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Leadership is a process, the used of non-coercive influence to shape the groups or organisations motivate behaviour toward the achievement of those goals and help define group or organisation culture; as a property, the set of characteristics attributed to individuals who are perceived to be a leaders. So, the leaders are who can influence the behaviour of others at work. The leadership consist of three major aspects including:
Motivation and inspiring
Goleman (2000), suggests that effective leaders choose from six distinct leadership syles:
Coercive: do what I tell you
Pacesetting: do as I do, now
Coaching: try this
Democratic: what do you think?
Affiliative: people come first
Authoritative: come with me
If we talk about the organisation we are styding which is Pizza Hut, and choose three leadership styles which affects or influence the employees performance are Coercive, affiliative and authoritative. If we apply these three in the situations where the managers has to play a leadership role and have to influence employees performance that will lead us which leadership style is more effective.
Situation 1: coercive leadership style
If the manager has coercive leadership style and he has a group of individuals working under his supervision, the environment will be bit intense. As the leader has coercive style where leader wants to affect the performance only by telling them what he wants them to do without having any interference of others will decrease the group confidence in asking and enhancing their knowledge in the organisation. they will only wait for the leader to tell them what to do. This type of leadership style will decrease the employee performance and since it is customer focus organisation this type of leadership style does not help in influencing or increasing the group performance.
Situation 2: Affiliative leadership style
This style focuses on the importance of team work and creates harmony in the group by connecting them with eachother. Goleman, states that this approach is particularly valuable when trying to increase team harmony, morale and improve communication and repair the broken trust in an organisation. this type of leadership style is more influential and affective when it comes to increase the group performance. The employees feel more confidence in communicating with eachother and try to sort the issues if there is any without having any barrier.
Situation 3: Authoritative leadership style
This is a classical model of military style leadership, most often used but lease often effective because it rarely gains any praise and mostly employs criticism. This kind of leadership styles underpins the morale of the employees and reduces the job satisfaction which in return affects the organisations objective.
There are number of well-known motivation theories which helps organisations to understand the concept of motivating employees rather been autocratic or bureaucratic to achieve the organisational goals. The motivation theories includes;
Maslow Hierarchy of needs
Herzberg motivation theory
Vroom and Expectancy theory
McCrae and Costa personality dimension theory
Motivation and performance
Rewards and incentives
Monetary and non-monetary rewards
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs:
This theory suggests that it is a process that the behaviour of an individual is influenced by others by their power to offer or withhold satisfaction of the individual's needs and goals. This theory is based on five basic concepts of motivation, which includes; Physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem and self-actualisation need.
Maslow theory of motivation has focused the humans basic needs that are essential to perform effectively in the organisation. He suggests that when these five factors of satisfaction are fulfilled an individual will be self motivated to produce the outcome and increase the performance.
Herzberg has given two-factor motivation theory, in which he describes his finding through his research on over 200 employees in the organisation. His theory states two factors including Motivator factor and Hygiene factor.
Motivator factor: this explains the job-content factors which includes achievements, recognition, responsibility, advancement and the work itself. To some extend Herzberg motivator factor is linked or the extension of Maslow hierarchy theory of needs where an individual is concern about him or herself satisfaction which could be through achievement of the work, recognition to have job satisfaction, responsibility to take opportunity to prove skills, advancement to go extra miles and work itself as a pride.
This factor refers to job-context variables such as salary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision, working conditions and company's policies and administration. This factors clearly shows that when one's individual needs are fulfilled than it concentrates on the working environment to analyse the salary requirements, the interpersonal relations how much an individual is social with other team members, technical supervision wants to enhance the skills, working condition to increase the productivity and company's requirement to work under.
This expectancy theory suggest that motivation depends on two things, first, how much we want something and secondly how likely we think we are to get it. In other words this theory defines the process of Effort to give performance and the reward achieved through performance. Which means you will be able to get what you have put in to get it. The reward is based on the effort and performance one have provided.
Than we have rest of the motivation theories, all the motivation theories based on one factor that how much one is eager to achieve what he or she wants and what are the factors that influences an individual to achieve their targets. It is similar to rewards and incentives, monetary and non-monetary motivation.
Group Behaviour and Effective Teamwork:
Group is any collection of people who perceive themselves to be a group. There are number attributes involve in groups which includes; a sense of identity, loyalty to the group and purpose of group. Than the groups distribute in two factors, formal groups and informal groups in the organisation.
Having an effective teamwork one needs to understand that how teams developed and how we differentiate teams from the groups. There are number of factors that count in building effective teams. Building an effective teamwork is a process developed through having good management and leadership skills and motivation factors. A team defined as mechanisms for co-ordinating the efforts of individuals within a controlled structure and encourages exchange of knowledge and ideas. Then this refers to develop a formal group to achieve particular objectives. The concept of teamwork is to gather individuals from various disciplines or departments to fulfil a particular task. This means all individuals who carry their own specialism in different areas of profession combined to perform certain task.
There are number of factors that promote the effective teamwork such as the brainstorming and quality circle. Brainstorming is a process whereby individuals produce spontaneous, uncensored ideas, sparked off by a particular task whereas, the quality circle is a group of employees from different levels or disciplines, who meet regularly to discuss the problems of quality control in their area of work. In terms of developing an effective teamwork, the team has to go through different stages.
The purpose of the teambuilding is not to have close-knit or satisfy team but to have close-knit and satisfy team in order to fulfil the given task and objective. It involves number of objectives have focused teams which includes;
Clearly setting out the teams objectives and tasks they are allocated to perform.
Involving the team in setting specific targets and standards.
Providing the team right information, resources, training and environment in which they can work together in respect to achieve the objective.
Giving regular and clear feedbacks and results in order to make any changes if required.
Some other factors which promote effective teamwork are sense of identity as a team and encouraging members loyalty or solidarity, so that members put in extra effort for the sake of the group and achieving organisational objectives.
Team Identity: A manager is able to increase his workforce sense of itself as a team by ;
Giving the team a name-e.g. a winning team
Giving the team a uniform or team badge- to develop a self-motivation as a part of team
Building a team tradition-whether they like to be formally organised or free to develop their own tasks
Team solidarity: sticking together;
Encouraging interpersonal relationships- trust each other and work together
Controlling conflicts-deal personality clashes and disagreement immediately
Controlling intra-group competition- team members should treat fairly and equally.
One of the very effective factor that controls the team spirit is the commitment of shared objectives. The purpose of the teambuilding is not to be close to the team satisfaction but to have a close knit and satisfy team for the purpose of achieving organsiation's objectives. This involves to have;
The objectives of the team should be clearly define
Involving the team in setting specipic targets and standards
Providing the right information, resources, training and environment to work together
Providing regular and clear feedbacks of the team activities.
Growth of any organisation is dependent on the technology factor. In this fast moving knowledge-based economy and globalisation, the organisation must react to the change by processing the timely information and making quick decision in order to meet the change requirements.
The business environment is more complex than ever before bud to increase in the connectivity and volatility within industries and across the world. This change in technology has not only increased the productivity in the workforce but also given people a control for their work environment and work preferences.
Technology has not only increased the business within but also open the opportunities for teams to work across the world. This is called Network and Virtual Team.
This term also known as geographically dispersed team (GDT), this is a group of people who work across the world through webs of communication technology. They are committed to a common purpose, have interdependent performance goals and share an approach to work for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.