Senior functional managers and their responsibility for allocating resources

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Senior functional managers are responsible for allocating resources, and the responsibility for the total human resource management is not allocated to a single person, coordination occurs through rules and procedures, detailed specifications. This study is aiming at investigating the effectiveness of Human Resource management strategy and activities in Ministry of Manpower, and its relationship with personal management through the essence of Human resources which plays a key role in helping to deal with a fast-changing competitive environment and the greater demand for quality employees. This approach indicates that the most appropriate structure for our case study depends not only on the organizational objectives but also on the situation, which includes the environment.

Literature review is the section that explore to understand and compare the different view of different researchers. The references, articles and books included in the literature review act as the major view that will explore the definition and the essence of the process of human resource management and its relationship with personal management.

According to M Köster (2002) When the effective concept of HRM has been focused in the 1980s, like the saying that it "could not help but look more desirable than personnel management" (Hope-Hailey). The best side of the theory of managing personnel has resulted in the proliferation of Human Resource Management policy. Scholars have insisted on the fact that difficulties of identifying clear differences between personnel management and HRM, and maintain that the most obvious change is a "re-labelling process". Torrington agrees that "a change of label" is obvious, the fact remains that one cannot be sure that the content differentiates to any extent. However, the new definitions may at least focus on personnel management from its image of management of personnel increased performance. The researcher identifies the similarities and differences between personnel and HR management. management

According to Malcolm Tatum (2010) understanding an organization policies and procedures as they relate to personnel is another important aspect of the personnel management process. HR functions often also involves all staff responsibilities, and to understand policies that apply to all employees. The personnel management team is also often responsible for managing any affairs program provided to the employees as well. One aspect of company organization that needs the input of effective personnel management is the drafting of a company handbook. Handlings operation policies and procedures, requirements for employment.

According to Blurt (1999) there is a vast difference between Human Resource Management and the related and Personnel Management, some of the major differences like HRM make it more possible with greater flexibility while Personnel management set rules and regulations. In management action, personal management includes procedures, consistency and control while HRM management actions include business need, flexibility and commitment. The relationship between management and employees under Personnel Management is more monitored and controlled while in HRM it is a sort of more nurturing and facilitating relationship. Personnel management uses a Unitary approach while HRM uses Pluralist approach.

Peggy D. & Kristen L. (2010, P. 330) have debated the fact that much has been written on the importance of human resource management and its relationship with personal management, they insisted that the challenges facing organizations, and the important human resource management activities involved in assuring the acquisition and transfer of knowledge. The human resource roles so necessary to organizations that personal management is the researcher suggested a linkage between knowledge management tenets, human resource management activities in organizations.

According to all of Maryse J. & Evelien (2010, P.605) Human resource management (HRM) entails a set of policies and practices directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining (or disposing of) personal management (Lado and Wilson 1994). In recent years, several studies have shown that HRM is an important strategic business function that influences the performance of both large and small firms. Arthur 1994; Becker and Huselid 1998; Carlson, Upton, and Seaman 2006; Delaney and Huselid 1996; Evans and Davis 2005; Huselid 1995; SeIs et al. 2006). HRM is also regularly identified as a critical driver of business success in retailing and service industries (McLean 2006; Miller 2006).

Pranee Chitakornkijsil (2010, P. 379) has decided that the internationalization of human resource management is considered as high priority that leads to an effective personal management. It concerns with staffing, expatriate procurement, compensation, training and development, international labor relations, as well as performance evaluations and contributions. Likewise, personal management will provide a strategic approach of high performance.

According to all of Liang H. & Yu-Ling H. (2010, P. 285) have decided that of human resource and personal management are gaining greater attention in international markets. In response to this trend, for organizations understand the importance of personal management culture and values, which focuses on members' positive interactions for better achievements in organization, has gained importance.

According to N. Madison (2003) In all organizations, personal management should be with individuals that concerned with the welfare and performance of persons who are a part of the operation. When an individual or a team of individuals takes on this task of seeing to programs and setting policies that impact everyone associated with the company, they are engaged in the process of personnel management, sometimes referred to as human resource management. The main objective of a personnel manager is usually begins with the staffing process..

The selected Organization

Human resource management contains or the main essence of human resource management is divided into the given categories, Staffing, Human resource Development, compensation and benefits, Safety and health and finally the employees and labor relations. Human resource management is the activity associated with all the relationship between management and employees. Human Resource is about all activities taken place in a working environment and how the managers themselves managed their day to day task, and it's not but making use of all the availability presence to reach the organization goals and high performance which in turn will lead to high profitability.

The Ministry of Manpower was established by Royal Decree No.(108/2001), issued on 20/Sha`ban 1422 AH. (6/11/2001). The Ministry proposes and implements manpower general policies in line with the State economic and social objectives. The Council of Ministers of Labor and Social Affairs of the Gulf Cooperation Council is a specialized organization of the Council with a view to joint action and cooperation, coordination and consolidation of the position in the international arena against labor and social issues. The Sultanate of Oman, as a founding member of the Council, by the nature of the relationship between this Council and of the Gulf Cooperation Council, is determined to support the process of joint cooperation between the brothers in the GCC Labor and Social Council.

Human Resource Diagram in the selected organization

Fig 1


According to the assigned specialties stipulated in the Royal Decree No. (55/2006) for Approving the Organizational Structure and the Duties of the Ministry, is considered as one of the most active ministry with authorities that contributes effectively in the National efforts to promote the labour rules and regulation and insure the settlement of labours welfare through its various service and. The base which the Ministry depend on in the context of decentralization method, in order to carry out its activities, provide its services and realize its projects in the regions designated to be under its supervision.

Providing training and technical training and developing and expanding same according to the requirements of the labor market. Developing training curricula according to the approved vocational criteria and levels, awarding qualifications, encouraging on job training and following up graduates to ensure that they utilize the available job opportunities.

Implementing and following up all programmes relating to the employment of the national workforce and assessing its performance in cooperation with the concerned authorities. Preparation of plans to develop labor methods and upgrade employees performance and develop human resources at the ministry. The participation in the organization have contributed to the formation of greater coherence between the Ministers of Labor and the GCC on the one hand and between the ministers of the Arab group in the organization through the consolidation of a common vision for the Gulf and Arab level, and side-meetings of the Ministers of the Asia-Pacific and the meetings of the Non-Aligned contributed to the creation of a common ground for the most common issues that are addressed in international conferences. Development of Arab human resources through programs and activities of manpower planning and the fight against unemployment, and to create employment opportunities for women, and to facilitate the movement of Arab labor and attention to the situation of Arab workers, migrants. Representing the Sultanate in local, regional and international conferences, seminars and meetings relating to labor force and its training

Motivation and Reward in the selected organization

Most of the motivation theories focus on improving people behaviour and attitude towards their jobs in order to improve the individual performance and to give the employee his right of the live requirements.

John bratton defined reward as "Reward refers to all of the monetary, non monetary and psychological payments that an organisation provides for its employees in exchange for the work they perform" (John Bratton 2003:278 ) . The rewards system is one of the best effective tools used by the organisations for improving team and individual performances

Su-Chao & Ming (2006, P. 201) indicates that job characteristics influence personal job performance through individual psychological perceptions, including internal motives, job performance, job satisfaction or resignation behaviours. Progress of employees varies with different magnitudes of personal growth.

John bratton (2003, P. 278) defined reward as "Reward refers to all of the monetary, non monetary and psychological payments that an organisation provides for its employees in exchange for the work they perform. The rewards system is one of the best effective tools used by the organisations for improving team and individual performances. Human needs reorganisation in order to be self motivated and high productive, because the encouragements are more important than money in many. Black and Porter says "effective rewards are more than the dollars paid out in salaries and bonuses managers have the greatest control over equally powerful rewards such as recognition and praise.

The sultanate of Oman has become one of the global trade countries. At the same time the pressure of high performance of leading ministries, like the Ministry of Manpower which is forced to maintain a professional level of employees retention, specially (trained, skilled, and qualified) who can perform the job immediately after the recruitment and they are ready to offer good money in order to attract people to work with them The ministry has to work on developing attraction methods of motivation to attract there people to stay back.

Dealing with Omani local staff needs an environment of respect and trust to build the teamwork and increase the understanding of the ministry mission and vision towards the ministry goals. Appreciation and respect of local staff joined with systematic changes within the ministry will provide better future for the Omani people. The ministry has a gap of communication between upper management and staff, building a communication bridge will assist the relationship with Oman local community. The ministry is working hard to create a clear organization structure, which will help in conducting motivation assessments is to prevent a quick fix approach to ministry problems. Employees records unsatisfied reward system, which need assessments done correctly which will ensure the solution addresses the real issues and effectively focuses the appropriate resources, time and effort toward targeted solutions. Thus the corporate will have to concentrate always on the changing technologies. The technological change would bring huge amount of results for the organizations in terms of productivity and cost aspects, so such kind of analysis is always mandatory for the organizations that are subject to change.

The ministry adopted training to improve motivation through knowledge and skills and to change attitudes. It is one of the most important potential motivators, the ministry is practicing. This can lead to many possible benefits for both individual and the ministry. The ministry acknowledge the fact that shortages are often the result of short-terms and little or no analysis of present or future training needs. Keeping skilled workers is one of the first ministry goals.

Most employees in the ministry sector face the fact that many promises are made regarding compensations and salary revues, but when it comes to the employees has never been distributed fairly the higher position staff taking the high percentage and the low employee given the lost rate. And the view from the ministry side displays the slide of some ministry pay higher rate than another, promotion are really depends up on the relation between the boss and the employee. Even so, there is a role in the ministry which is not implemented correctly or equally. Moreover the fact that there is no clear career structure for the employees within the ministry, and there is hardly any opportunity to change from one department to another.

As the ministry focuses on helping all staff to achieve high standards, however, reaching out to disengaged and discouraged learners becomes increasingly important. Clearly, employees who are not motivated to engage in learning are unlikely to succeed. Noting that employees who are motivated to engage in company selects tasks at the border of his/her competencies, initiate action when given the opportunity, and exert intense effort and concentration in the implementation of learning tasks. Set up of roles and regulation leads to the best practice needs to be implemented starting from the recruitments and selection for the local new graduate and the external employment. As illustrated earlier in the literature review motivating factors and theory such as training and development along with rewards and recognitions with a good working environment helps the company or the employer to increase the employee satisfaction and leads to reduce the staff turnover.


In human resource management area, there are fine and variety of disciplines to make a study and analyze. Out of all these, motivation and reward play a vital role and many research has already been carried out by many experts and still this area is analyzed by many corporate people as well the students. Evaluation plays a vital role for the development of an organization. It ensures growth at a constant pace for any organization. Many experts have said that staff appraisal is the only key for an organization.

Human Resource is about all activities taken place in a working environment and how the managers themselves managed their day to day task, and it's not but making use of all the availability presence to reach the ministry's goals and high performance which in turn will lead to high profitability. Striving for high performance is one of the ministry objective is training as they believe that the process of providing the ministry with the most suitable human resources for the task and environment is an on-going process. during their employment in order to help them to meet the requirements of their current and potential future job. Training is provided to ensure that people can reach an acceptable level of performance in their jobs


There seems to be a communication gap between the management and the employees, to bridge the gap ministry should informed staff about issues before the implementations stages. There seems to be real short of feedback on job performance. The system of compensations and salary revues require additional improvement, There seems to be no clear organization structure. Differences in salaries and rewards in should match similar ministries. Promotion are really depends up on the relation between the boss and the employee. Even so, there is a role in the company but it is not implemented correctly or equally.

The reward system is there in place put not implemented fairly as it is statues in the company policy. The local staffs should be treated equally the ministry divided it is staff into two category professional and non professional the professional staff get better treatment and respect as well as much higher salary. There should be a clear career structure for the employees within the company, there should be an equal distribution of opportunity to change from one department to another. Dictatorial leadership styles prevail within the organization.

Promote an environment of respect, trust, and understanding behavior between the teams in order to build team work relation in between the departments.Responds to the employees needs, listen to there problem and give the guide and support where it is possible. Develop the staff trough the leadership-training program.