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The earth receives more energy from the sun in just one hour than the world uses in a whole year. Two billion people in the world have no access to electricity. For most of them, solar photovoltaic would be their cheapest electricity source, but they cannot afford it. Approximately 45% of the cost of a silicon cell solar module is driven by the cost of the silicon wafer, a further 35% is driven by the materials required to assemble the solar module. Crystalline Silicon cell technology forms about 90% of solar cell demand. The balance comes from thin film technologies. The United States, Russia, China, Saudi Arabia, and Canada were the world's five largest producers of energy in 1999, supplying 47.9 percent of the world's total energy. Further, worldwide oil consumption rose by slightly less than 1 million barrels per day in 2000 (vs 1999). World energy consumption is projected to increase by 59% from 1999 to 2020. Much of the growth in worldwide energy use is expected in the developing world. Worldwide photovoltaic installations increased by 5,948 MW in 2008, up from 2,826 MW installed during 2007. In 1985, annual solar installation demand was only 21 Megawatts. Solar energy has very high demand and high demand also invites competition and attracts businesses to enter industry. Cumulative solar energy production accounts for less than 0.01% of total Global Primary Energy demand (www.solarbuzz.com).
This research proposal gives brief idea about research study in Marketing Research. In this proposal, title of research project as appropriate as possible has been given which may produce manageable parameters of the project. The aim of this research that is to research market of Solar Energy Products in Gujarat, India to know the future scope for new businesses. Context of study will give idea about the products, region and market of which theory to be explored in this study project. Literature review supports analysis and evaluation of the study which will finally lead to conclusion and information about research methodology and research methods is given in the later part of proposal.
1 Proposed Research Title:-
The title of research is ‘Market Research on Solar Energy Products in Gujarat, India in context to future business development'.
2 Inspiration of project:
Current market of solar energy products of India is an emerging market. According to press release of ministry of new and renewable energy (government of India) on February 2009, an ambitious programme of development of solar cities is had been launched in India. Nagpur in Maharashtra will be the first solar city in the country. The ministry of New and Renewable Energy proposed to develop 60 such cities during the 11th Plan Period. At least one city in each state to a maximum of five cities in a State will be supported by the Ministry. To meet the peak electricity demand of cities, to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and expensive oil and gas for energy and to promote increased use of renewable energy, this scheme has been developed. Nagpur will become model solar city by 2012 under the scheme. Up to 10% of energy consumption of this city has been targeted to be met through Renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. 50 % of the cost will be shared by the Ministry where Rs. 50 lakh will be provided for Master Plan, solar city cell and promotional activities. Major solar energy system will be installed including streetlights, garden lights, traffic lights, hoardings, solar water heaters etc. Energy Efficient Green Buildings also will be promoted on large scale in the city (www.mnes.nic.in). A Cost of fossil fuel and quantity of fossil fuel remains on the earth lead world to find an alternative energy source. Another press release in December 2008 shows a large scale use of solar energy in India. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is implementing schemes on promotion of solar energy in the country. About 4.34 lakh solar home lights, 6.97 lakh solar lanterns, 0.74 lakh solar street lights, 7204 solar pumps, 5.2 MWp off-grid and grid connected solar power plants, 25 lakh square metre solar thermal collector area and 6.2 lakh solar cookers have been installed in the country. In addition, around 8,000 remote villages and hamlets have been supported for electrification with solar energy systems. Solar Energy can be harnessed through two routes namely solar photovoltaic for direct conversion to electricity and solar thermal for heating/cooling and power generation respectively. The production of solar energy devices/systems and their utilization are regularly increasing. However, the high initial cost of solar energy systems is a barrier in large scale utilization for power generation. The Ministry is supporting research and development to reduce the cost, improve the efficiency and performance of solar energy systems to increase their share. The National Action Plan on Climate Change has also identified development of solar energy in the country by setting up a Solar Mission. The Ministry has taken several other steps to increase the utilization of solar energy in the country, which include (i) taking up expanded programmes to encourage utilization of solar energy systems through subsidy or soft loans, (ii) incentive to manufacturers, commercial users and power project developers (iii) support to Akshaya Urja shops to provide additional channels for sale and after-sales servicing of solar energy systems, and (iv) create awareness through print and electronic media about the solar energy systems and their benefits. This information was given by the Minister of State for New and Renewable Energy, Shri Vilas Muttemwar in response to a question by Dr. Janardhan Waghmare in the Rajya Sabha (www.mnes.nic.in). As we can see the above discussion shows that solar energy industry could be somewhere between start and growth phase of industry life cycle. The present market condition and future predication in context to new businesses willing to enter the market is main reason for this project study.
3 Aim and Objectives:-
The main aim of this project is to research market of Solar Energy Products in Gujarat, India to know the future scope for new businesses. The most important focus of this research is to find out opportunities and threat for new businesses and to find out who are involved in this business and who are end users of that business? And by interviewing or questioning with them helps to find out statistical data as well as the nature of business in current market. The objectives to achieve main aim are in short below:
- To determine where solar energy products industry of Gujarat lies on industry life cycle.
- To analysis opportunities and threats to new businesses. To carry out this objective some analysis such as SWOT, PESTAL or five force needs to be done
- To evaluate marketing strategies of new business to approach end users faster by facing less competition.
- Critical evaluation marketing strategies of businesses already operating in industry.
- Future prediction of solar energy products industry of Gujarat.
To achieve above objectives tutor guidance, library books, journal's articles and corporate and government websites will be very helpful.
4 Limitations and Financial Budget of this Project.
The main limitation of this study is that it is limited to Gujarat industry only. It is not possible to cover the whole Indian solar energy product industry. Further, there are some limited numbers of businesses operating in Gujarat industry as industry is in initial stage of industry life cycle therefore scope and range of data collected from operating businesses would be limited. Information collected from businesses might be incorrect because business information is very confidential and it might possible that collected information could be wrong. These may affect study analysis and final conclusion. Solar energy product industry as a whole includes range of different products. Some of the products does not utilise or produce in Gujarat so the final conclusion of this research cannot be use for any further studies relates to products not included. As far as financial budget concern it is very limited. Technical knowledge of researcher of solar product could be also a limitation of this study. Financially it is not possible to contact high range of businesses for information. For this study India will be visited and a period of time will have to spend in India which will incur some expenses.
5 Context of Research project:-
The research project is based on Solar Energy Products in Gujarat, India where sun available for almost 8-9 months of the year and 12-13 hrs a day to produce Solar Energy. This research project is concern to Solar Energy Products available in that region like solar water heater, Solar Cooker, Solar Electricity Generator, Solar Charger; Solar Energy operated Water Pump, and many others. As Gujarat is the one of the developed state in India it has to have well future plan and facilities in the state. So for future of the state that is also concerned about Global Warming they have to produce energy which is environmental Friendly and Day to Day useable. So from Environmental friendly point of view and future of world Solar Energy Products are one of the best options in the market to use.
Context of the research project is based on market research on solar energy Products in Gujarat, India. If anybody wants to start their business they have to carry out market research, they have to first try to predict future of the business. So in study market research on solar energy products will help to find the future of that business in Gujarat, India.
6 Literature Review:-
- Marketing, An Introduction, by Gary Armstrong and Philip Kotler, 6th ed. 2003, Prentice Hall
- Business Basics, A Study guide for degree Students: Marketing, by BPP Publications, 3rd ed. 2000
- Marketing , Theory and Practice, by Michael Baker, 3rd ed. 1995, Macmillan Business
- Marketing, Principles and Practice, by Dennis Adcock, Al Halborg, Caroline Ross, 4th ed. 2001, FT/Prentice
- [WWW] http://www.emeraldinsight.com
- [WWW] http:// www.managers.org.uk
- [WWW] http:// www.mnes.nic.in
- Harvard Business reviews
- Marketing Journals from Library and Internet
- Articles on Websites
Literatures will help to learn skills and technique of various methods for Research. It is very important for analysis and evaluation of study. It will also gives knowledge about how to and from where collect data for analysis and it helps to find out current nature of business in market.
7 Research Methodology & Research Methods:-
Researchers have to decide what type of approach they want to use to collect and to analyze their data. In other words how they are going to tackle the empirical side of their research. There are two approaches of research methodology – qualitative and quantitative approach.
Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. Quantitative research is widely used in both the natural and social sciences, from physics and biology to sociology and journalism. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypothesis pertaining to natural phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. The term quantitative research is most often used in the social science in contrast to qualitative research.
Qualitative is one of the two major approaches to research methodology in social sciences. Qualitative research involves an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern human behaviour. Unlike quantitative research, qualitative research relies on reasons behind various aspects of behaviour. Simply put, it investigate the why and how of decision making, as compared to what, where, and when of quantitative research. Hence, the need is for smaller but focused samples rather than large random samples. From which qualitative research categorize data into patterns as the primary basis for organizing and reporting results.
An intelligent way of differentiating qualitative from quantitative research is that largely qualitative research is exploratory, while quantitative is conclusive. Quantitative data is measurable while qualitative can not be put into a context that can be graphed or displayed as a mathematical term. (Raymond-Alain Thietart et al, 2000.
This project is primarily based on quantitative approach of research methodology. As mentioned above that this approach emphasis on positive view i.e. scientifically provable. Task of market research on solar energy products are mostly worked on data collected during research which is mainly numerical values. Analysing of data collected by market research gives the exact idea about future development of solar energy products business in that region. This analysis can be done by using software like SSPS or by manually through observation and calculation.
Qualitative approach will be considered as a secondary approach for this research project because most of the data and their analysis are in form of number, figure, graph, etc. which shows that in this research project quantitive approach is mostly preferred. This qualitative approach is considered as secondary because there may be some hypothesis among the researchers. E.g. for end users, some qualitative points like solar energy products have reliability, environmental friendliness, easy to use, etc characteristics or not.
The main aim of research methods is to produce a new knowledge, which may take in three types:-
* Exploratory research – which identifies and structured new problems
* Constructive research – which developed solution to problems
* Empirical research – which test the feasibility of a solution using experimental evidence
Research methods also classified in to following terms:-
* Primary research – it involves the collection of data that doesn't already exist.
* Secondary research – it involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather than primary research, where data is collected from, for example, research subjects or experiments, past records, current figure, etc.
In this research project secondary research method is used because in this method data collected are from observation, past records, experiments, current figures, etc which mainly concerned with the market research of solar energy products. For this collection of data and further information, Renewable energy department-Government of India and Gujarat energy development agency (www.geda.org.in) can help a lot. Finally data analysis should be necessary to achieve main aim of research project.
Various methods of collecting data are as follows.
* Case study
* Statistical analysis
* Past records (Trochim. W.M.K – 2006)
The way of research in this research project is constructive which can develop the future business of solar energy products in Gujarat, India. The methods which are to be undertaken will be secondary research method because it involves collation (comparison) of different years and alternatives where the data is collected from past records, current figures, observation, etc. The techniques of research used in this research project are may be classification, interviews, questionnaire, and analysis of current market of solar energy products. In simple way of understand market research process following diagram help a lot:
(Armstrong G and Kotler P, 2007)
TROCHIM, W. 2000. The research methods knowledge base. 2nd ed. Cincinnati: Atomic dog publishing.
ALAN, R. 2001. Doing Management Research. 1st ed. London: SAGE publications ltd.
Adler, P. A. & Adler, P. (1987). Membership roles in field research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G., 2007. Marketing: an introduction. 8th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall
[www.mnes.nic.in] http://mnes.nic.in/press-releases/press-release-18022009.pdf, 24/06/09.
[www.mnes.nic.in] http://mnes.nic.in/press-releases/press-release-15122008-3.pdf, 24/06/09.
[www.solarbuzz.com], http://www.solarbuzz.com/FastFactsIndustry.htm, 24/05/09