Managing is one of the most important soul activities. From the time human beings began forming gathering organizations to accomplish aims and objectives they could not accomplish as individuals, managing has been crucial to guarantee the coordination of individual efforts. As culture continually relied on group energy, and as many orderly groups have become large, the charge of managers has been increasing in importance and complexity.
More broadly, management is the process of conniving and maintaining an environment in which individuals, effective together in groups; efficiently accomplish selected aims (Koontz and Weihrich 1990, p. 4). By prolonging the scope of management the first thing we have as managers, people contain out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, foremost, and controlling. Second, management applies to any kind of organization. Third, management applies to managers at all organizational levels. Fourth, the aim of all managers is the same to generate surplus. Finally, managing is upset with productivity this implies effectiveness and efficiency. The main theme of this paper is not to address regarding the importance of management, but we are here to pen down some answers pertains to management. This assignment is comprises on three different tasks and 5 different questions which needs immense study and contemplation of the writer. To make this assignment well understandable, we will answer each question under the heading of its particular tasks. The first part of the assignment addresses the theory of motivation, while in the second part we will talk about the stakeholders and companies. In the last section, we will visualize and evaluate the organizational model of an organization. So let's start our analysis.
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Ans-A) There are a number of theories of motivation on which the whole concept of motivation based. On the life of every individual the motivational theories are equally applicable. Before going in the details of the different theories pertains to motivation, one must have a very good idea regarding the concept of motivation, and more importantly what value, motivation add in one's life.
A form that starts conduct and gives trend to a being, energizes him and directed him towards achievement of his best goal is called Motivation. It's an inner rider which generally uses to motivate the creature beings but on the stubborn it blunts the actions of the animals as well. The principal party of motivation is to maximize the pleasure and condense the nuisance and hazards of life. Rewards are the best tool vacant to motivate a part at his office. Actually, motivation has two main types on the origin of which a part can motivate pertinently.
The two types of motivation are, Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Motivation. After describing the definition of the motivation, now we are all set to execute a particular premise on a working place if the notion is duly reflected the stance of motivation. When it comes to motivation, the idea which instantaneously comes in front of mentality is the Goal Setting Theory. First we will describe the goal locale system and then realize this concept on a bureau location.
Goal-backdrop system has become one of the most popular theories in organizational psychology. Goals that are testing to achieve and exclusive cultivate to fuel performance more than goals that are not. Goal situation is the energetic constrain which leads a man to achieve his beloved and best goal. Every any one in the intact world sets a goal for him, which he desperately requests to attain instantly. Goal venue schemed gives the same concept likewise, and will help to manage a part's meaning to admire the right path. After describing the major concept of the Goal Setting idea, now we are all set to implement the same on a given workplace. Let's implement this scheme on my delicate life. Likewise any other character, I have also some goals I thought which I want to achieve at any price. I consider once my director gave me a mission which requires immense fear and panel work. Prior I was not agreed to that work because the work is not easy and requires ad hoc responsibility. The thing which induced me to work was the appreciation from my managers and the cloudy incentives behind performing that work. My managers certain me that they will promote me, if I became able to do that forecast according to its prescribed values. Goal setting theory implies the same and it is the great variety to compliment on such class of dealings.
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Ans-B) In this answer, we will address regarding some effects which predominantly are the stereotyping and halo effects. Basically we have to identify the significance of both these by implementing these effects on practical issues. First we will talk about the halo effects.
Before leaping over the chief theme instantly, let me first label about the radiance look.
The aura significance describes our untreated bent to be much more naive, tolerant and yielding towards good-looking individuals in differ to the not-so-attractive...Or in other lexis to be inordinately biased in a certain method to people who are good-looking. Of what significance is the radiance produce to internet marketing or any online sphere for that edition? Well the first thing you have to appreciate is the people are only free to buy from a website they feel comfortable with. The logic is austere. That affection of comfort they experience subconsciously translates into expect. Naturally, if you occur to be the possessor of a well-established cast-name spot such as Amazon.com, this make of group is a non-issue. Basically a nimbus prompt is a sort of biasness which is an existent irritate for not so attractive people. The significance of this result is that it motivates the front end people who regularly face the customers. Let guess you hire Angelina Julie in your amass, from her specter several customers will interest on your shop because a imminent and gorgeous lass is running on your store, but you have to compensate her well. This particular made sometimes referred as the most outrageous one for the non attractive people for hire them on job.
Now comes to the minute outcome which is the Stereotyping outcome. Let's first term the stereotyping make along with its significance and then jot down a handy example of this achieve. Stereotyping is the means through which we, both voluntarily or unconsciously, attach certain expectations or qualities to a being. Stereotyping might be based in accuracy, and many people defend stereotyping by pointing to statistics. However, what people bomb to apprehend is that in most gear, the statistics don't determine something about the qualities. Stereotyping look's significance can be gauge from this thing that it is the confidence of yours on a particular guise. The character on which you have complete assurance ultimately does the work your requirement because he knows that you care on him. Suppose a director of British Airways has inclusive devotion on one of his worker John. So when any big plan comes, he give that work to John only and John will also fill the implore of his manager by delivering the work on time and with effectiveness. Likewise the Halo effect it also epitomize the same stance as the Stereotyping effect of biasness whichever in hiring or in performance appraisal of an employee.
Ans-A) Now in this second task, we have to pen down the facilitation of the shareholders. Our main concerned here is to look over the facilitation power of a company. Let's consider a firm on which this entire section will be based on. The company which we have chosen is Tomkins Plc. Let's first define something about the company and then comes towards the main theme.
Tomkins Plc is an engineering and manufacturing firm which manufactures diversified products for industrial, automotive and building across a number of countries like North America, Europe, Asia and rest of the world. The company was incorporated in 1925, with the name of F.H Tomkins Buckle Company which was a small part of a British manufacturer of buckles and fastener.
The company rapidly grew its revenue during the decade of 1980 to 1990, in 1988 the company which previously known as 'F.H Buckle Company' changed its name to 'Tomkins Plc'. The company has a headquarter in London, the United Kingdom, and the said group is been registered on the two biggest stock exchanges in the world, The London Stock Exchange (LSE) and The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The company has more than 37,000 employees with persistent mounting earning record as the sales of the company are in excess of £3 billion in the second quarter of this year. It is a true fact that the shareholders have only concerned with their investment in the company. They emphasized on the dividend and return they received from the company. To evaluate the same, we have calculate the dividend per share ratio of Tomkins for the period of 2000-2008 and then see, if the company had satisfied their shareholders or not.
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As I, mentioned earlier that the Dividend per Share (DPS) ratio is merely use to analyze how much facilitation the company is proving to their shareholders. DPS analyze the value which a company intends to create for its shareholder and how much they are up to their task. After had a close look over the above mentioned DPS table, I observed that the company 'Tomkins Plc' is quite stabilize as far as facilitate the shareholders is concerned even in the year which is the worst one in its corporate history. Little bit downfall had been seen in two consecutive years 2001 and 2002 in which the company cut down its dividend payments to 10.1 cents or (31.46%) and 7.3 cents or (33.18%) respectively as compared to the previous year. Year 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006 are the most stabilize years for the shareholders as the table shows a consecutive average growth of 9.475 cent or 64.4% which eventually boost up the moral of the shareholders as well as the new investors which ultimately affects the investment graph to arise in the company. The best part of the analysis is that, however, the company recorded a corporate loss of $46 million but they did facilitate their shareholders by giving timely dividends to sustain them which definitely leave a positive impact on the existing shareholders as well as the new investors who wish to invest in the company in future. From the analysis, we can say that the company Tomkins has a success story while facilitating their shareholder.
Ans-B) As this world is becoming a global village, the credit for this scenario is being given to none other than the emergence of technology worldwide. Technology is fast becoming the latest energetic force behind what is often called the "generation gap". While people worldwide of every age have become quite comfortable with and dependent on technology. Usage of Technology is not the only chasm between the young and old. Another gap is of the generation's perceptions about technology. Not surprisingly, younger adults are more likely to admit "gadget lust" than that which is true of older adults. Technology is affecting the lives of many people in both positive and negative manners. It is a common saying that, "Technology should be our servant and not our master". We have to prove this statement true with any practical example. Believe or not technology can not do anything by itself. Technology has been made to assist people not to dominate on the people. Let's imagine that you are working in an investment firm where you are a trader, trade on the US securities. In this scenario technology can let you the risk involvement and potential return on your trade but can not execute the trade profitable until and unless you ordered it to do that. Likewise these there are a number of examples like this which involves technology but with the help of human power. So it can be said that "Technology is our servant and not our master".
Organizational Culture is the brainchild in the field of organizational management and their studies. The idea prompts psychology, attitudes, beliefs and personal and organizational values of an organization. A comprehensive definition of the organizational culture is defined as "the precise collection of norms and values that are allocated by groups or people in an organization and that managed the way they correlate with each other and with the shareholders outside the organization" (Richard Kotter and Heskett (1992) define organizational culture, "as an interdependent set of values and ways of behaving that are common to a community and tend to perpetuate themselves, sometimes over a long period of time." Robbins (2002) defines organizational culture as "a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. This is a set of characteristics that the organization values. According to Thomas Hobbes, "the power of a man ... is his present means, to obtain some future apparent good" (Sorensen J.B. (2002).The concept of the organizational culture is much wider and deeper than the corporate culture. It defines all the issues and particulars related with an organization and their behaviors towards the organization. The values, psychology, attitudes and beliefs of person or a group work in the organization affect the organizational culture, because as known an atom is the base of mass, so is the a single worker in any organization is the base of organization.
The idea of establishing a business or organization comes into ones mind, when such person wants to make profit and the persons uses much influences and power for promoting and stabling the organization. The use of power and influences in a good manner gives a business sometimes slow but an ethical profit, but if people try to put their power in rough and harsh manner they would get to a peak point very hastily, but fall from their would be very much possible (Sorensen J.B. (2002). The stance of organizational culture influences on the behavior of the individual in a number of manner as it is the thing which change the thinking of the individuals even its employees for the company and a company which has operated in a congenial environment then the employees of that company will be more satisfied than the employees of any other company. Let's now evaluate the model of the used by the managers to manage diversity.
The model above depicts that the organizational culture, control system and power structure has affected the paradigm brutally. With the help of this model a manager can initiate a number of strategies to eliminate the hazards of workplace diversity completely.
Mentioned below are some strategies to eliminate the same. These strategies are of the same Tomkins Plc organization.
The local education should be liberal and must include subjects like human rights and civil which leaves a positive impact on the children's mind.
Law and order system needs a critical review to ensure quick justices.
Religious leaders must take a step to set the minds of the peoples to eliminate issue based on cast and racial discrimination prevailing in the society.
Critical review and verification must be there to ensure the merit base hiring and Government should take decisions to increase employment for the minorities and for other ignoring communities.
Local NGO's and government institution must be encouraged to arrange training and educational program to eliminate racial discrimination.
Racial discrimination has a very negative effect on the children which ultimately effects on their mentality and their performance so the education policy should be developed to promote intercultural education in the children.
Lorene Oikawa, BCGEU Vice-President and Chair of the Equity and Human Rights Committee says (On March 21, International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination):
"Let's embrace the idea of "playing well with others."
He also says
Our workplace and union must get strong when we welcome the people from different racial and ethnic background. We can find a wealth of skills, expertise, abilities and experience from every individual.
Apart from that, organizations must identify training and development needs for all employees and try to departmentalize them according to their experience, expertise and personal interest. Utilize their individual development plans and rotate developmental assignments among them which enhance their conceptual and creativity skills and if they become able to do that then the organization become really a place to work with heart.