Reviewing Theories of Leadership and Motivation

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According to Griffin and Moorehead, (2009), motivation can be defined as the degree to which relentless effort is given to achieve any particular aim or objective. The characteristics of motivation are as follows:

Effort: this is the first characteristic of motivation which relates to the degree of effort given to conduct any particular job. This effort must be related to the suitability of the aims and objectives being pursued (Rutledge, 2008).

Persistence: the second feature is related to the eagerness of the people to keep doing any work unless it is not complete (Grant, 2008).

Direction: this is measured in terms of the persistence in effort which is applicable relating to the objectives being highlighted (Rutledge, 2008).

Goals: there are two kinds of objectives that can be pursued at the same time. These are company's goal and person's aim. If these are not compatible; they can lead to diverse outcomes.

Hodgkinson and Ford (2008) stated that it is necessary to distinguish between motivation and performance. Certain factors such as level of skill, aptitude and understanding the task may have a negative influence on performance. On the contrary, a worker can be motivated through his self-interest which is not at all related to the organizational objectives. There are factors in the external environment such as pay, bonus, supervision, other benefits which can motivate people and this is termed as extrinsic motivation. In contrast, they can also be motivated by the relationship between the task and the employee and this is termed as intrinsic motivation. However, these factors exist at the same time but it is important to differentiate between them.

2.1.1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow came up with a theory which states that people have five sets of needs which can be categorised accordingly. According to this theory, people satisfy their basic needs first and then try to achieve other fulfilments (Moran, 2009). These needs are as follows:

Physiological needs: the need for food, clothing, shelter are the basics which people try to attain and it is possible to achieve through being a part of the society and maintaining a social network. Personal comfort and satisfaction are the intrinsic values and the community or society is part of the extrinsic values (Preziosi, 2007).

Safety needs: security, stability and a planned environment are part of this need. People try to maintain job security, pension, insurance, liberty and a comfortable job place in order to assure the consistency of the benefits. The main purpose is to maintain the advantages or employment needs and not to focus on the long-term objectives of the organization. Peace of mind is needed and is included in the personal motivation (Montana and Charnov, 2008).

Relationship needs: friendship, socialization, love, affection and companionship are part of this level where people value their personal intrinsic achievements. This need is automatically fulfilled when a person leads in a civil society. Different type of clubs such as single club, social clubs provides opportunities for the people to attain this level of satisfaction (Grant, 2008).

Esteem needs: this level of needs refer to independence, appreciation, confidence and recognition by others where individuals are persuaded by the internal needs and the external environment is needed to get recognition than to get rewards that are materialistic. The intrinsic values are more significant than the outside influence at this level. The issue of ego works in this case (Zepeda, 2007).

Self-actualization: this level is difficult to define. Happiness can be achieved by doing things differently for different people and it also vary among people with their different values and ideas. For example, a rich man cannot be motivated at this level by earning more money when he has enough. People in this level need to accept reality and other factors in order to achieve self-actualization. In case of organization, creativity and growth can be the factors. As an individual scale upwards the more rewards or motivators shift to the internal need from the external environment. It is also difficult for people to achieve motivation as material reward become less relevant and internal rewards get more difficult to deal with. Furthermore, it is important for organizations to achieve better performance and in order to do so; the employees' satisfaction level needs to be provided by the firm (Daft, 2007).

2.1.2 McClelland's Theory of Needs

The famous psychologist David McClelland came up with a theory of needs. He however, did not see motivation as hierarchical (Darmon, 2007). He has identified three levels of need levels and they are stated below:

Need for achievement: in this level, people desire to carry out tasks that are very challenging for them. The aims that are set by them can lead to calculated risk and they prefer their performance feedback by which they can modify their tasks and are successful (Miller, 2008).

Need for affiliation: in this situation people want to maintain responsive and companionable relationships. They prefer to like others and also prefer to be liked by others. They can easily build social networks which may lead them in maintaining their needs at this level (Randhawa, 2007).

Need for power: people who desire to have a strong hold and influence others belong to this category. Moran (2009) argued that this level of need for power relates to Maslow's esteem needs where power is seen as a way to attract attention and build personal kudos.

The growth pattern between the extrinsic and intrinsic rewards do not have the same significance like the other theories discussed as the theory is non-hierarchical. According to McClelland's theory, people get motivated by performing well in their workplace which meets their needs and these needs can be met by any of the three categories discussed above (Shahjahan, 2007).

2.2 Leadership

There has been a continuous controversy as to whether leaders are born or are they created. It is a given fact that human behaviour is very complicated and is built up of a lot of characteristics. These traits have an influence on the motivational levels and the theories of leadership will be controversial in the future as well. However, many researchers like Pride, Hughes and Kapoor (2008), believe that leadership can be developed. Leadership can be termed as 'the pressure or influence by someone that is put upon others to achieve a particular objective in an organization' (Randhawa, 2007). It is believed that leaders are capable of looking at various aspects and analyze a situation that can influence others in getting a job done. They also look for opportunities and approach aims in a practical manner. They also have a positive effect on others who are willing to help them due to similar needs for accomplishment. Other employees gain confidence in their ability and hence the leaders get enough freedom and empowerment. Leadership is seen to have two different aspects- the person who has the ability to influence and the ones who are influenced by the leader. Leaders can be successful depending on the environment and situation where they exist. Mainly two types of leaders are seen: emergent leaders and assigned leaders. Emergent leaders are those leaders who have gained their positions through their skills, influencing abilities and expertise. On the other hand, assigned leaders are the ones who get the power in exercising influence via appointment. Both of these types of leaders meet different functions. They are able to provide emotional and social support to the group by supporting them, listening and encouraging in building up their team and this is called social-emotional support. Another factor is to ensure directions and assistance to the group members in completing their work. Darmon (2007) stated that successful leaders have the potential in identifying and relating the suitable strategy at a suitable time. Therefore, any group that fails to understand the aims and objectives of the company they work for; will not be successful towards a social-economic approach. Even teams that experience conflict internally is in dire need of building up skills. They may respond negatively in order to improve performance level (Miller, 2008).

2.2.1 House's Path-Goal Theory

According to Montana and Charnov (2008), the most crucial tasks of different leaders should lead on to the path through which different aims and objectives can be achieved through subordination. Therefore, successful leaders create a relation between individual aims and company's aims. Leadership is all about rising team performance through the motivational factors and the leader must ensure job satisfaction and they provide a clear view of how the employees can attain rewards based on their performance (Singh, 2009). House's theory relates four types of leader behaviour. These include:

Directive behaviour: this involves work under a schedule, maintaining a consistency in the standard of performance and letting the employees know what is being expected from their work (Marshall and Coughlin, 2010).

Supportive behaviour: friendly and concerned approach is being displayed by a leader in this category with pleasant interpersonal relationships (Lussier and Achua, 2009).

Participative behaviour: leaders who support and conduct this kind of behaviour do consultation with their employees and also take their opinions under consideration ((Marshall and Coughlin, 2010).

Achievement-orientated behaviour: These kinds of behaviour encourage employees to put more efforts and try to attain higher level of accomplishment. The leaders attaining this kind of behaviour are confident with their employees and their objectives (Lussier and Achua, 2009).

2.2.2 Situational Factors

The basic characteristics of the employees and the external environmental factors have an influence on the success rate of leadership skills. First of all, an employee's features can have an effect on the achievement levels which is expected. Second of all, the individual needs of the employees need to be fulfilled in order to boost their performance and motivational level. Then the employees' aptitude and capabilities will have an effect on their response to others working with them and their performance. There are some environmental factors which have an impact on leadership. It is important for the leaders to be qualified and knowledgeable in gaining loyalty and group confidence. The style and pattern of the leader is also important and have an influence on the group behaviour. Furthermore, the clarity of the tasks, urgency and employees' empathy will influence motivation and performance. Leaders also need to be at the right place and at the right time (Randhawa, 2007).

2.2.3 Vroom's and Jago's Leadership Styles

Lussier and Achua (2009) studied that Victor Vroom and Arthur Jago came up with three types of leadership behaviour and these are-autocratic, consultative, or group decision-making style.

Autocratic: the leader tries to solve a problem or take a decision by using all the information he or she has at that time. The leader can also take the group members consultation regarding the matter but however the decision making process will be completely up to the leader. The decision that is taken by the leader is then passed on to the group members for execution (Robbins, 2009).

Consultative: in this case the leader takes the employees say regarding the problem and takes their contribution to the problem as well. The employees' involvement relating to the study may or may not have an impact on the decision-making process. The leaders therefore, have the right in making the final decision (Lussier and Achua, 2009).

Group: the leader shares the problem identified with the team members and take their overall input towards the problem and then tries to understand the solution. The leader in this case does not try to influence the input given by the tea members and accept any solution that the team members suggest in solving the problem (Robbins, 2009).

This approach depends on the problem at hand. The leader should have a target in making a decision which is best for the company and also maximise the employees' support and coordination.

Chapter 3: Reviewing Theories Relating to Cultural Diversity

According to researchers like Marshall and Coughlin (2010), there are six different ways through which companies can capitulate competitive advantage with the existence of efficient management and cultural diversity. In order to reduce the setbacks of diversity in workplaces which create a hindrance in the achievement of the aims and objectives, organizations must ensure to ignore all drawbacks and maximise the advantages of diversity. Multicultural organizations are those firms where people from a non-traditional background can have their complete potential contribution and achieve success. There are some particular characteristics of a multicultural organization. The first one is Pluralism which states that all the cultural group show respect, value and learns from each other. The second feature of a multi-cultural firm is that a properly structured and integrated cultural groups including the minorities in all the levels of the organization. Thirdly, no room for partiality and discrimination should be given. Fourthly, conflict relating to race, sex and nationality should be avoided at all levels. Lastly, all the minority and majority group members should be well aware of the organizations' aims and objectives.

According to Preziosi (2007), there are some vital factors or components that are needed to change a traditional company to a multicultural firm.

Leadership: it is important for the top management to provide support and proper commitment to maintain cultural diversity in an organization. This can be related to House's path-goal theory of the leaders' supportive behaviour. Therefore, all the leaders must focus on diversity at workplace in order to attain competitive advantage over their rivals. Leaders must make sure that they get successful in removing all the barriers caused by the cultural differences at workplaces including workgroup cohesiveness, interpersonal conflict, and consistent actions and so on. Leaders who have strong personal strands on the process of changing all the traditional tasks in to a multicultural firm can achieve success (Robbins, 2009). Moreover, it is important for such leaders to create role model behaviour in front of the employees so that they can bring changes easily. Leaders also must make sure that they provide assistance to their employees or team members to make all the tasks done and so the company can attain competitive advantage over their rivals. Successful leaders need to make sure that they are able to handle all the financial, technical and human resources. They need to see whether these areas are part of the corporate strategy and are consistently discussed in their meetings (Kreitner, 2008). Important aspects of the human resource management such as change in the bonus structures and performance appraisal are needed to be considered by them. Moreover, the leaders also need to conduct research as to whether the tasks done by the workforce has an influential impact on the company's performance. They can therefore identify the areas that the employees lack and the fields where they need to be educated. These can be related to the Vroom and Jago's leadership styles. Therefore it is important for the leaders to carry out research work at different times in order to maintain diversity at workplace (Pride, Hughes and Kapoor, 2008).

Motivation: this is a very important aspect as employees need to be constantly motivated in order to be successful. In a new multi-cultural environment, it is important for firms to look out on the ways of motivating their workforce. Training is one of the key ways in encouraging the employees to perform better at their workplaces. Managing and valuing diversity (MVD) training is one of the crucial points (Moran, 2009). Awareness and skill-based training are very popular forms of training the employees. Awareness training helps in building an understanding and the want for and the meaning of valuing and managing diversity at workplace. This type of training helps the employees to be aware about issues relating to stereotypes and cross-cultural inconsiderateness. On the other hand, skill-based training teaches workers to maintain cultural divergence at their workplace. These two types are often emerged in an organization to maintain diversity. However, training employees is an ongoing process as there is a constant alteration taking place in the environment. Another important factor that needs to be looked upon is the need for providing feedback to the top management. As leaders provide guidance to the employees, it is the employees' duty to show their tasks to their managers and ask for feedback and assistance. Like all the other management efforts, accountability is therefore needed to control work on diversity. The characteristics of motivating the employees (effort, persistence and direction) regarding diversity need to be met by the employees in order to maintain divergence at workplace (Zepeda, 2007).

Chapter 4: A Case of Leadership and Motivation

This particular study considered the case of Radisson Blu Hotel in Manchester UK. The hotel provides the one of the best options for travellers coming into the city for business or leisure purpose offering a good number of wonderful rooms. According to the reviewers, the hotel stands up among the best luxurious hotels in the city located just 14.7 km from the centre of Manchester. Radisson Blu Hotels and Resorts are an integral part of the Rezidor Hotel Group that opened its first hotel in the year 1960. Now they operate in more than 60 countries with an estimated number of 87,000 rooms. This goes on to demonstrate their staggering growth rate in the hotel industry ( The question is "how do they do it?"

Kurt Ritter, the president and CEO of the Group revealed that their effort to provide a 100% satisfaction guarantee to their customers played an important role in their success in the hotel industry. He singled out their brand of service they intend to offer every time to the customers with the "Yes I can" spirit. In an interview, he stated that the key in hotel business is to provide excellent service. Each and every one of the employees has to be on their toes to fulfil the needs and wants to their customers; which means performance levels have to be always top-quality. As a result, motivation and leadership techniques are extremely crucial in these types of organizations (

The researcher undertook a study involving 50 employees in Radisson Blu Hotel in Manchester using a questionnaire survey as an instrument for this study (attached in the appendix). An inductive approach was employed as the researcher reviewed the literature first on the subject of leadership and motivational theories and models and then went on to analyse the observations.

4.1 Data Collected from the Employees

Fair salary

As per the graphical representation, 50% of the respondents believed that they receive a fair salary from their organization. 24% declared that they strongly believed it. Few remained neutral. A very small number of them revealed that they were not content with the salary structure of Radisson Blu Hotel.

Salary relates to money and falls under physical needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs where it is described as one of the basics employees look for at the workplace (Preziosi, 2007). The above statistics show that Radisson Blu Hotel's employees are quite satisfied with their salary structure.

Comfort at the workplace

The rightward slope of the curve indicates the positive response from the employees as most of them clearly stated their satisfaction with the comfort level at the workplace. Having a strong appreciation regarding the matter suggests that Radisson Hotel provides a very good working environment for their employees. Maslow also talked about this as well in the safety needs in order to take the pressure out of the employees and let them work at peace; which relates to personal motivation (Montana and Charnov, 2008).

Interaction Opportunities

A mixed reaction was recorded when asked about the opportunities the employees of Radisson Blu Hotel get for interactions among themselves. 40% stated agreed to the statement that the Hotel provides them good amount of opportunities and another 41% revealed that they lacked this opportunity. The rest remained neutral. According to Maslow, building relations within an organization grows confidence among the employees and hence has a significant effect on their motivation levels (Grant, 2008).

Radisson Blu Hotel could have a look at this issue since the numbers reveal that it needs attention. Making different kinds of clubs, such as single club, social clubs, etc could improve the situation.

Supervisors' Feedback

When asked to rate their supervisors' feedback, majority of the respondents' reactions were positive, as can be seen from the above illustration. There were also few who mentioned that it was not up to the mark and needed improvements. Supervisors' feedback is an essential tool as discussed earlier in McClelland's theory of needs. He mentioned that a better feedback communication has many advantages. A continuous feedback system would allow managers to ensure that his/her subordinates are always on track. It can also build up their relationship between them as well as increase the employees' confidence levels leading to increased motivational levels and performance improvements (Miller, 2008).

Supervisors' Attempt to Provide Challenging Tasks

The statistics demonstrate that most of the respondents appreciated their supervisors' attempt to provide them challenging tasks. Although there were quite a few who thought otherwise stating that they wanted their supervisors to try and make a greater effort to provide them challenging tasks in the organization. David McClelland underlined the importance of providing challenging tasks to the employees in an organization. He mentioned that the employees feel extremely good when a challenging task is accomplished. They are always keen to achieve them in order to prove their worth to the organization. As a result, providing challenging tasks works as a motivational tool for managers (Randhawa, 2007).

Full Authority At Work

More than 70% of the respondents claimed that they are often trusted with full authority at work. There were quite a few who voiced out their dissatisfaction with the issue. According to Moran (2009), power and authority at work has the potential to motivate employees greatly. It has its good sides and bad sides. The good sides involve taking split second decisions to satisfy customers or solve any problems related to customers, reducing managers' pressure at work with less important matters, improved employee motivation, etc. The bad sides include wrong decision making under pressure leading to damaged confidence, reputation, etc.

Employees' roles in the organization clarified by the managers

It is obvious from the graphical representation that the managers of Radisson Blu Hotel is doing a spectacular job at clarifying employees of what is to be expected from them regularly. This relates to House's Path Theory that put forward four types of leadership; among which one of it was directive behaviour that involves work under a schedule, maintaining a consistency in the standard of performance and letting the employees know what is being expected from their work (Marshall and Coughlin, 2010).

Extent to which employees' views are considered in the decision manking process

Bulk of the participants mentioned that their suggestions are quite often taken into consideration by their supervisors in the organization whenever there is a need. A few of them stated that their opinions counted for nothing and that they were utterly disappointed with the issue.

Supervisors take the final decision

When asked about whether their supervisors take the final decisions, nearly every one of the respondents confirmed that their supervisors get to say the last word almost every time. This relates to the literature mentioned by Vroom's and Jago, stating that when a leader who takes each and every one of his/her employees' views into consideration but takes the final decision by himself/herself, it is known as consultative leadership (Lussier and Achua, 2009).

Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations

The study revealed that both leadership and motivation deals with people's behaviour. To understand this behaviour in a better way, the researcher explored some of the renowned theories and models of leadership and motivation that assisted all the way while carrying out the investigation concerning Radisson Blu Hotel in Manchester. The theories and models came in handy while conducting the analyses as well.

The findings reveal that leadership effectiveness and motivation go hand in hand when it comes to the effort given by companies to enhance productivity and efficiency at the workplace. Radisson Blu Hotel's leadership techniques include providing employees a regular two-way feedback, challenging tasks, giving a reasonable amount of authority, clarifying roles and expectations. They are also practicing to take employees' views into consideration. Overall, their leadership style can be compared with the consultative leadership mentioned by Vroom and Jago. Because of this leadership, employees feel comfortable at the workplace, feel secured and confident, feel important and know their worth to the organization and enjoy their work in the process.

5.1 Recommendations

Human resource managers, employers and other leaders in different companies are motivated to encourage their workers and look after for their wellbeing. This can make them feel more valuable and important. Furthermore, the employees can see what great contribution they have towards the organizations they work for and towards achieving success. This can be done with the help of effective leadership maintained by the managers who constantly need to work on their leadership traits. A healthy and convenient working environment need to be created so that the employees can perform their best and maximise their output and contribution in the organizations they work for. Different updated training facilities need to be provided from time to time in order to enhance performance level of the employees. Furthermore, the human resource managers need to do an assessment of the employees' performance using various assessment techniques both before and after their recruitment. In addition to this, workshops and seminars must be scheduled for both the managers and the employees on various training programs and a lot of significance should be given to effective leadership and maintaining time.


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