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Employee communication deals with the exchange of ideas between the employees in an organisation. Communication is an essential part as it involves the flow of information both internally as well as externally. The information is sent or received through several channels. The need for communication has become major development for any organization over the last 15 years. Many organizations were growing at a faster rate as many developing nations were and other emerging markets are prevalent. Today, every employee want to know his exact role in the company and the way he is communicated has a huge impact on his attitude and morale. According to Dr. Heinz Goldman, (chair, Heinz Goldman International Foundation for executive Communications, Geneva) states that "Effective communication needs to be built around this simple foundation and realization: communication is a dialogue not a monologue. In fact, communication is more concerned with a dual listening process."
In this report we are discussing about channel of communication how it effecting to the origination and what are the measurement improve the channel. . So now we are going to discuses about the channel of communication and how we can improve it by taking right decision and right measurement. For this decision we need to research the channel of communication which is used by an origination say for example BEST AGRO FOOD PVT.LTD Company in India is adopting e communication. The company have its own software about how they inform the employee about changes of company. The manger in the company sends e-mail to the employees about the new activity or promotional activity in the company. So in this report we are discussing about BEST AGRO FOOD PVT.LTD Company and its channel of communication and how we can take some steps to improve the channel of communication in the company.
Aim :::-- to maintain channel of communication of the origination and improve it.
To analyse how far employee communication helps in the effective growth of the company. In short employees are the base of the company or we can say that anyone from the outside of the company can predict the company image from the communication skill of the employee. So communication skill of the employee helps the effective growth of the company.
To analyse how 'effective communication with employees' helps outsourcing companies to succeed in demanding times. In this objective it really reflected in the demanding time management needs to achieve the production level as per demand but it only possible when the employee of the company give their best for this purpose manger have to maintain effective communication with the employee so employee motivate from the participation of manager in the process and they are give 100% to the company and that is how management can achieve production as per demand.
To analyse role of 'Employee communication channels and improvement of the organisation during the process of Organisational change and outsourcing. This objectives show that to analyse the employee in the communication channel how it does effect and what are the improvement of the organization when the process of originations have the same change.
To analyse how 'effective communication' would help outsourcing companies to stay above their competitors in the industry. This objective is only about the mangers and the representative of the company if company's manager our representative really have a communication skill then by the using of that skill company cancel more or improve the image of company survive but way company making a profit and get a good competition to the competitors. So effective communication help the company to stay in the competition.
An explanation of, and justification for, the research methodology
Researcher would be clear of questions such as what has to be done and what should not be done as he studies the ethical issues in research. (Sunderland University, 2007:52) There are several ethical issues to be considered during the research process and categorized as below:
Nature of Issues
Ethical issues which are studied under the nature of issues are categorized into suitability for study and 'obligations of and to client'. (Sunderland University, 2007:53)
Suitability of the study: some of careful consideration need in type of research which usually raises ethical issues. Like for example the use of genetic engineering in life sciences and data protection in banking industry and patent rights. Research which may have impact on employment is also considered here.
Obligations of and to clients: Most of the research is done mainly when the company or client supports the researcher or supplier. For this company has to have a interest on the work done and on the outcome of the research. This adds value. The obligation between the client and the supplier is a two way process and high degree of integrity and total honesty is the need of the hour.
Processing of data
Participation in research: Many participants are likely to e involved in the research. Rights of these participants are very important during data processing. (Sunderland University, 2007:55) These can be studied under as follows:
Right to privacy or non-participation: Researcher should never force the participants into his research. It is unethical to force or involve participant into research without his interest or consent.
Right to be protected: Protection of data or participant's data is very vital and researcher should be aware of what information he is sharing with the client.
Right to have access to all information: All the information should be made clear to the participants.
Right to remain anonymous: Researcher focuses mainly on data obtained from group or departments or localities rather than individuals. So there is no need to mention the names of the participants who took part in the research.
Right to confidentiality: Participants should be made clear by the researcher as to who got the access to the data or research.
Data protection: All the data of the participants is protected under the Data protection Act, 1998
Conducting the research
According to (Sunderland University, 2007:54) Evidence collection method like questionnaires, experimentation, interviews or observation, Honesty and trust, and integrity of the evidence are the issues to be considered while conducting research. In order data to be accurate, the researcher should have hard evidence and should not try to trim the data which will result in ethical issues.
Another issue is Integrity of evidence. The very word research should be devoid of assumptions. During the presentation, evidence should be supported in the form of raw data or information. This data should be kept for any verification. Last one is Honesty and trust; the data or the researched material under any circumstances should not be revealed.
Cliford Ehrlich, studied the impact of changing work environment under employee relations. He opined that there are four basic principles for companies to build effective working relationships. Development of strong communication links and working environment based on team work are included under the four principles. More and more employers now communicate with their employees to keep up to date about the business, stakeholder's views, turnover, balance sheet, planning, training and quality initiatives. All the above are important in turn for the employer and for the business as a whole. There is no doubt with the above views we can say that good communication is like a glue that binds the organization as a whole.
Bevan and Bailey (1991) define employee communication as "the process through which organizations share information, build commitment, and manage change. Communication plays a major role in employee motivation, performance and brings about competitiveness" (p.214). Charlton (1990) feels that every company which want to succeed need to have employee communication programs, where corporate objectives and other information is shared to the employees and between the employees. Employee communication has become one of the important management responsibilities. Bevan and Bailey (p.26).
The objective of employee communication according to smith (1991), "is not just to share information, but to build understanding and to help resolve conflicts and motivate positive actions" (p.18). Memos, newsletters and fliers used to be channels of internal communication but Bevan and bailey (1991) elaborate that, "electronics and computer technology, in combination with telephone has become new and exiting tools of organizational
Study of types of communication channels:
a) Downward communication
This kind of communication is used by the managers to communicate directly with the employees. Different types of downward communication are
History and background of the organisation, objectives, vision, products and services and other operational methods are included in this type of communication.
Briefing comes mainly from senior managers and middle and other junior managers are updated in this way.
3 Annual reports:
All the financial information, sales, revenues and about products are included in this type of communication method.
4 Notice board
Information can be kept in the form of pamphlets or facets and can be put on notice boards. This is a very cheap and instant way of sharing information.
5 In house journals:
Information about the company and several departments is shared through well designed in-house journals.
Written communication to junior managers to share any information with their respective staff.
7 Personal letters to employees:
This is very useful form of communication for the organisation and is sent to home address of the employee.
8 Team meetings:
Day by day work can be analysed and planning for any future work can be done during team meetings or staff meetings.
b) Upward communication:
The opinions and views of employees are taken into consideration by the employer in this kind of communication. So this communication is known as upward communication as is also very important channel in an organisation.
c) Problem solving skills:
Many problems related to quality and performance is discussed by groups on regular basis. These kinds of communications bring about improved quality, competitiveness, and savings.
d) Joint monitoring committees.
These kinds of committees will be doing regular inspections of workplace, training facilities, health and safety records and stimulating health and safety awareness to the employees.
e) Conferences and seminars:
Any change in the organisation either in theory or pragmatically should be address to employees in a timely manner. This kind of communication channel between the senior management and those likely to be effected by the changed will be participating in seminars or conferences.
f) Suggestion schemes type of communication from the employer regarding cost cutting measures, working culture, productivity is also an important communication channels.
Goals of employee communication
Taking into consideration, the research model of Roger D'Aprix , Bevan and bailey explains that initially employee has one question in mind. The question is "what's my Job?" and if the employer answers the question satisfactorily, then employees will involve in broader issues of the company and explore news ways to make greater contribution to the company" (p.215).when the employee knows the answer then he would really feel as a part of the organisation and he would also exactly know his contribution to the company. When the communication is two ways, then the organisation would clearly benefit from the energy of the employee.
Importance of communication in successful organizational change:
Communication is very vital for any successive organizational change. The importance of communication during organizational change is demonstrated by the model of dynamics of planned organizational change (Robertson et al., 1993). Robertson et al. states that the change of individual behaviour of individual employees depends upon the ability of the organization. If the change is about the tasks of individual employees than communication with these employees is vital and integrative part of change efforts and strategies.
Importance of communication in companies outsourcing their work:
Many authors reviewed about necessity of communications during implementation of an outsourcing Endeavour and then identify the best practices to effective communication that lead to successful outsourcing. Employee communication is a very vital part in any organization looking for outsourcing its work. There are many companies across the globe which failed due to improper communication.
Many companies have considered downsizing to stay competitive in the current fluctuating economy. Outsourcing has become a popular method to achieve a leaner, more-efficiently run organization. As defined by Rajabzadeh, Rostamy, & Hosseini (2008), outsourcing is the procurement of products or services, which were previously produced in-house, from sources that are external to the organization. Achieving cost saving is the main goal for many multinational organizations outsourcing their work.
According to Prasad & Prasad (2007), there is "wide-spread agreement" that communication is crucial for successful outsourcing and that communication must take place between several levels to include:
(a) The outsourcing firm and the provider firm
(b) The outsourcing firm and the project team responsible for planning and implementing the outsourcing initiative
(c) The outsourcing firm and those employees who are likely to lose their jobs
(d) The outsourcing firm and those employees who might remain in the firm as "survivors" (Prasad & Prasad, 2007)
(e) The outsourcing firm and other relevant stakeholders
Embleton and Wright (1998) stated that "â€¦outsourcing results from an economic climate where the emphasis is on cost savings and increased profit" and that "outsourcing is a natural progression of today's competitive industry."
Internet and Intranet have been one of the best options in communication channels over the last decade. Murgolo-Poore, Pitt and Ewing (2002) claims that intranets let people communicate and collaborate more effectively, and observe that "Undoubtedly, intranets have the potential to become powerful mechanisms for management in organizations that are increasingly fragmented and global" (p. 114).Research in the form of surveys done by Murgolo-Poore, Pitt, Berthon and Prendegast (2003) in nearly 1800 companies demonstrates that effective intranets are better equipped to disseminate information, in particular corporate intelligence.
Today many companies use intranet for faster communication along with several other channels. Emails, face to face meetings and intranet are the ultimate choice of many multinational companies these days.
The technique to conduct research is known as research methodology and is done in several methods.
There are two main methods, inductive and deductive. The theory which comes from mere experience is the induction theory. It is not based on scientific observations. It is not rigid as deductive theory. Researcher would like to adopt inductive methodology.
Types and sources of Data:
Primary data and secondary data are two types of sources of data:
Collection of data by various methods such as interviews and observations is known as qualitative primary data. Collection in the form of questionnaires or surveys is known as quantitative primary data. Researcher is interested in primary source of data as it involves direct in depth interviews and observations and analysis of collected data.
Collection of data can be from newspapers, internet based databases, government publications, and University based databases, TV or radio, business writers etc.
Data collection technique:
While collecting data, researcher is more prone to use integrated research approaches. Integrated research approaches are nothing but use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. In this method interviews are used to formulate questionnaires or surveys or vice versa. Use of integrated approach brings about advantage and adds rigour to our findings. Observations or investigations can be done by various methods simultaneously.
The available techniques for integrated research are
1) Questionnaire or surveys
Interviews (in depth interviews)
Observations or findings
Questionnaire: The information from the participants is obtained by simple surveys and follows through questions. Questions are formulated in such a way that most of the information required for doing research is obtained from the answers.
Interviews: Interviews or in-depth interviews are the best possible way to collect data. The interview involves the actual views of the subject and makes the researcher more pragmatic. Interviews can be face to face, telephonic interview, and video conferences or through writings.
Observations: For the data to be valid and justifiable, observation is an important part. Observation is of mainly two types. One is direct one which is nothing but the method of physically collecting sample or observing, and the other one is participant-observation. The later involves the organisation and the researcher.
Data analysis Techniques:
As the researcher approach is towards integrated approach, the analysis has to be carried out both qualitatively as well as quantitatively.
Data can be analysed in many readily available software. Few of them are as follows:
MS EXCEL has developed the software. This software allows quarry and tests at one click. This software requires a digital scanner and a plain paper.
Answers are other analysis software developed by the same developers and is used to analyse word based records.
MS EXCEL database is another software helping researchers to create, manage, and analyze semi-structured qualitative databases.
Researcher uses the MS EXCEL software technique for analyzing qualitative data as the data accuracy is excellent and is available online and also cost effective.
For quantitative data analysis technique, researcher uses the Mostly Microsoft and IBM software. This software analyses data with advanced techniques such as cluster analysis, forecasting models, and ordinal regression. It also can build reports for sharing the findings.