Personality is the view into the human character. The humans interact can be explained through personality. Personality is what gives life into the human race. So many theories exist to explain personality types and why people act a certain way. Understanding the types of personalities and understanding one's own type can help in interpretation of emotions and social communications. According to Nelson & Quick (2006), personality can be defined as a relatively stable set of characteristic that influence an individual's behavior. Personality could be determined by heredity and environment such family, cultural, and educational influence.
There are several personality characteristic in organizations could influence the behavior in the organizations. The characteristics are locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-monitoring and positive/negative effects. Thus, all the characteristic influence the performance at work, the managers need to have a working knowledge of them.
There are also several personality theories which had influenced the study of personality in organizations. The theories are trait theory, psychodynamic theory, humanistic theory and the integrative approach. Based on the theories, there are several method had been invented to assess and measure personality. These include projective tests, behavioral measures, and self-report questionnaires. The several methods are using Meyers-Briggs Type Indicators, Big Five Personality Traits and so on.
MEYER-BRIGGS PERSONALITY TYPE INDICATOR
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One approach to apply personality theory in organizations is the Jungian approach and its measurement tool, the Meyer-Briggs Type IndicatorÂ® (MBTIÂ®) instrument. The Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorÂ® is a self-report instrument that helps to identify an individual's strengths and personality preferences. The mother and daughter team of Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers developed the MBTIÂ® instrument to put Jung's type theory into practical use. The MBTI is used extensively in organizations as a basis for understanding individual differences. It has been used in career counseling, team building, conflict management and understanding management styles.
The MBTI and psychological type enables a non-critical language to talk about some serious issues, both within an organisation and while helping people. People who complete the MBTI are given a four letter code as their results which indicate their personality preferences as one of 16 Types.
The different type preferences lead to different ways of living and working, taking in information and making decisions. They describe different, effective approaches to working and learning styles and methods, managing, leading, coaching and teaching as well as general communication, teamwork, relationships, and environment.
The MBTI is based on a comprehensive and rational theory of personality, applications can be found in almost anything which involves people such communication, leadership, team building, planning, marketing, personal development, career planning, teaching and learning and so on.
The main advantage in using the MBTI is its breadth of application. It is in almost any situation and its support by a comprehensive theory of personality. There is no competition to the MBTI in workplace use as there is no comparable theory of personality associated with other methods.
There are four dichotomies in MBTI with two possible choices for each scale. The combination of these preferences makes up an individual's type.
Extraversion (E) and Introversion (I)
Extraversion and Introversion preference represents where you get your energy whether people gained their personal energy from the outer or the inner world of thoughts, ideas and concepts. The Extraverted type is energized by interaction with other people. The Introverted is energized by time alone. This preference also differentiating people who direct their energy primarily outward toward other people and events from people who direct their energy primarily inward toward their inner environment, thoughts, and experiences
The manager who is prefer Extraversion tend to enjoy being with large groups of people and prefer to act rather than reflect and they also tend to predominate in marketing and entrepreneurial spheres, while the manager who is prefer Introverts predominate in professions such as medicine and law, also politics and tend to enjoy quieter activities and to reflect before acting.
Sensing (S) and Intuition (N)
Sensing and Intuition preference represents perception or how we prefer to gather information. In essence reflects what we pay attention to.
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The Sensing type of manager pays attention to information gathered through the five senses and to what actually exists. They also could be practical and down to earth, relying on either past experience or what they see in the moment. They also want a specific answer to question and can become frustrated with vague instruction. They enjoy using established skills more than learning new ones. Normally, this type of manager will remain with a same management skill.
The Intuitive type of manager will pay attention to a 'sixth sense' and to what could be rather than to what actually exists. They are also visionaries or idealists, more interested in the future, or some timeless principle. These types of manager like to solve new problems and are impatient with routine details. They like to learn new skills more than using them. They tend to think about a few things at once.
Thinking (T) and Feeling (F)
Thinking and feeling preference represents the way we prefer to make decision. The manager with a thinking type will make decision with a logical and objective fashion. They also tend to analyze decisions and try to be impersonal. While managing, they tend to show less emotion and become uncomfortable with people who do. They like to be firm minded and like to putting things into a logical frame work.
While the feeling type of manager will makes decisions in a personal and value oriented. Their decisions will be based on how the outcome will affect the people involved. In management, they tend to be more comfortable with emotion in the workplace. They enjoy pleasing people and frequent praise and encouragement.
Judging (J) and Perceiving (P)
Judging and perceiving represents one's orientation to the outer world and how a person prefers to run their life. It differentiates people who prefer plans and achieving conclusion quickly from those who prefer flexibility. Judging type manager prefer to lead a planned, organized decision making. They like to get things accomplished and do the submission on the date line. They always want to be scheduled and ordered.
Perceiving manager may not make a decision until the last possible moment and more spontaneous approach to life and work and resisting closure until it's time. They prefer more flexibility and want to keep options open. They tend to collect new information rather than draw into a conclusion. They may start too many projects but not finish them on time.
16 TYPES OF PREFERENCES
People who complete the MBTI are given a four letter code as their results which indicate their personality preferences as one of 16 Types. The preferences combine to form 16 distinct types. The dominant mental function is the most distinctive marker of a person's personality type. There are no good and types and each type had its own strength and weaknesses. The combination will indicate type of person personality.
Meyers-Briggs had divided the combination into two categories which are primary n secondary personality type. The four primary personality types are based on dominant with thinking, feeling, intuitive and sensing. While from the four primary types they are subdivided based into energy orientation and attitude which are extraversion and introversion. A table below show all the combination of the preferences based on the primary and secondary.
Personality assessment is requires to assess the personality for a person. It is important for a person to know their own personality to ensure they got a suitable position for them in organization. In organization, project manager or manager should have a good personality to make sure the entire project run smoothly and finish on time. They all should have a good personality to communicate with client and people that work under him/her. Otherwise, all the work will not be finish on time or not follow all the specification.
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As a conclusion, every person should know their own personality. It is to make sure they will get a suitable position in an organization. They also will do the work happily and can communicate to each other smoothly. It also to avoid miscommunication and stress among the workers. If you are chosen as a manager, you should act as a manager. Based on the MBTI type indicator, you should have a combination of 16 types of personality to be a good manager. The entire project must meet the time, cost and scope of the project to ensure the project run smoothly. Thus, the project manager should have a good personality to be a good manager for the project.