Shift Share Analysis

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  1. Investigate the traditional view of personnel management and the new approach of human resource Management

  2. The history of personnel management begins around the end of the 19th century, when welfare officers came into being. Their creation was a reaction to the harshness of industrial conditions, coupled with pressures arising from the extension of the franchise, the influence of trade unions and the labour movement, and the campaigning of enlightened employers, often Quakers, for what was called 'industrial betterment'.

    The growth in personnel management: 1914-39

    The First World War accelerated change in the development of personnel management, as it did in many other areas of working life. The number of welfare officers grew to about 1,300, largely because of the Munitions of War Act, 1915, which sought to control the supply of labour to munitions factories and made welfare services obligatory in them. Men were recruited to oversee boys' welfare, and the government encouraged welfare development through the Health of Munitions Workers' Committee.

    The Second World War: personnel grows further in importance

    The Second World War brought about welfare and personnel work on a full-time basis at all establishments producing war materials because an expanded Ministry of Labour and National Service insisted on it, just as the Government had insisted on welfare workers in munitions factories in the previous conflict. With more women again being introduced into the workforce, 'dilution' once more on the agenda, substantial re-training necessary and shift working extended, the government saw specialist personnel management as part of the drive for greater efficiency and the number of people in the personnel function grew substantially; there were around 5,300 in 1943.

    1945 - 1979: collective bargaining and industrial relations have primacy

    By 1945, employment management and welfare work had become integrated under the broad term, 'personnel management', while experience of the war had shown that output and productivity could be influenced by employment policies. The role of negotiation with unions had grown in importance. But the role of the personnel function in wartime had been largely that of implementing the rules demanded by large-scale, state-governed production, and thus the image of an emerging profession was very much a bureaucratic one.

    Finally, in this period, personnel techniques developed using theories from the social sciences about motivation and organisational behaviour; selection testing became more widely used, and management training expanded. New management techniques for improving performance arrived from American academics such as McGregor and Herzberg to be applied by personnel departments.

    Thus, by the end of the seventies, the main features of personnel management as it appears today were in place, and can be distinguished as:

    • the collective bargaining role

    • Centred around dealing with trade unions, to which might be added the development of strategies for handling industrial relations

    • The implementer of legislation role

    • Implying understanding and implementing a growing amount of legislation

    • The bureaucratic role

    • Implementing a series of rules about behaviour at work, dealing with recruitment, managing absence and so on

    • The social conscience of the business role, or 'value champion'

    • A residue from the welfare worker function

    • A growing performance improvement role(in some organisations and sectors)

    • About integrating the personnel function with business needs and taking a more strategic view.

    There is no significance in the order of the above list; the relative importance of the respective features will vary from organisation to organisation, and from time to time.

    1979 - present : the rise of HRM

    The 1980s in particular saw substantial changes as a result of legislation, a shift in the intellectual climate away from post-war collectivism and towards individualism, and changes in the structure of the economy. In 1979 a Conservative government under Margaret Thatcher was elected with a radical agenda and, with wide public concern about perceived abuses of union power, a mandate to reduce it. Legislation was introduced to outlaw sympathetic and political strikes, remove the closed shop, and generally increase the power of individual union members. High unemployment and structural change in the economy with a move to services from manufacturing would in any case have meant a decline in union membership. But the legislation assisted employers who wanted to reduce the influence of trade unions; personnel departments played their part in this process, most notably and symbolically in national newspapers where, after bitter disputes, closed shops were ended and trade unions removed.

    Organisation development (OD), another import from the USA although less influential than HRM in the UK, also played a part in the development of techniques used by those in personnel. Another development which became evident from the seventies, and perhaps more marked during the nineties, is the rise of specialisms: training was always separate in many organisations, but in larger organisations other specialisms such as reward, resourcing and diversity now exist within the personnel function.

  3. Evaluate the procedures and practices used for recruiting and selecting suitable employees

  4. Purpose of the procedure:

    Recruiting and selecting the right people is paramount to the success of the IPCC and its ability to retain a workforce of the highest quality. This Recruitment and Selection Procedure sets out how to ensure as far as possible, that the best people are recruited on merit and that the recruitment process is free from bias and discrimination.

    Legal requirements:

    Recruitment and selection procedures must comply with the IPCC's Diversity Policy. This procedure incorporates compliance with the following legislation:

    • The Sex Discrimination Act 1975
    • The Race Relations Act 1976, along with the Race Relations Act 1976 (Amendment) Regulations 2003
    • The Disability Discrimination Act 1995
    • The Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003
    • The Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003

    Overview of the process:

    • Assess the need for the job and ensure there is adequate funding for it
    • Review the job description to ensure that it meets the present and future requirements
    • Review the person specification to ensure it meets the requirements of the job description
    • Design the selection process
    • Draft the advertisement and select the advertising media
    • Short list using the person specification only
    • Interview and test short-listed candidates
    • Validate references, qualifications and security clearances
    • Make appointment

    Managers hold the responsibility for ensuring this framework is followed. HR is available for advice and will assist in general administration of the recruitment process.

    Review the job and need for it:

    Managers need to consider the following issues:

    • Is the job still necessary? : What value does it add to the team and to the delivery of service?
    • How will the post be funded? : Positions outside of existing establishment require the Director's and Chief Executive's approval.
    • Does the job description need updating? : If so, the grade for the job and the person specification may need to be re-evaluated.
    • The HR Team is available to provide advice on constructing both job descriptions and person specifications and advising on grading issues.
    • What type of employment could be offered?
      • Full-time, part-time?
      • Is job-sharing an option?
      • Permanent or fixed term contract, secondment or agency?

    Panel Composition:

    All interviews for permanent posts must be conducted by a panel. The Manager is responsible for selecting interview panel members - being mindful of:

    • the requirement that the panel consist of at least two people, and if possible, be mixed in terms of race and gender
    • the requirement that at least one panel member has received training on recruitment and equal opportunities, normally limited to that provided by the IPCC. If not IPCC trained, the matter should be referred to Human Resources.
    • The requirement that each panel member be familiar with anti-discrimination legislation
    • The willingness and ability of potential panel members to attend all interviews for the duration of the recruitment process, to maintain consistency and to ensure fair treatment of all candidates.

    Selection Tests:

    Where selection tests are a valid method of assessing a candidate, they are an extremely useful tool and are recommended for use. Managers should seek advice from HR on the use of such tests. All psychometric tests used in selection must be developed, administered and interpreted by accredited people.

    Interview Questions:

    Human Resources hold the IPCC Interview Guides that contain competency based interview questions. Managers need to ensure they contact Human Resources prior to interview to obtain copies of these guides.

    Advertising of vacancies:

    The HR Team provides a centralised advertising service for the advertisement of vacancies and will assist the Manager prepare an appropriate advertisement.

    All permanent vacancies are advertised concurrently internally and externally. External advertisement is on the IPCC website, generally along with appropriate newspaper publications and can include the use of agencies where appropriate. Applications are to be forwarded to the HR Team in the first instance and not directly to the Manager.


    Short-listing must be completed based on the person specification. New criteria cannot be introduced to assess the candidates at this stage as it would be unfair. It is the Manager's responsibility to complete the short-listing and to ensure the process remains free of unlawful discrimination. It is desirable that a second person from the panel also participates in the short-listing process. Former employees who have been dismissed for misconduct cannot be considered for appointment. Staff who has taken early retirement or redundancy may be considered on their merits. Short-listing notes must be returned to HR for filing and are retained for a period of 6 months.

    Arrangements for interviews:

    The manager is responsible for scheduling dates and times for interviews directly with the short listed candidates and notifying the candidates of any selection tests that will be used. The manager must then notify HR of these arrangements and HR will confirm via letter or email to the short-listed candidates the following details:

    • Date, time and place of the interview
    • Instructions on how to find their way to the interview venue
    • A request that they contact the author of the letter/message if they have any special requirements in relation to the interview (related to access to the venue or any other special need related to a disability)
    • If appropriate, details of any test or presentation they will be required to take or anything they should bring with them (e.g. examples of work or proof of qualifications that are essential to the post).

    At the interview:

    The purpose of interviewing is to appoint the best person for the job based solely on merit and suitability. The IPCC recruitment and selection framework achieves this by using methods that are systematic, thorough, fair, unbiased and based on rational, objective, job related criteria. At the interview, each candidate should be treated consistently. To achieve this panel should:

    • Ask the same initial questions of each candidate
    • Supplement their understanding of the candidate's responses by following up questions as appropriate
    • Be consistent in allowing access to presentation material, notes and so on
    • Not allow any discriminatory questions, harassment, or any other conduct which breaches the IPCC equal opportunities policy or code of conduct
    • Ensure that in the case of disabled candidates, the necessity for any 'reasonable adjustments' that would be required on the job are explored in a positive manner. Assessment of disabled candidates should be based on their expected performance in the job, given that any reasonable adjustment required was provided.
    • Keep in mind that information obtained throughout the selection process is treated as confidential and is known only to parties involved in the selection process
    • Keep records of interviews and the reasons for decisions - returning this information to HR for filing (and disposal six months later).

    Panel members must be aware that it is their responsibility to ensure recruitment/interview documentation is stored securely and confidentially whilst in their possession.

    Decision to Appoint

    • Content of application
    • Qualifications (if required for the post)
    • Performance at Interview

    • Outcome of any selection tests
    • Right to work in the UK.

    The panel must seek to ensure that candidates appointed will actively promote the IPCC's Core Values.


    As part of assessing the merit of each candidate, Managers must satisfy themselves that the information the candidate gives is authentic, consistent and honest. This includes being satisfied about information regarding the candidate's:

    • application
    • work history
    • qualifications
    • evidence presented at interview

    Human Resources are responsible for processing:

    • Reference checks
    • Security Clearances
    • and ensuring the candidate has the right to work in the UK.

    Should any of these not meet the required standards, HR must immediately discuss the issue with the Manager.

    Offer of employment

    A conditional verbal offer of employment is to be made by the Manager within a week of interview. The offer should be made within the salary range stated on the Authority to Recruit form. If for any reason the Manager wishes to make an offer above that range, the prior approval of the Director and Head of Human Resources is required. Failure to do so may result in the offer being retracted.

    The offer must be on a conditional basis whilst the required checks take place in relation to security clearance, health declaration, references, qualifications (if not already provided) and the right to work in the UK etc. It is the Manager's responsibility to notify HR of the offer. HR will then send the candidate a security clearance questionnaire, health declaration form, offer letter and statement of particulars detailing post, salary, benefits, holiday entitlement, notice period, working hours and location. Upon receipt of the successful applicant's acceptance letter and completed health declaration and security clearance questionnaire. HR will send a confirmation of receipt letter confirming the start date (taking into account timeframes for security clearance), along with joining instructions. If a manager wishes to withdraw a firm offer of employment, they should seek advice from the HR team before doing so.

  5. Establish the effectiveness of principles and procedures for monitoring and rewarding the employees

  6. Many managers struggle with recognition. Most err on the side of not recognizing their team members enough. Very few provide too much recognition. Here are a few tips to help guide you toward recognizing well, and benefiting from the results.

  1. Just Do It
  2. You need to make the time to recognize. Make a commitment to recognize at least one person per month. Set aside time in your schedule to do it: assess who might deserve recognition; determine what the recognition will be; acquire the recognition item(s); and deliver the recognition. The process is time consuming. It's little wonder that it is neglected.

  3. Match the Reward with the Accomplishment
  4. Don't give an employee 2 movie tickets for saving the company thousands. If an employee does something great, reward them accordingly. If they achieve a minor accomplishment give them something small. Mismatching rewards can really confuse recipients and their peers, and ultimately it can do more harm than good.

    This also implies consistency. If you give a person a $200 gift certificate for completing an assignment, and then give them a candy bar for completing a similar assignment 6 month later, it serves to confuse. Sometimes the funds are not available to recognize accomplishments at similar levels. If that is the case, explain. Otherwise the employee is left to wonder, "Did I not do as well this time around?" If the recognition differs among employees for similar accomplishments, favoritism can enter into the equation.

    Sometimes the budget won't allow suitable recognition that matches the accomplishment. If this is the case, it's even more important to get creative. Don't forget to consider granting extra time off. That can be very well received, and flies under the budget radar. Also, be frank with employees about budget limitations.

  5. Get Personal
  6. How do you find out what someone's interests are? Some organizations have associates fill out a recognition wish list. This can come across as a bit too staged. It's much better to talk to your team members. Meet with them monthly and chat. You will gain insight into what makes them tick.

  7. Timing is Everything (almost)
  8. Recognize team members shortly after the accomplishment. If there is too much time between accomplishment and recognition, the impact of the reward can be decreased dramatically. First of all, the person goes weeks or months without the much deserved positive feedback. Imagine what they are thinking? "Doesn't my manager realize what I just did? Is he/she too busy to realize the importance of my accomplishment? I spent so much time on that. Why do I even bother?" Second, it implies that the manager didn't see the recognition as being very important, which doesn't send the correct message.

    Sometimes companies have formal recognition programs. This is fine, but don't let an employee's accomplishments go unrewarded throughout the entire year, until it's time to grant the "Employee of the Year Award."

  9. Be Specific
  10. Don't reward someone for being a wonderful employee. Their compensation should cover that anyway. Rather, point out exactly what they did to merit the recognition - completed xyz project, received a client letter, etc. Recognition should reinforce the behavior. So, be specific about the behavior that warranted the recognition.

  11. Make it Public
  12. People like to be recognized by their peers. It is further validation of their accomplishments. In addition, recognition is not just about reinforcing the behavior of the individual(s) being recognized; it also affects the behavior of others. Don't miss out on this ancillary benefit.

    Provided that the recognition follows the suggestions above, it can be very rewarding for all involved. The impacts on team productivity and quality can be substantial. It also happens to be the right thing to do. So, make the commitment to adequately recognize your team members for a job well done and reap the benefits of doing so.