Structures And Types Of Organisational Systems Business Essay

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Delphi has focused on the impact of the automotive which include fuel efficiency, vehicle safety, reduced emissions, customer connectivity and the unique demands of the emerging markets.

It is also helping customers and governments to solve the problem they have (safer and environmental friendly vehicles), by providing technologies that minimise the pollution and producing safer cars.

Objective

Delphi is a worldwide supplier of technologies and electronics for the automotive industry, commercial vehicles and other market segments.

It has built a business model to bring all it's designed and innovations for a changing world. It is moving to a differentiated customer base. Therefore, it has as a goal to be strategically balanced with Europe, North and South America and Asia Pacific, and it is trying to achieve it through the growth initiatives.

Strategies

Delphi has technical centres, customer support centres/facilities and manufacturing sites in 32 countries worldwide. It produces innovations which makes the products safer, more powerful, efficient and smarter.

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Delphi strategy, is trying to be a step ahead of its competitors, by introduce new technology, safer, environmental friendly and connected products and systems. It working hard to improve its manufacturing and engineering abilities; having as target the development to become equal with its customers who are the best in the global market, thus will increase the inputs and thus the earning including cash.

Figure - Delphi structure (The Official Board n.d.)Below represent Delphi's Organizational Structure:

Management style

According to Rodney O'Neal - President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO), he uses the three R method to ensure survival of the company: a) Restructure, b) Resizing and c) Recession.

A company must Restructure when it has problems such as finance issues which can put the company into high risk.

Resizing the company when is facing problems with the economy, for example when a company have 100 employees and it produce 1000 products everyday but customers require only 800, so 20% of those employees aren't required.

The Recession affects the company when the customers' needs/wants reduce, since lower demand from the customers means you have to supply less. Therefore, it will be visible in the employments, industrial production, real incomes and the wholesale retail trade.

Delphi is related with philanthropic programs which support its business objectives while helping society that is Delphi Foundation, Delphi Community Relations and Delphi Volunteers.

It understands that by improving the lives of its employees and their families, they will help in the improvement of the company. Delphi is trying to make its employees feel comfortable by reporting concerns or issues, and it protects the staff from retaliation for reporting issues in good faith. Delphi is improving the way the staff works together (good relationship) and the speed of progress is driven by listening and understanding.

The most important thing Delphi does is to allow employees to speak when they believe something is wrong. They can always speak with their supervisor if they have any problem.

Consequently, the Delphi Company is using the Technocratically management style, because they need to develop the company (objective and strategy). To achieve that, they need to see which are their priorities and the interests of Delphi. Also is given the chance to the employees to speak if they believe something is not ok according to their beliefs (a bit of Democratically management style).

Competitive advantages

Helping its employees to have a better life and reasons to work for it, give to the Delphi product or processes a competitive advantage in Quality, Service, Technology and Price

Working practices regarding people and projects

The General Counsel & Chief Compliance Officer David said that "All of our employees should feel comfortable reporting concerns or issues - Delphi has a strict policy that protects employees from retaliation for reporting issues in good faith". (Delphi n.d.)

Delphi is supporting its employees in any issue they have, is also not provide the personal information of its employees unless is authorised from him/her and is encourage the political activities of its employees. Delphi is not a racist company, is evaluating all its employees only on their tasks and is not punishing its employees if they made any mistake in their job. It has as a first priority the health and safety of its employees.

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Delphi is providing its employees with the newest technology in a safe environment.

"Dave's work on the development of automotive exhaust oxygen sensors has been recognized by many as the pivotal contribution to the widespread adoption of this technology on virtually every vehicle now produced," said Dr. Andrew Brown, Jr., Delphi director of engineering. "His work also has enabled many other Delphi breakthrough technologies in sensing and actuating solutions to help optimize emission control." "(Emerald n.d.)

"We used Project risk experts as well as Technology experts to participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project risks. The responses are summarized and are then sent back to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this process. The Delphi technique helps reduce bias in the data and keeps any one person from having undue influence on the outcome." (Project Management n.d.)

Figure - Company information (Delphi 2011)annual report 2011 - delphi by the numbers.png

Below shows some extra information about Delphi

Question 2:

Structures and types of organisational systems and subsystems

An organisation can also called company or limited which definite of a group o f people who work together to achieve a common goal. To achieve the goal that each company have, they must split the group of people working on it in smaller groups (sub-systems), thus to have better management/ control of the organisation and also more probabilities to accurate the target.

In order a company to avoid troubleshoots and ensure all the necessary work is get in process, is usually allocate the work in individuals and if the individuals perform similar work, therefore is group them. The individuals can becomes specialist on the task/ particular job are working, therefore better product quality.

Additionally outputs of one employee's work may form the input of another (depended upon each other which is like a chain). By explaining future, it can said that different sub-systems are working for the same/common objective, which that why they must plan strategy of how the work will be organized. This plan is called organisation structure. "Organization Structure The way in which the interrelated groups of an organisation are constructed" (Cole and Kelly 2011).

Moreover, the inputs on the organisation are the people, materials, information etc (input information). At the conversion which is the transformation of the system, is the organisation part that produces strategy/plans which can include by the production and marketing, planning, organizing etc. The organisation cycle is the outputs, which can be the products, services etc. The output is a part of the cycle that produces the company's services.

There are lots of types of organisation systems, but the most common are:

Functional Structure

In this type of structure, the tasks which are in common there are linked together. Therefore all the similar activities linked together i.e. sales, advertising etc. linked together into the sub-system Marketing Manager. All the sub-systems ended into the Managing Director.

functional_structure.jpg

Figure - Functional Structure (Tutorialpoint 2013)

Geographic Structure

Geographical Structure is for organizations that cover a wide area of the area, it sometimes makes sense to organize the area. This is done to better support logistics requirements and differences in geographical needs of customers. Usually, a structure organized by geographical areas related to a central supervisory structure.

example-geographic-org-chart.jpg

Figure - Geographic Structure (The Thriving Small Business 2013)

Division Structure

This kind of structure is used when the organisation separate into divisions according to the products or geography. Each of the division is worked in its own resources in order to function independently, but in a certain basic functions kept at the company head offices, for example the employees' policy.

divisional_structure.jpg

Figure - Division Structure (Tutorialpoint 2013)

Matrix Structure

This structure is used for complex industries such as the automotive manufacture. Its operation is a combination of two types of structure (at y and x-axis) and is used to solve coordination problems. figure2_OrgChartMatrix.gif

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Figure - Matrix Structure (UMSL 2012)

There are five sub-systems work in organisations.1) Production (Technical) sub-systems related with throughputs -assembly line tasks of the organisation. 2) Supportive sub-system is producing the inputs and dispose of the outputs of the production sub-system. Also it maintains the organisation relationship between the external and the whole environment. 3) Maintenance sub-systems concerned with the organisation stability or predictability. 4) Adaptive sub-system concerned with the organisation future (might become), which is dealing with environmental issues e.g. development, marketing and research. 5) Managerial sub-systems is controlling and coordinating the activities of the whole system. Is coordinate, adjust, control and direct sub-systems.

Management styles

"A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager. There are two sharply contrasting styles that could be broken down into smaller subsets: Autocratic & Permissive" (Hales 2001).

"To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control" (Fayol 1916).

The table below is showing the three theories of the Participative Management Styles

Figure - The three Management style theories (Red Bead 2012)

There are many management styles, but the greatest are: a) Autocratically - the way that the manager show to the employees how to do their job (guideline the jobs) without give them any permission to change or gives advice for anything (manager has total authority and control over decision making). b) Bureaucratically - way to make sure that all the company employees are following the rules and procedures accurately and the manager has the last words in all the decisions. c) Technocratically - very risky management style and it belongs to the realm of downsizing and redundancy making. The manager applies this management style; always believe that the organisation priorities are the interests of the organisation. d) Democratically is a management style that employees can give their ideas/opinion. The manager is encourages and acknowledge the achievement of the employees to evaluate their performance.

Competitive advantages

Competitive advantages gives to company advantage(s) over its rivals and ability to create greater value for the organisation. Comparative advantage is also called cost advantage and defined by the company ability to produce services or products at the lower cost than its competitors, therefore to increase its outputs.

Managing projects and people

Project Management defined as, the major operations management task is to sequence, coordinate, control and plan the tasks which leading to conclude of the whole project.

People Management can also called as Human Resource Management (HRM) which has as aim to improve the productive contribution of individuals. For instance, the aim is about the employees and their ability to be productive, economically and to increase the organisation performance. The people management target is to help the organisation to achieve strategic goals by retain, attracting and managing employees effectively.

If not all of them then the most of the companies worldwide take into the consideration of the Iron Triangle, which is included from three categories time, cost and quality.

UntitledD.png

Figure - Iron Triangle

Time: How long it will take to finish the project?

Cost: How much the project product will cost?

Quality: Is the product reliable to of what the customer want?

A company to success into the project, it need to complete at list two categorises.

2.2 Compare them to the company's practice.

Delphi helps its employees to have better life and makes them feel comfortable for report any concerns or issues they have, also protect its staff from any situations. By providing these advantages to the staff, they provide green, new technology, safe and connected products, which bring the company step ahead of its competitors. When the employees produce something important, it reward them. Staffs get the reward as a motive, and produce product which have as a competitive advantages the quality, service, technology and price.

Furthermore, the company it allowed to staffs to talk when they thing something is wrong (democratically management style), and also they try to develop the company - thing what they can make for it (technogratically), and to avoid as much as possible the mistakes by develop the matrix structure which can include the geographical structure.

Question 3: Recommendations

Delphi develops globally and its aim is to develop in more countries. It also make safe, cheaper, better quality and the last technological products which are the company's advantages.

Furthermore, it support and respect its employees, thus to can get better products and therefore more customers. They are also work as one team (friendly environment) with the newest technological stuff.

Some recommendations which can improve the Delphi are:

Each employee pass through of a health check once in 4 months, to make sure each employee is healthy

Also doing a research on the Delphi products to find out how they are working. Make a link into the official website, Facebook or/and Twitter to allow to the customer to give a feedback, which Delphi can get and improve its products and services.

It will be good idea if there will be tour around Delphi once or twice a year to show the productions and the company environment.

Having online customer services and technician live chat facility on the official website, it will give an advantage to the company in terms on adding a value to the consumer and solve the problem faster rather using e-mail.

Increase and update the information (company news and products) and include more videos provided to the peoples in the Facebook and Twitter. It is another advantage as well.