world full of change in all areas .Management change is an important aspect in an organisation as it peels away the mysteries of corporate culture to reveal its powerful influence on every aspect of the performance of a business. Change management is the basic skill in which most of leaders and managers need to be competent. There are very few working environments in which change in the management is not important. Mastering change in the managerial level is a key skill for a competitive market in the 21st century. Change is an indispensable part of life. Everything is subjected to change in course of time. If change is not happening it will be like a stagnant river collecting all dirt and waste. The same is the case with Management. Time to time the style of management tend to change according to the changing environment of an organisation.
Aims and Objectives:-
The main objective of research is to:
Find the impact of change that relate to internal and external business performance.
Illustrating the use of validity of models through current and real life case studies.
Get the knowledge of the surroundings of the situation within the organisation, a when there is change in management.
Management and change are synonymous; managing change is handling the complexities of the organisation. when managers are planning to make change, there are five key principles that need to be kept in mind, Different people react differently to change introduced to them, Everyone has a fundamental needs that have to be met in order to sustain, Change often can involves a loss, and people go through the "loss curve "and expectations need to be managed realistically, Fears have to be dealt with a good study of the change. Change has been studied and researched for many years' .philosophies, theories, models and techniques abound; all aim, with various degrees of credibility and success, to deliver sustainable organisational change (Todnem By 2005)
The growth of change management within optical practices has led to a more participative style of management, moving away from the more traditional scenario of the manager leading and staff following. The manager acts as a facilitator and coach to encourage all team members to be more involved in putting forward ideas that can lead to improvements in customer service and performance that adversely effect to the change management. This may have occurred as part of a planned programme of teambuilding and employee involvement or informally as managers realise how to tap into the creative talent available within his or her team. But can be a difficult one if not introduced incorrectly. Key success factors is knowing what one wish to achieve through change in the work condition employees and ensuring they fully understand what is introduced to them. Different people react differently to change, Everyone has fundamental needs that have to be met, Change often involves a loss, and people go through the "loss curve" Expectations need to be managed realistically, Fears have to be dealt with Here are some tips to apply the above principles when managing change, Give people information - be open and honest about the facts, but don't give overoptimistic speculation.
Most people who go for their work are under no illusion that their main purpose is to do what their manager says, so that the organization can at the end of the year pay outrageously high rewards to greedy directors, and a big fat dividend to the shareholders. They so that other more gifted or fortunate or aggressive people can profit because of their effort. People will never align with bad aims. Executive greed, exploitation, environmental damage, inequality, betrayal, false promises are transparent for all decent folk to see. Re-assess and re-align the organization's aims, beliefs, integrity - all of it - with your people. Then they might begin to be interested in helping with new skills and change, etc. People can't just drop everything and 'change', or learn new skills, just because you say so. Even if they want to change and learn new skills, they have a whole range of issues that keep them fully occupied for most of their waking hours - which were dumped on them by the organization in the first place.
The reason why consulting with people is rather a good idea is that it saves the manager from himself and his own wrong assumptions. Consulting with people does not mean that he hand over the organization to them - they wouldn't want the corporation if the manager paid them anyway. No, consulting with people gives them a chance to understand the implications and feasibility of what managers think. And aside from this, consulting with people, and helping them to see things from both sides generally throws up some very good ideas for doing things better than the manager could have dreamt of by himself. It helps the manager to see from both sides too.
Organizations commonly say they don't have time to re-assess and re-align their aims and values, etc., or don't have time to consult with people properly, because the organization is on the edge of a crisis. This is not the workers problem; Organizations get into crisis because they ignore facts one and two. Ignoring these facts again will only deepen the crisis. Crisis is no excuse for compromising integrity. Crisis is the best reason to re-align our aims and consult with people. Crisis is wake-up and change the organization and its purpose - not change the people. When an organization is in crisis, the people are almost always okay - it'll be the organizational purpose and aims that stink. So, whatever way the manager look at organizational change, come up with a plan for change and then simply tell or persuade with the staff to implement it.
For large groups, produce a communication strategy that can ensures information is a disseminated which is efficiently and comprehensively to everyone E.g.: tell everyone at the same time. However, follow this with individual interviews to produce the personal strategy which is useful for dealing with the change. This helps to recognise and deal appropriately with the individual reaction to change. Provide the people choices to make, and be honest about the possible consequences of those choices. If they meet their control and inclusive needs, Timing must be given, to express views, and support their decision making, providing coaching, counselling or information as appropriate, to help them through the loss curve. The change involves a loss, identifies how it will or might be able to replace the loss - loss is easier to cope with if there is something to replace it with it. This will help assuage potential fears. Keeping observing good management practice, such as making time for informal discussion and feedback even though the pressure might seem little stressed that it is reasonable to let such things slip - during difficult change such practices are even more important.
Where you are embarking on a large change programmes, you should treat it as a project. That means you apply all the rigours of project management to the change process - producing plans, allocating resources, appointing a steering board and/or project sponsor etc.. The five principles above should form part of the project objectives. Some of the expressions like 'mindset change', and 'changing people's mindsets' or 'changing attitudes 'must be taken care of, because this language it is often indicates a tendency towards imposed or enforced change(theory x), and which implies strongly that the organization believes that it is the people currently have the 'wrong' mindset, which is never, ever, the case. If people are not approaching their tasks or the organization effectively, then the organization has the wrong mindset, not the people(Mullins 2010) Change such as new structures, policies, targets, acquisitions, disposals, re-locations, etc., all create new systems and environments, which need to be explained to people as early as possible stage , so that people's involvement in validating and refining with the changes for themselves can be obtained.
Whenever an organization imposes new things on people there will be difficulties. Participation, involvement and open, early, full communication are the important factors. Workshops are very useful processes to develop collective understanding, approaches, policies, methods, systems, ideas, etc. Staff surveys are a helpful way to repair damage and mistrust among staff - provided you allow people to complete them anonymously, and provided you publish and act on the findings. Management training, empathy and facilitative capability are priority areas - managers are crucial to the change process - they must enable and facilitate, not merely convey and implement policy from above, which does not work. Manager cannot impose change - people and teams need to be empowered to find their own solutions and responses, with facilitation and support from managers, and tolerance and compassion from the leaders and executives.
Management and leadership style and behaviour are more important than clever process and policy. Employees need to be able to trust the organization. The leader must agree and work with these ideas, or change is likely to be very painful, and the best people will be lost in the process. At all times involve and agree support from people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relationships, behaviours, etc., whether personal or organisational) (Mullins 2010). Understanding where you/the organisation is at the moment. Understanding where manager want to be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there.. Communicate, involve, enable and facilitate involvement from people, as early and openly and as fully as is possible
The philosophy used for the research is interpretivism, as social world of the business and management is far too complex, as it considers humans as a social actors. And the approach used for this philosophy is induction approach. The theory used for the get philosophy is grounded theory, focussing on various case studies and written articles relating to the research subject. Mixed methods such as primary and secondary data collection methods can be used. Some of the primary methods are face to face interview and sending questionnaire and secondary methods are review of case studies, online data collection, articles and books etc.
Research ethics issues emerge as soon as the plan for the research starts. Ethics refers "to the appropriateness of your behaviour in the rights of those who become the subject of work done, are affected by it" (Saunders et al 2009).some of the ethical issues that arises across the various stages related to the research is as follows:
Privacy of possible and actual participants;
Maintenance of the confidentiality of data provided;
Behaviour of the persons who are interviewed;
First month - critically review of the literature
Second month- formulating the research design
Third month- collecting data through primary and secondary methods
Fourth method- writing and presenting the project report