Why change is necessary? Adapting to change is necessary to survive. The first question I questioned myself when I started my college to choose the course of engineering in mechanical. I changed myself to fit into the new atmosphere and shaped my behaviour. An individual change model is one of the keys to successfully managing change in the hyper turbulent environment. I remember the metaphors ‘Information travels faster in this modern age as our days start crawling away'. Developing the right attitude towards change is crucial. When I first stated career in a manufacturing industry, I faced problems with internal and external pressures, like loosing self-esteem, dealing with organisation culture and managing politics. A level of discomfort will make us to resist for changing and accepting the reality. We develop basic assumptions as we see the things. When we recognise the individual differences and perceive the things differently a transition occurs developing personal traits. On individual level, change represents the alteration of set patterns of behaviour, defined relationships with others, work procedures, and job skills. Successful organisational change can happen only when individual are successful at change.
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The major drivers of change are technology, economic forces, political forces and globalisation. For an organisation to be effective and achieve desired outcomes an individual model for change is necessary. If new technology like ERP is implemented and it can show its results when each individual makes their own successful transition. Personal change is necessary for any organisational goals to be reached. In any change model there will be high level of impact at individual level outputs. For example when the organisation undergoes restructuring, it is not the restructuring that represents the change, but shift in new responsibilities for each individual. The outcome is new behaviour with different business results. Only people change not the organisations. The collective behaviour of different individuals is the outcome of change, it is not the organisation that changes.
When considering individual change there are four key school of thoughts:
° Changing the behaviours of others through rewards and punishment by behaviourist approach. By this type of approach analysis of behaviour and reward strategies can be used.
° Achieving results through positive reframing by cognitive approach. Goal setting and training to achieve the results.
° Understanding and relating to the inner world of change by psychodynamic approach.
° Believing in development and growth and achieving results to the maximum potential by humanistic psychology approach.
The ADKAR model reflects the necessary building blocks for individual change and was developed based on analysis of research data from many organisations. The five factors for the change to be realized successfully on an individual level are creating awareness why the change is needed, inculcating desire to co-operate and participate in the change process, providing and collating knowledge to guide the change process, developing ability and appropriate skills to drive the change process and formulating reinforcement strategy and plans to sustain the change process.
To ensure the achievement of business results, the linkage between individual change management and organisational change management plays a major role.
Change management at group level
Work team culture through collaborative management is a fundamental emphasis of organisation development programs. This reflects the assumptions that in today's organisations much of work is accomplished directly or indirectly through teams. This also reflects the assumption that the work team culture exerts a significant influence on the individual's behaviour. Any new technology implementation is only successful only when the team performs. When I am working on a project of translation and implementing lean tools the success is measured only after all the team members reached their targets. The key reality seems to be that individual in organisations function not so much as individual alone but as members of groups or teams. For an individual to function effectively a prerequisite is that the team must be functioning effectively. Another key reality is that individual behaviour usually reflects the work team culture. The culture of a work group or organisation consists of the prevailing pattern of beliefs, sentiments, norms, practices and so forth that individuals subscribe to and use as guides to behaviour. Work groups and organisations have distinct cultures, and often the work culture is the most important one for the individual. The recognition of the importance of teams and work groups for determining both individual and organisational effectiveness was a crucial step.
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The characteristics of a well-functioning effective group according to Douglas McGregor are as follows:
° The situation must be comfortable, relaxed and informal
° The group task must be accepted by all members
° The members must understand each other
° People express both their feelings and ideas
° Conflict and disagreement are present but are limited to ideas and methods, not personalities and people.
° The group is self- conscious about its own operation
° Decisions are based on consensus
The basic building blocks of organisations are teams, and one of the basic building blocks of organisation development is team building. The role analysis technique intervention is to clarify role expectations and obligations of team members to improve team effectiveness. In organisations individuals fill different specialised roles in which they manifest certain behaviours. The OD skills simulation, Role Analysis Team Development ( DONALD R. BROWN . DON HARVEY) understood better about role analysis technique.
The role negotiation technique can often be used when the causes of team ineffectiveness are based on people's behaviours that they are unwilling to change because it would mean a loss of power or influence to the individual. The oldest intervention is force field analysis technique, a device for understanding a problematic situation and planning corrective actions. In most cases individuals members of the team are interdependently related to each other and must coordinate and integrate individual efforts in order to achieve successful task accomplishments.
The class room tutorial activity making paper Aeroplanes better reflected all the interventions mentioned above. Initially the teams performance is not good because the group task is not clear and more formal. When the exercise is repeated and team members expressed their feelings and ideas and better interacted and finally the team's outcome is improved. Our team made to top in performance because of good planning and leadership
Change management at inter-group level
Some predictable things happen when there is tension, conflict, or competition among groups, each group sees the other as an enemy rather than as a neutral object. Each group reacts with the other negatively and the interaction and communication between the two groups decrease, cutting off feedback and data input between them. Intergroup team building and the organisation mirror are the two major interventions that have been developed to improve intergroup relations. They both work, that is they actually, reduce intergroup conflict and improve intergroup relations.
One set of activities developed by Blake, Shepard, and Mouton is widely applicable to situations where relations between groups are strained. The leaders of the two groups meet with consultant and are asked if they think the relations between the two groups can be better and are asked if they are willing to search for procedures that may improve intergroup relations. The two groups lists their thoughts, attitudes, feelings, and perceptions of the other group is like and in the second list the group tries to predict what the other group is saying about them and groups come together to share with each other the information on the list. Finally the differences between the two groups are seen not to be as great as was imagined, and the problems between them are seen to be fewer than imagined.
The organisation mirror intervention is a set of activities in which a particular organisation group, the host group, gets feedback from representatives from several other organisational groups about how it is perceived and regarded. The intergroup work effectiveness will be increased with improved relations. It is different from the intergroup team-building intervention in that three or more groups are involved.
The tutorial activity of negotiation of team leaders of two groups to achieve their targets and final positive outcome for the two teams reflected how the teams perform with better relations. Team building intervention is used in this set of activity.
When I am working as a project Engineer in a Honda company for the development of new model a conflict aroused between design engineers and manufacture engineers which I was one of the member in manufacturing. The brake panel used to rub and friction is developed in the moving parts. In the first phase of meeting the problem shifted to the manufacturing engineers that blamed for SPC techniques. After a series of consultations both teams came to common solution and found that there was design problem of extra diameter of plates. Team building intervention often focus on the actual problem rather than personal conflicts.
Change management at organisational level
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In any merger and acquisition, downsizing or rightsizing the workforce or implementing new technology many organisations say repeatedly that ‘people are our greatest assets' and praises of teams and their importance in the organisations. There is always a inter connection between organisational change and team working. The effect of change on individuals and groups of individuals and managing teams to change leads to organisational change.
In any organisational change they must know how their organisation is working in terms of the metaphors. One must understand and become aware of the range of assumptions that shape people's attitudes. Gareth Morgan identified eight organisational metaphors. The most often used are:
° Organisations as machines
° Organisations as political systems
° Organisations as organisms
° Organisations as flux and transformation.
The tutorial exercise for OD skill simulation ‘Downsizing: A Consensus seeking Activity' is well reflected about the change management how individual performance is evaluated and came to conclusion for the downsizing.
The tutorial experiential game ‘Corporate Culture and Communication presented reflected how the change is influenced in each stage of an M&A. In this game the corporate culture is maintained through out the process of M&A and outcome is how individual change is necessary for an organisational change.
As manufacturing engineer I experienced through organisational change of downsizing and implementing lean manufacturing (Business Process Engineering). Uncertainty, stress, insecurity effected my performance in achieving my targets. The goal setting theory is a process to increase efficiency and do the work effectively with desired outcomes. The goal setting theory intervention accomplished me in meeting the deadlines and increased my performance. In many organisations changes are made neglecting the internal aspects and only focus on external environment. Both organisations and individuals need to manage their affairs against goals. The importance of goal setting in OD programs, at both the individual and the organisational levels, probably represents a response to changes in the culture of organisations. It is now believed that wider participation in goal setting leads to greater utilisation of an organisation's resources, human and technical, and results in significantly better plans