Relationships Established Between Job Performance And Job Satisfaction


"Happy worker is a good worker". Since many years various professors and psychologists having been researching about the relation between job performance and job satisfaction and it is seen that till date it has been very difficult to establish a relationship. The study of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is one of the most venerable research traditions in industrial-organizational psychology.(aqualitative and quatitative) These days employee satisfaction has become very important for the organisations as every organisation strives to have employees who can work effectively and efficiently. Further this essay explains about the various relationships established between job performance and job satisfaction by various view points.

Job performance is formally defined as the value of the set of employee behaviours that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational job accomplishment. ( Colquitt 2.7) Although there are numerous behaviours that make an employee perform better-quality work, there are three broad categories of behaviours that are relevant to job performance that are task performance, contextual performance and counterproductive behaviour. Task performance is when employees use technical skills and knowledge to produce goods or services through the organisations core technical processes, or when they accomplish specialised tasks that support these core functions.(pg 81 ) Contextual performance is when employees voluntarily help co-workers who are getting behind, act in ways that maintain good working relationships, or put in extra effort to complete an assignment on time, they are engaging in contextual performance.(pg 81) Counterproductive behaviour is defined as employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organisational goal accomplishment. (2.46 colquitt). It has been observed that task performance and contextual performance react in a positive style whereas; counterproductive reacts negatively for an organisation. Job satisfaction in very simple words means, how satisfied the employee is with his/her work. As seen in various situations the happier the employees are with their job, they tend to perform better. Job satisfaction has a numerous number of factors. Some of those would be the relationship with their co-workers and supervisor, the environment of the organization and the pay as well.

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Job performance and job satisfaction are two different things that always correspond each other. If the employee performs well he is bound to be satisfied with his work and will be ready to perform his/her work more effectively and efficiently. The relation between them is very clear (Schleicher, Watt, and Greguras, 2004), and there are two different explanations to this relation. Firstly, job satisfaction may lead to job performance, i.e., if an employee is totally satisfied with his work, he will work even harder and put all his effort to get a better result which in turn will led to better job performance. Thus, to get good results employees should be given a feeling of job satisfaction so that performance can be improved. Secondly, job performance may lead to job satisfaction. For example employees performing well are liable to receive various benefits like more pay and recognition, which could lead to increase in satisfaction. Moreover, job performance and job satisfaction do not only come through rewarding or giving higher positions to the employees but also by helping others, working in a comfortable environment as well as receiving appreciation from the supervisors.

Job satisfaction and job performance are reciprocally related to each other. If the performance is not very good, then an employee will not be satisfied and vice-versa. That is if an employee is not satisfied with his/her work, he/she will not perform well and that will to a certain extent lead to a counterproductive behaviour where an employee will intentionally not perform his task well. Two studies (Bagozzi, 1980;Siegel & Bowen, 1971) have recommended that job performance does lead to job satisfaction but, not the vice -versa. Whereas, Wanous (1974) supports that the relationship was reciprocal however, it depends on the type of satisfaction. For example extrinsic satisfaction, which is in the form of money or appraisal from the supervisor leads to job satisfaction and then job performance, whereas; Intrinsic satisfaction, which is the personal satisfaction of an employee or the pleasure in performing the task, leads to job performance first and then job satisfaction. Thus satisfaction and performance are strongly related to performance that leads to rewards.

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Moreover, Walter C. Borman, Stephan J. Motowidlo (1997) has also stated that Employee performance relates to "goal-relevant" behavior. It calculates how well the worker is working towards his goal to achieve it. This is even highly beneficial for the company. Furthermore, Jacobs and Solomon have done research and have evidence to support their thesis, that is, performance- reward the better and stronger it is, it eventually leads to satisfaction-performance relation. The fact remains that performance and satisfaction are related (Schleicher, Watt, & Greguras, 2004); these are two different and vast explanations. Firstly, satisfaction may lead to performance. That is, people who like their jobs work harder to give better results for the firm they are working for and therefore they perform better. Secondly, performance might lead to satisfaction. People who perform well are likely to benefit since they will be rewarded by the company and in return performance is better, and those benefits could even enhance satisfaction to next level. A well performing person might receive more pay and recognition in the company that keeps him motivated and goal oriented, which might increase job satisfaction. Both of these explanations show that satisfaction leads to effort, which eventually leads to performance. And thus, performance will follow rewards and the rewards create satisfaction to the worker. In addition to this steers and porter (1983) suggested that performance leads to rewards and rewards to job satisfaction. In their view employees are satisfied when they receive outcomes that are valued and when they feel they have been treated fairly. Although all the various studies had different results, the conclusion suggested that no matter how strong or weak the relation is, job performance and job satisfaction are two different things which are dependent on each other. Podsakoff and maxenzii 1997 suggested contextual performance increases employee's job satisfaction by making work context more pleasant and supportive. Thus, employees with more effective job performance and likely to be more satisfied with their jobs.

In addition to this it is seen that job performance is not one-dimensional. Contextual performance being a part of job performance includes behaviours involving persistence, effort, compliance, and self discipline are expected to increase the effectiveness of individual workers and managers (motowidle, borman, & schmite, 1997: podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997). Moreover, being helpful, considerate and cooperative behaviour are expected to increase work group effectiveness and improve organisational coordination and control by reducing friction among organisational members and promoting a social and psychological context that facilitates task performance(borman & motowidlo, 1993; Smith et al 1983). In a recent meta analysis - organ and ryan (1995) found an average correlation of 0.28 between job satisfaction and behaviours much like those that comprise contextual performance. Effectiveness of workers and supervisors are expected to be increased with contextual performance behaviours involving persistence, compliance self-discipline and effort .Cooperation helps in increasing work group effectiveness and betters organizational categorization and control and also promoting a better work environment that facilates task performance. A sole achievement of contextual performance is not going to acquire a pay raise or a promotion,as time goes by,employees contextual performance should give them a leverage for advancement in the organization. Contextual performance is suggested to show the readiness of an employee to assist the organization.

In contrast to the positive relation between contextual performance and job satisfaction is that some employees might find some tasks rewarding or enjoyable themselves. Thus many of the interpersonal aspects of the contextual performance, especially those that involve expressing oneself seem likely to fit in the positive category. In addition to this there are many studies that negate the positive relation between job performance and job satisfaction. There are some factors that deny the fact. One of the major and a common factor being - counterproductive behaviour. An unsatisfied employee may intentionally do something that he/she is not expected to do and this counterproductive behaviour of an employee will lead to hindrance in the achievement of the organisational goal. Another sort of behaviour i.e. the withdrawal behaviour also comes into action when an employee is personally not satisfied with his/her work, the supervisor's behaviour is very rude, is not being rewarded properly or personal issues are taken out at work. It is not always necessary that if an employee is working and achieving the organisational goals, he/she has to be comfortable with work or he/she has no complaints with the work. An employee could just be working with an organisation even though he/she is dissatisfied because of some personal commitments being made to the organisation. Thus, there is a casual relationship between personal control and job satisfaction, and between personal control and job performance, investigated by Greenberger, strasser, Cummings, and Dunham (1989), did not find a link between job satisfaction and job performance.

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Thus in conclusion , Job performance is not one-dimensional thus behaviours like task performance and contextual performance are expected to improve organisational efficiency by freeing up resources that would otherwise be needed to handle disciplinary problems , solve communication difficulties , resolve conflicting demands, or provide closer monitoring of employee performance.( motowildo et al 19997).. The present study provided a review and reexamination of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. Though the potential linkage between satisfaction and performance is nearly as old as the field of industrial-organizational psychology, the relationship between employee satisfaction and job performance is no longer considered an important area of research. Employees are the most substantial asset for an organization,keeping them happy and motivated is very important as they are the key to the success of the organization.Some employees do perform to their potential without any rewards,buh some require added incentives at some point of time.So.the problem arises when the organization doesn't know how to motivate their employees.If the employees are not motivated enough,the objectives of the organization like increasing productivity and gaining profit is not possible in the long run.The next question is why there is less productivity in the organization.Each and every employee are affected in unique ways.It could be because of job dissatisfaction,not able to get along with the manager.Productivity can be increased by knowing more about the employees and how they are motivated.Different employees work for different reasons.Performance based bonuses,promotion ,better work environment,good working time.The employee has to be satisfied with his work,or he wont perform to his potential.Employee assessments are also used to find out what motivates their employees.Getting to know the motivators is the decider between success and failure in jobs,allowing the organization to put the best man for the job and get the best performance without any limitations.This increases job satisfaction and improves morale because the organization is filled a highly productive and skilled workforce who are committed in doing their best. Job satisfaction is a very important tool of job performance, so it is very critical for supervisors to comprehend how satisfied their employees are.