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The aim of the study is to stretch the research focusing on e-recruitment by assessing the source effectiveness grounded on relatively new measure that examines pre-hire criteria. This chapter highlights an overview of the current study and tries to identify the gaps within the literature as rationale of this research. This includes methodology, review of the research design and also briefly outlines the structure of the thesis.
The significance of human resource practices in organizations has earned plenty of respect by scholars and practitioner-focused journals and magazines through growing research in the related field over the past years (Barber, 1998).
The basic instinct of human resource management is to recruit staff to engage in different operations within the organization. The quality of the human capital generated through effective recruitment forms the key foundation and predominantly depicts the success of the organization (Barber, 1998).The applicant job-choice decision making process primarily depends on recruitment process and its influence on job seeker which has been the area of research. The researchers attempted to asses primarily post-hire recruitment outcomes and tried to link recruitment process with applicant's subsequent success of job (Breaugh et al, 2000).
The key elements of the recruitment process such as the impact of the recruiters involved in the process, the administrative recruitment policies and procedures, and the recruitment sources used reach and invite potential applicant are believed to have potential influence on recruitment process (Rynes et al, 1991).
The organizations use different recruitment sources to inform potential applicant about organization and recruitment. The researchers are interested in particular source information which influences the applicant's perception and believe this relationship as a key determinant of source effectiveness. Traditionally, organizations used employee referrals, advertisement, newspapers, employment agencies and direct applications (also known as "walk ins'') as sources to inform potential applicants. Since the most recent past, companies have started to see internet recruitment as a potential information source to reach and identify efficient applicant (Barber, 1998).
General literature on e-recruitment postulates some pluses such as cost effectiveness, geographical reach, quick and user friendly while some shortcomings like huge number of applications, privacy and security, discrimination and scarcity of technology (Feldman et al), (Galanaki, 2002), (Alan D Smith et al, 2004). Few empirical studies have been conducted to view the effectiveness of e-recruitment with regard to source superiority and realistic information theory. The empirical studies in this context suggests poor indication about the quality applicants acquired through internet based source despite the intensive use of internet sources (Breaugh et al, 2003) (Eptein et al, 2003). The current research tries to overcome the confusion of effectiveness over internet source.
While stretching the research on recruitment sources, some findings suggests the impact of information contained within the advertisement on the applicant's job decision making and post-hire successive outcomes (Dugoni et al, 1981), (Kirnan et al, 1989), (Charles et al, 1991). It has further produced findings to premise the provision of realistic information through sources that are regarded as informal in nature like referrals, rehires and direct applications produce better post-hire outcomes and in terms of job satisfaction, efficiency and sustenance. The sources that are formal in nature such as recruitment agencies and newspapers which show up with only positive information on job and organization produce lower level of positive subsequent post-hire outcomes (Taylor et al, 1987);(Webel et al, 1996). The current study aims to expand the research proposition that whether the e-recruitment serves best in the interest of applicant.
A number of methods shall be used to assess significance of e-recruitment and depicts its ability to grow using secondary data, interview data and survey data. The first measure of assessment include secondary data analysis of the number of applicants who have applied through internet and success stories of human resource experts who have utilized this source.
Furthermore, the researcher will analyze the survey data which intends to see the perception of applicants about the e-recruitment and information provided and also the willingness to apply for the job. The last measure used by the researcher about the effectiveness of e-recruitment is based on the perception of human resource practitioners during the recruitment process. One of the most important tasks of human resource practitioners is to recruit quality staff to extract subsequent post-hire outcomes, constructive feedback on key job and organization and their opinion about e-recruitment would bright the ways to attract potential applicants through effective e-recruitment.
The researcher has undertaken a case study of Rozze.pk, which claims to be the no.1 job search website in Pakistan having over 18 million applications, over 90,000 job vacancies and about 48,000 employers  . The development and growth of the above case study would help researcher to identify the effectiveness of e-recruitment and the interest of Govt. and non-Govt. institutions and businesses in the related industry. Moreover, the effectiveness of e-recruitment would draw attention towards the authorities to make certain policies to accelerate the development of this industry. The study will also explore the current step to strengthen this industry particularly Rozze.pk. While conducting this research, relevant recommendations shall also be planned. The relevant data of applicants and employers is provided by Rozze.pk and the opinion of both respondents will concrete and strengthen the research on realistic grounds. The selected case study will also help to identify the challenges faced by this industry and opportunities for job seekers and explore the ways to deal with the issues or hurdles experienced by this industry.
The primary focus of this research is to measure the effectiveness of e-recruitment source using Rozze.pk as case study. While there has been aplenty research on different source recruitment a minimal effort has been made to address the effectiveness of internet source recruitment to the date. Much of the literature on internet based recruitment shows positive and negative impact for the organization with limited theoretical and empirical background. The researcher will try to explore Pakistan's e-recruiting industry and its trend within the country and also include the introduction of Rozze.pk in particular.
The current research is proposed to assess the effectiveness of source recruitment which links number of new research variables. Two different perspectives from the applicant and employer have been included which forms a unique research design.
There are plenty of reasons that motivated me to conduct the research on this topic. Personal observations and increasing role of internet in our daily life is what triggered me to generate my interest on the topic. However, following are some of the important reasons to indulge in the topic:
There have been a growing number of online jobs for last decade.
Effective human resource practice
Cost effective for both employer and applicant and firms now switching from conventional way such as newspapers and recruiting agencies towards internet based recruitment.
Growing importance of technology and its intensive usage
Easy to find desired job and time saving
As stated above the current study aims to measure the effectiveness of e-recruitment via two perspectives, one from the applicant side and other from the employer side. The researcher designed this study in the following way in order to source the data from two different perspectives:
The researcher used the secondary data of the percentage of applicants who were appointed and shortlisted, provided by Rozze.pk over the nine years of time. An analysis of the provided information will determine both the quality and quantity of the applicants. It will also help to assess the perception of the applicant towards the source information and willingness to apply for the job. The data is captured through electronic mail and survey to the applicants to assess the perception of applicants.
Furthermore, it is important to explore if the organization's perception reflects applicant's perception and which information is important to attract more quality applicants. It is also important to analyze the information from organizational point of view in relation to effective e-recruitment given the growing importance of internet usage and cost effectiveness strategies already implemented by many organizations. Therefore, the organizations seeking cost effectiveness should find effective e-recruitment sources.
There has not been any formal theoretical model developed to see the relationship between recruitment sources and also the effectiveness on both applicant and employer level. The motivation of this study is to develop a structure to assess the effectiveness of internet based recruitment from both applicant and organizational perspective. This framework is figured in later chapters, however, an overview of the structure of the thesis is now elaborated.
Chapter 2 is comprised on comprehensive review of ample literature elaborating recruitment process and effects of information to influence applicant's job choice. This is further divided into two sections. Section one explains the dynamics of recruitment process which includes recruiter's effects, administrative complexity of policies and procedures, channels of marketing, complete detail of Rozee.pk and its future and prospects in Pakistani job market industry. The review of the literature revolve around the above mentioned dynamics of recruitment process, applicant decision process of job selection and pre-hire strategies to choose the right platform. Second section shed light on the outcome of the e-recruitment in comparison with its traditional counterparts to measure the overall effectiveness of the source from applicant and organizational perspective. This section will further identify source effectiveness in generating quality applicants as a gap which previous studies couldn't encounter.
Chapter 3 represents design, Methodology of the research and data collection which shadows all key research areas. Chapter 4 will discuss the results and findings and will also include data analysis. In Chapter 5, researcher will conclude the findings of the research from both applicant's perspective and employer's perspective. The last section of chapter 5 includes some recommendations.
Chapter 2: Literature review
2.1- Recruitment dynamics
The importance and effectiveness of quality recruitment in human resource management has long been admired by many scholars and practitioners. Human resource management doesn't only perform recruitment but different other operations, however, recruitment is one of the core functions of HRM. A growing literature contains the argument that high work performance practices comprises of selection and recruitment, training, incentive compensation system along with performance evaluation system and extensive employee involvement system leads to improved knowledge and skills acquired by a firm ( (Huselid, 1995).
(Barber, 1998) elaborated recruitment as a process or activity carried out by the firm to attract and identify potential employees. Human resource of an organization performs recruitment process to identify the best suitable employee. The selection and recruitment procedure should be in line with organizational goals and should be cost effective to hunt quality staff for business operations. (Rynes et al, 1991) explain the recruitment process as a practice or decision by organization that affects number of different types of applicants who are willing to apply or accept.
Apart from the recruitment process explained by both authors, one should need to differentiate recruitment process with selection process which are quite similar to each other. Selection is a process to choose the best candidate out of the pool of different candidates acquiring different skills in the domain of knowledge, abilities, communication and managerial skills. Since both concepts are interdependent on each other, it is difficult to differentiate where selection depends on recruitment (Barber, 1998). Many authors have consensus on the argument that recruitment is a two way complex procedure. On one hand, employers try to seek potential employees by introducing attractive company's profile while employees try to be attractive to employers to be hired. The quest of attracting each other continues from initial recruitment procedure to the hiring outcome (Breaugh et al, 1992). However, (Schneider, 1983); (SCHNEIDER, 1987); (Bretz et al, 1989) expressed a threat to such recruitment process that organizations over time attract and retain employees which are increasingly homogenous. This is because organizations rely only on established sources such as newspapers or face to face interview only. This would exert pressure on organizations to review their selection and recruitment policies to attract diverse range of quality candidates in a competitive environment (Hinton et al, 2000). Since, the nature of recruitment is not constant and evolving by the time, there is a strong need to explore new ways and channels to hire quality applicants. This research shed some light on relatively new source of recruitment. Similar idea is given by Robert Guion who acknowledged the role of technological development in recruiting employees. The massive technological and communication development urged the human resource of the organization to use this medium to increase efficiency and quality compare to the traditional ways of recruiting (Guion, 1976)
The impact of recruitment is discussed by (Barber 1998), explaining that the recruitment process has consequences for organization as well as for individuals. The organization tries to match their job vacancies with individual job seeking profiles which is influenced by recruitment process (Barber, 1998).
2.2- The recruitment process
There are different ways of recruitment process depending on the overall job description and organizational objectives. Employees can be recruited through internal, external, college and E recruitment.
2.2.1- Internal recruitment
Organizations and firms can use their internal resources to recruit employees. There are plenty of reasons to use internal resources to hire employees. When organizations recruit internally, they have advantages of reliability and trust which strengthens internal recruitment. Promotion is a very good tool to ensure employees commitment towards the organization and motivate skilled and ambitious employees to participate in the activities which lead to promotion (Richarson, 2003)  . Internal recruitment can be cost effective as well as time saving. The organizations which look for cheap recruitment and less time spending, rely on their internal sources. Beside of these advantages, using internal sources can have some shortcomings. It is difficult to find suitable and right person to match the job when using internal sources. During the expansion process of organization, it is difficult to cut loose one department or employee and promote the potential candidate over others. It may destroy the competition and threatens organization's repute (Richardson, 2003) 
2.2.2- External resources
The external methods are categorized in two ways, informal and formal hiring. Informal methods hit relatively smaller market than formal methods. Informal method constitute of rehiring former employees, walk-in applicants whose applications are retained into files, referrals and students who successfully complete their internships in that organization before. Informal methods are normally used to hire people for clerical work or as baseline employees who are likely to submit their unsolicited applications. Formal procedure includes searching the best suitable employee in the available labor market more widely with no previous connection to the organization. Formal methods use traditional channels like newspapers, journals, employment agencies and magazines. A couple of new channels like e recruitment and job fairs have also been introduced (Richardson, 2003) 
2.2.3- College recruitment
This is an important source for management trainees, technical employees, promotion and bringing young and enthusiastic employees into the desired profession. Organization sends his employment representative to the college where they prescreen candidates and create candidate's pool. To achieve the maximum benefits out of it, organization manifests itself as best career takeoff by presenting their stand out position in the market. Fresh graduates try to visualize where their career stands in the next 10 to 15 years and they choose organization accordingly (Richardson. 2003)  .
E recruitment is carried out through website using internet where organizations post their vacancies. This process is relatively inexpensive and fast in comparison with traditional ways of recruiting employees. The complete job description and organizational information is posted on the website for longer period of time without additional costs so that the potential applicant may review whole organization and respond accordingly.
2.3- An introduction to E-recruitment
This research specifically revolves around E-recruitment and its functioning. The literature reviewed, explicitly focuses on advantages and disadvantages of E-recruitment and its trends. E-recruitment is defined as a process of hiring employees using internet (Stone et al, 2006). The concept of E-recruitment was introduced about two decades ago which is now extensively used by transnational and multinational organizations. The research on e-recruitment and rigorous literature appeared in the mid-1990s in major human resource related journals. The rise of using this source initially attributed to IT based companies and universities (Galanaki, 2002). E-recruitment is getting day by day popular and the usage of this source by employees and employers is rising. Companies are not posting more and more jobs on regular basis on this media compare to the traditional one. Transformation and development in internet would certainly trigger more companies and applicant to benefit from this source compare to today's workforce (Wyld et al, 1997).
E-recruitment is viewed as a cost effective tool to hire employees instead of paying fee to post their jobs on newspapers and job boards and a possible threat to make job boards out of the market if they don't capitalize (Zappe, 2005). Following are various sources which have driven e-recruitment very fast.
Corporate websites are extensively used by job seekers to look for a job in a particular organization and became prime source for job hunting. These websites add additional information of organization and create additional recruitment pages on existing organizational website (Galanaki, 2002).
Job portals act as a third party website to bridge applicant with employer. There are recruitment agencies, head hunters, and other job platforms to attract potential applicant (Galanaki, 2002)
Another effective source is media websites which use the same job advertisement on newspaper and post it on media websites (Galanaki, 2002).
The most recent trend perhaps is to recruit employees online by synchronizing it with company's marketing and branding strategies through the inclusion of their web address in classified advertisement. It is worth to mention that research shows higher quality applicants hired through corporate advertising. Results from the study on corporate advertisement help to predict potential number of applicants, applicant's education and one year on job experience.
2.3.1- Trends on e-recruitment
The advancement of IT and revolution in communication technology are the main drivers of e-recruitment. Undoubtedly, organizations are now more inclined towards internet recruitment compare to a decade or two. Institute of Employment Studies IES has done a survey using 50 organization's data to find the main objectives and motivators of e-recruitment which include the followings: (Kerrin, 2003) 
Cost effective recruitment
Facilitating and reducing administrative tasks
Building and improving company's image and profile
Provide efficient tools for recruiters
Fifty five percent respondents suggest cutting half of their traditional recruiting methods in the future after having use of e-recruitment. However, the most important barriers restricting e-recruitment include: (Kerrin, 2003)
The cultural approach by organization when recruiting
Lack of knowledge and practice of e-recruitment in HR sector
Potential candidate missed out due to other factors (Kerrin, 2003)
The issues related to e-recruitment involve quality and quantity of candidates using web-based recruiting process. For example, organizations receive massive applications out of which many are not suitable for the job. Also, the criteria to shorten the list of applicants, privacy and data protection, and emphasis on applicant diversity still echoes around e-recruitment (Kerrin 2003).
The popularity and significance of e-recruitment has risen during the recent time and there have been number of studies which have authenticated employer's take up and progress. E-recruitment is used by about 500 global companies. Taleo research  studied that 93% of global companies were using e-recruitment. 96% of companies in Asia, 94% in Europe and 96% in America were using e-recruitment methods. Taleo research further elaborated that 27% companies in 2000 and 77% in 2005 announced to apply through corporate career websites (Lermusiaux et al, 2001).
2.4- Advantages of e-recruitment
The success stories and practices of e-recruitment suggest numerous advantages of e-recruitment which seem to have significant importance in HR sector. Some of the advantages are as follows:
2.4.1- Quick and easy access
Quick and easy access is considered to be the biggest perceived advantage of e-recruitment where applicant can view wide range of job opportunities and desired information about organization or employer 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. It also allows applicant to search job while doing his current job duties. It is perhaps more easy to write key job search words on internet and find the job rather than looking at the newspaper which could be time consuming and submitting online application is far too easy than arranging hard copies and sending to the desired companies (Galanaki, 2002)
2.4.2- Cost effectiveness
Galanaki further argued that the cost of hiring employees depends on the email approach applied. When an organization uses corporate website it incurs no cost at all while posting job on other website defines the cost which depends on the coverage of that website. E-recruitment can provide economies of scale because the amount or information has no limit on internet while on newspaper or other traditional channel one has to consider word's limit. In short, e-recruitment minimizes all three types of costs i.e. the cost of job awareness, cost of hiring and cost of time served (Galanaki, 2002), (Wyld et al, 1997).
2.4.3- Broad coverage
E-recruitment has specifically broad spectrum which is stretched from local market to global market at the same time in contrast with newspaper and local media which has lower coverage (Galanaki, 2002). Smith 2005 also indicated that e-recruitment can touch global, local and niche market and allowing recruiters to target the market fill with skill required applicants (Smith et al, 2005). Feldman 2002 found in his study that potential applicants were quite content with searching information about desired organization, career paths, companies and jobs. Also, very effective tool to search on a geographic location, job type, industry type, and an effective way to learn how the market look like according to their own skills and standards (Feldman et al, 2002).
2.4.4- Better quality
Internet users are generally perceived as sophisticated, educated and learned applicants who show their concerns and interest in recruiting companies especially when they apply through corporate website. Thaler-Carter 1998 p64 phrased that accepting the change leads to more likely help the business to grow and change (Thaler-Carter, 1998). There is also a significant increase of older non IT staff to use e-recruitment to find the job out of which 60% are qualified at degree level (Galanaki, 2002). E-recruitment can act as a tool to attract the interest of highly skilled employees who are not in search of job which can be stated as "highly prized catch'' by recruiters. From an organization view, e-recruitment helps to build up better profile and an image of innovation and flexibility especially when corporate websites are launched (Galanaki, 2002).
Glickstein and Ramer (1988) argued that conventional recruitment tools just like non internet based selection procedures categorize traditional sources and alternative sources. The medium which are used in traditional hiring include newspapers, employee's referrals, employment agencies, and walk-in and alternative sources include internet based hiring procedures. Traditional sources are those which have been used for decades and alternative sources like internet based hiring will become traditional after the advent of new alternative source (Glickstein et al, 1988). The employers have mere liberty on the ad color and size when using traditional sources while internet based job advertisement fulfills the requirements of the recruiters.
2.4.5- Recruiting cycle time reduced
E-recruitment is considered as a very helpful tool to reduce the time consumed in hiring procedures. Online recruitment saves 25 to 30% time of HR which could have been used in other administrative work when using traditional sources (Galanaki, 2002)
2.5- Shortcomings of e-recruitment
As mentioned above many potential benefits of e-recruitment and revolutionary advancement in using this source to hire employees, there are some pitfalls as well. Some of the disadvantages are as follows:
2.5.1- Higher volume of applications
One of the most common problems of organizations is to receive massive applications when using e-recruitment irrespective of their quality. Coming out of geographical boundaries allow users to apply from different parts of the world and hence create a very big applicant's pool which means extra processing time and most of the applicants don't suit the required skills. Galanakai 2002 argued that as the internet is globalized, it will increase the number of applicants who apply for the job. Moreover, when applicants store and submit their CVs electronically the individual cost of applying for a job disappears and hence the assumption that globalized market increases the pool of applicants become plausible. (Carlson et al, 2002) argued that when applicant's pool increases, the organization becomes more selective and superior applicants are hired which leads to subsequent improvement in organizational efficiency but at the same time it increases the administrative work load resulting in higher costs (Carlson et al 2002). Similar argument is given by Barber 1998 that when applicant pool is smaller, organizations have less choice to differentiate applicants while greater applicant pool provides better applicant's profile but exert extra pressure on administrative system which results into overlook of the most suitable applicant if the recruitment process is insufficient. Therefore, the prime concern of an organization is to create desirable number of potential applicant's pool who acquire exact skills suitable for the job (Barber, 1998).
2.5.2- Lack of expertise at organizational level
Some organizations lack the basic expertise and resources to handle and execute online hiring procedures. Companies must be able to use IT tools to screen CVs and search engines to facilitate people to become familiar with the new source (Galanaki, 2002).
2.5.3- Suitability of applicants
E-recruitment is still not suitable for all ages and professionals. It has some limitations for highly achieved professionals. There is an assumption that e-recruitment works best for fresh graduates and more than quarter firms whose recruitment process is run by internet based source has special focus on graduates. In the case of high level management positions e-recruitment has not earn much attention due to the impression that one is so desperate to get a job. (Galanaki, 2002)
2.5.4- Privacy issues
The issues of privacy and information security are raised by many candidates due to network difficulties who provide their personal information on websites and acquire some time serious issues like unethical use of the information provided. The issue is not only raised by regular job seekers but also by passive job seekers whose information can be used through back doors by head hunters. Many web based recruiting companies have taken serious measures like setting a password to the personal profile but still lot more to do.(Feldman et al, 2002).
2.6- Case study of Rozee.pk
Rozee.pk is a brand name of Naseeb online service private limited which is completely owned subsidiary of Naseeb networks inc. The company is run by managerial executives who have more than 100 years of combined experience of running internet business at many renowned companies like eBay, AOL, PayPal, Excite, Cisco, Google and Intel (Naseeb Networks Inc.) 
2.6.1- Recovery infrastructure and expertise
Rozee.pk has a huge database for CVs and about 50,526 employers being served. According to the claim of Samaa tv  and Down Spider Magazine  rozee.pk is Pakistan's no 1 recruiting portal. Rozee.pk has about 20,071,492 applications 99,825 vacancies on board with more than 50,000 employers  . Rozee.pk provides secure and 24/7 access to its clients and members. The special emphasis is on software, hardware and maintenance infrastructure to make the best profile for candidature. The rozee.pk IT experts do their best to keep running complex applications and make sure only the convenience web browsing service. The running cost of applications often increases the initial investment which is covered by a provision of large number of employers through common infrastructure and hence able to absorb large infrastructure costs. It has its datacenter located in California at the level 4 to recover and backup facility. It provides excellent user experience with 100 Mbit/second of instantaneous bandwidth. Rozee.pk happened to be the first Pakistani website to achieve the award of best coveted TRUSTe consumer's privacy and its network is secured by Cisco firewalls. The daily backups are stored at three locations (US, Germany and Pakistan) to ensure against any truculence.
2.6.2- The executive board members
Mr. Monis Rehman CEO and managing director of Naseeb networks
Mr. Rehman is a serial entrepreneur having founded and run many internet companies and chip consultancies. He has nine patents to his name along with two internet startup venture capitals. After having started his career at Intel Corporation, Mr. Rehman became a key member of his team in microprocessor design.
Mr. Sameer Siddiqui Vice president products
Mr. Sameer Siddqui has an experience of over 17 years of product central for millions of users to communicate and collaborate. He has also served in AOL the world's largest media company as senior manager for 7 years. Currently, Mr. Sameer manages and coordinates the products of Naseeb networks.
2.6.3- The success of rozee.pk
Rozee.pk claims to have visitors more than the combined 5 job portals. Every day about 100 new job ads are posted on the website and over 6 million job applications have been submitted through this job portal. It has been believed market leader in the related business by Dawn's spider Magazine, Netmag Magazine and Samaa tv. Moreover, Mobilink, Zong and Ufone  have also benefited by rozee.pk through sms alert to their respective subscribers. Rozee.pk has about over 4 billion annual visitors out of which 95% are Pakistanis which makes it not only the best recruiting platform but also leader among those who are involved in the business.
Rozee.pk has traffic growth which is estimated as 800% over the recent years and became the most visited website within Pakistan.
2.6.4- Prominent Features of Rozee.pk
Following are some salient features of rozee.pk
CV search engine: this tool facilitate employers to search the best suitable candidate of his choice from the database of rozee.pk.
Campus career portal: this unique tool bridges universities with employers without any hassle. Employers can easily target university graduates in the respective university through this powerful tool.
Applicant filter: Applicant filter tool uniquely filter unwanted or irrelevant resumes for employers. They can restrict their search to limited number of applicants by filtering irrelevant resumes.
Power tools: through power tools employers can shortlisting, emailing and scheduling candidates for interview.