Several Technologies That Are Less Expensive Than Earlier Versions


  1. Several Technologies that is less polluting and less expensive than earlier versions of the technology.

List 3 Technologies:

  1. Solar cars- A solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered completely or significantly by direct solar energy. Usually, photovoltaic (PV) cells contained in solar panels convert the sun's energy directly into electric energy. The term "solar vehicle" usually implies that solar energy is used to power all or part of a vehicle's propulsion. Solar power may be also used to provide power for communications or controls or other auxiliary functions.
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Solar vehicles are not sold as practical day-to-day transportation devices at present, but are primarily demonstration vehicles and engineering exercises, often sponsored by government agencies.

  1. Solar Panels- A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each panel is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a panel determines the area of a panel given the same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt panel will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt panel. Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, most installations contain multiple panels. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and or solar tracker and interconnection wiring. Some Examples of what solar panels are used for are homes-Did you know that by going solar, you'll lock in on a low, fixed solar rate from day one? Switching to solar keeps rising energy rates in check and guarantees a lower monthly electricity bill..
  2. Electric car- An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one electric motor or more, using electrical energy stored in batteries or another energy storage device. Electric motors give electric cars instant torque, creating strong and smooth acceleration.

Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century, until advances in internal combustion engine technology and mass production of cheaper gasoline vehicles led to a decline in the use of electric drive vehicles. The energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s brought a short-lived interest in electric cars, though those cars did not reach mass marketing as today's electric cars experience it. Since the mid-2000s, the production of electric cars is experiencing a renaissance due to advances in battery and power management technologies and concerns about increasingly volatile oil prices and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Electric cars have several benefits over conventional internal combustion engine automobiles, including a significant reduction of local air pollution, as they have no tailpipe, and therefore do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power at the point of operation; reduced greenhouse gas emissions from the onboard source of power, depending on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation to charge the batteries; and less dependence on foreign oil, which for the United States and other developed or emerging countries is cause for concern about vulnerability to oil price volatility and supply disruption. Also for many developing countries, and particularly for the poorest in Africa, high oil prices have an adverse impact on their balance of payments, hindering their economic growth.

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Despite their potential benefits, widespread adoption of electric cars faces several hurdles and limitations. As of 2013[update], electric cars are significantly more expensive than conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles due to the additional cost of their lithium-ion battery pack. However, battery prices are coming down with mass production and are expected to drop further. Other factors discouraging the adoption of electric cars are the lack of public and private recharging infrastructure and the driver's fear of the batteries running out of energy before reaching their destination (range anxiety) due to the limited range of existing electric cars. Several governments have established policies and economic incentives to overcome existing barriers, promote the sales of electric cars, and fund further development of electric vehicles, more cost-effective battery technology and their components. The US has pledged US$2.4 billion in federal grants for electric cars and batteries. China has announced it will provide US$15 billion to initiate an electric car industry within its borders

  1. Several developmental alternatives to highly polluting industries
  1. Industrial Scrubbers- Wet Scrubbers are effective air pollution control devices for removing particles and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams. Wet scrubbers operate by introducing the dirty gas stream with a scrubbing liquid – typically water. Particulate or gases are collected in the scrubbing liquid. Wet scrubbers are generally the most appropriate air pollution control device for collecting both particulate and gas in a single system.

Pollution Systems offers a variety of Wet Scrubber systems specifically designed for your process application. Many important operating variables are considered when evaluating the size and type of scrubber for any specific application. We will work with you and use our experience and knowledge to provide the proper solution for your process.

Typical wet scrubber systems consist of a scrubbing vessel, ductwork and fan system, mist eliminator, pumping (and possible recycle system), spent scrubbing liquid treatment and an exhaust stack. Modern controls are used to monitor the system and make any necessary adjustments.

Wet Scrubbers are common in many industrial applications including pollutant reduction at petroleum refineries, chemical processes, acid manufacturing plants, and steel making. They need these for the environment because of the harmful smoke that was created during the process of making steel..

b. Plastic Disposal- Low recycling rates: Plastic is difficult and costly to recycle because manufacturers and consumers discard over twenty different types of plastic, and before they can be recycled, these plastics must be collected, transported, sorted, degreased, and washed. Neither private nor public agencies are investing sufficiently in the systems needed to increase plastic recycling rates. Few manufacturers invest in the compactors and logistical systems needed to recycle their plastic scraps. Few public agencies invest in recycling receptacles for public spaces. A 2009 survey by Keep America Beautiful found that only 12% of public spaces in the U.S. had recycling receptacles next to their garbage receptacles.1 Due to these shortfalls of private and public investments in recycling, the EPA found that only 7.1% of plastics going to US Municipal Solid Waste facilities were being recycled in 2009,2 a number that rose to 8.2% by 2010