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While speaking about social networking,one of the subjects could be important,is its relation with Human Resoursces,and the effects of the social networking on productivity(performance)respectively,can play its own role in this matter.
What would be important to the organization generally,and to the management specifically,isprobably,the positive and negative aspects or in other words,advantages and disadvantages of using social networking in field of Human Resource,and this ,has brought the HR professionals to a dilemma about social networking.
To justify that,if social networking can guarantee the productivity of the employees, there are some studies and researches have been done.As mentioned in one of these researches" productivity is a value,divided by time,and people are free to decide what value means to them.It's quite subjective.What might be valuable in one's profession,might not be in other's"
We're all already using social networking in our personal life(Facebook,Twitter,andson on),and we can easily see it's effects on our everyday life.
We know that information sharing is one of the ways ,to improve our knowledge and capabilities in different fields.Forsure,social networking plays a dynamic role in the matter.
As Frank Cabri,the vice president of marketing at Facetime,a software company says:
"Social-Networking sites can potentially help an organization by fostering teamwork among employees"
He continues"one of the most significant aspects of social-networking technology I've seen is, its ability to break down the barriers within the organization.When people feel they have some kind of social relationship with others in the company,there tends to be greater collaboration between them"
On the other hand,we face some experts,whobeleive social networking can make the employee great advantage in their personal lives rather than their work collaborations.
What we're going to expand and elaborate on,in the case of productivity is;going through social networking (or even Online Social Networking)from different perspectives,and studying the social nature of the social networking which is assumed somehow to have a negative effect on the employees productivity,and do not have any organizaational benefit.
Also,wether or not ,unrestricted access of the employees to internet will have positive or negative consequences is another matter we're going to deal with in our article.
1.1-Productivity and social networking in the modern economy
Bernolak (1997:204) expressed productivity as 'how much and how well
weproduce from resources which are used". If we produce better goods
fromthe same resources, we increase productivitythen,on the other hand,if we produce the goods from lesser sources,again increase in productivity happens. 'productivity' could be refered to as the exact time an employee spend to execute his or her job for which he or she is responsible for,inorderto gain the expected results .
Recent studies,done byGolder, Wilkinson and Huberman (2007), Arvanitis and Loukis(in press) and Coyle and Vaughn (2008:13âˆ’17)
Posed that social networks aretypical characteristics of human
behaviour to perform their need of communicating and connecting with other people.They also help them share their knowledge with each other and improve their participation and collaboration.Many experts believe that the internet can provide people effective social networking opportunities.
Discussing general topics of interest,dating,finding friends with the same experience,finding life partners,relate to distant family members also could be mentioned as other results of using internet.
1.2-Online social networks and social networking
As said Tapscott and Williams' The concept of social networking is not new. Human interaction inherently promotes the formation of networks through social contact'.
In the past collaboration might happen among family members,relatives,friends and associates in households and communities. But today we hardly see the same situation,it means that people function in group form by using ICT.Actually ,collaboration in non group form makes no sens anymore.
Social networking allows people to make their own profile,connect to othe members or organizations,add others as friends,and send them private or public messages,taking part in the forums discussions,and by improvement in social networking technologies people can have more expert audience.
1.3-Online social networks and human capital
Although social networking is common human behaviour,we'd like to know if it can add any value to the organizations or not.Focusing on Productivity,Arvanitis and Loukis in 2008 scrutinized the connection between ICT,humanskills,knowledge and capabilities,,workplaceorganization,andlaborproductivity.their comparative study was based on firm-level data for Greece and Swiss.
In Greek firms,since there was not an efficient combination of the human capital and technology,the full productivity was not reached.
Findings in swiss were not the same.what the researchers found was that with a better and more efficient combination of human capital and the potential of technology through decentralization they can exploit a higher level of ICT and more successful of decentralization of capabilities.
By the way combination of both items(human capital and technology) we can raise and improve productivity.
It's been proved that what people know should be seriously considered in productivity of an organization,since they are highly correlated.By facilitating the interaction of communities and human capital through social networks or online social networking sites this would be practical.
The important point is that ,an organization should increase what people know and how they use their knowledge in an organization or in a community.
2.1-Advantages and risks of online social networking
As explained before,social network sites gives people the opportunity to set up their profiles,view,search,and link to others who are registered in social network.In fact by this technology,besides their own profile,people are allowed to visit and have access to other people profiles.In the organization,this ability make employee share their knowledge with other employees,business partners,and customers and communicate more common ,and consequently it results in productivity improvement.
Bernoff , Liand and violino(2008)have reviewed the temporary studies of onlin social networking in the organization and come to this point that OSN allows a strong mixture of a member profile and his/her contact information,cooperative document creation,tracking ,publishing and any other specification which build a pulse inside the organization.every person in the workplace know others,know who is who and in which position they are ,and what exactly they do.generaly online social networking provides people with a simpler approach for the members of the community to find each other base on the knowledge they need.
By the way,we can not ignore the risks of online social networking.The European Network and Information Security Agency(2007)have mentioned some these risks:
some of the risks as follows:
1-Too much using of OSN,can make people addicted to it and it may decrease the productivity if don't use it in a proper way.
2-In OSN privacy could be a matter of security risks,identity fraud is what can be mentioned.
3-Using OSN could be named as secondary data collection.
4-Another risk of OSN is viruses,and worms which can spoil the organization ICT infrastructure.
5-Spam is another disadvantage of OSN which is related to the unwanted and unrequested messages.
6-OSN may result in storing consumption,because people share many items such as photos,videos and pictures with each other.
7-Some employees use Webs to do some unrelated works.
2.2-Measuring the effect of online social networking
There are different instruments for measurement in business,from all Ward(2006) refer to the ROI or return on investment as the most important one.For some organizations return on investment is important but to other organizations measuring the satisfaction and productivity of employees are important as well.
Ward believes that the combination of OSN technology and intranet of the organization can prepare a social field of communication,innovation and cooperation.paper use,hardware cost,sales rate are those measurable items ,and other items such as customer satisfaction,employee satisfaction,and productivity of the employees are not that easy to be measured.
In our study we focus on the productivity of the employees,and the point that how it could be influenced by OSN.the specifications of productivity are too many,also we have many other factors related to human resource management and performance.
Human resource management
Human resource management has been practiced from the decades of 60and70 in the 20th century.It plays an important role in modern economy.Quick technological and scientific revolution which has made the information period,human resource can promote economy development more than physical resources.
To Tom Keenoy,(1990),Human resource management is a "brilliant ambiguity concept".It empowers the users to define their purpose ,also it causes them to understand the image of attributes which users have in their mind.
To describe Hard HRM and Soft HRM,we can say that Hard HRM is instrumental,and it 's been measured by the financial performance factors,but Soft HRM is human oriented and compassionate,and communication and management is based on interpersonal interactions.
Sometimes recognizing these two kinds of human resource management needs the management be very accurate,they have to consider them in their management policy at the same time.
From the 90s decade,the role of HRM has been more vital,and it needs competitive advantage.many factors such as globalization,technological innovation,being quality oriented,has increased the importance of human resource.the effectiveness of human resource management can be essential for the aim gaining and financial matters of the organization.According to (Michael Beer, Bert Spector, 1984) HRM function is classified as
employee influence, human resource flow, reward system and work system.
To Schuler and Jackson,HRM is categorized into the followings:planning,employee training,improvement,placement and allowance.
Some other researchers specify HRM as recruitment,job challenges,teamwork,job security,collaboration,communication, and development.
In network era,organizations and companies need to use SN resources to
Access effective market information,specific resources or opportunities.
Social networking generally stimulates collaboration and knowledge
Online social networking technology should be acted in a suitable ,effective way to increase the results to a maximum rate.
Because the empoyees may turn to their own strategies.As said before,there are some risks of using OSN such as legal liability,productivity decreasing,exposure of personal profile.
To prevent such abusing of OSN,the organizations are advised to create their own network for their users(employees)related to the online social networking.Also the employees should try to follow their organization's policies in case of networking ,in order to minimize the risk of abusing the social networking.
In summary ,the organizations should establish strategies to address OSN
Issues and factors such as personal usage, business relevance, site restrictions and information confidentiality without limiting employees to
Take advantage personally and professionally from this social Webtechnology,and,ultimately benefiting the organisation through its
potential positive effects on the employees productivity.
Andrew R.Mcllvaine (2008),social networking potential &peril ,Human Resource Executive
A.Ferreira and J.du Plessis (2009),Peer Reiewed Articlevol.1,pages2-16
Lynn Wu(2010),social network effects on performance Article
StevePavlina,(2009) , steve pavlina.com