Analysis of Relationships between Demographics and Need for Achievement

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Race can be defined as the classification of humans into population or groups on the basis of numerous sets of heritable characteristics, noticeable traits, and genes.

Figure 2 below shows that race of the respondents. The race of the sample is divided into four groups which are Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Others. The majority of respondents were Chinese with 57.1 percent, followed by Malay with 18.6 percent, Indian with 14.3 percent, and 10 percent of others.

Frequency

Percent

Chinese

40

57.1

Malay

13

18.6

Indian

10

14.3

Others

7

10.0

Total

70

100

Figure 2: Race Respondents

Age Respondents

Age can be defined as how old a person is.

Figure 3 shows the age of the respondents. The sample is categorized into four groups which are 18-19 years old, 20-21 years old, 22-23 years old and 24 and above. The information below shows that 11.4 percent of the respondents were aged 18-19, 64.3 percent of respondents were aged 20-21, 20 percent of respondents were aged 22-23 and 4.3 percent of respondents were aged 24 and above.

Frequency

Percent

18-19

8

11.4

20-21

45

64.3

22-23

14

20

24 and above

3

4.3

Total

70

100

Figure 3: Age Respondents

Years of Study Respondents

Year of study is the term of a particular study program or course that a student is currently in.

According to Figure 4 below, 15.7 percent of students are in Beta year, 65.7 percent of students are in Gamma year, 17.1 percent of students are in Delta year, and 1.4 percent of students are in Epsilon year.

Frequency

Percent

Beta

11

15.7

Gamma

46

65.7

Delta

12

17.1

Epsilon

1

1.4

Total

70

100

Figure 4: Year of Study Respondents

Descriptive Analysis

a) Need for Achievement

Table 1 below shows the comparison on the several factors and the extent to which these factors influence the students' Need for achievement. The mean value is ranging from 3.69 to 4.03. The strongest factor from the respondents sample was the risk and uncertainty with the highest mean of 4.03, while the weakest factor from the respondents sample was the substantial need for achievement to manage the process of entrepreneurship with the lowest mean of 3.69. Need for achievement is among of factors that need to know when encounter in the life.

Item

Mean

Standard Deviation

I like to improve my status.

4.03

0.780

I do not have the desire to have high salary.

3.99

0.970

I find satisfaction in exceeding my previous performance.

3.86

0.967

I consider myself more ambitious than others.

3.69

1.043

I like to get recognition for my work.

3.90

0.819

Table 1: Mean and Standard Deviation value for Need for Achievement

b) Risk-taking

Table 2 below shows the comparison on the several factors and the extent to which these factors influence the students' Risk-taking. The mean value is ranging from 3.36 to 3.86. The strongest factor from the respondents sample was the risk and uncertainty with the highest mean of 3.86, while the weakest factor from the respondents sample was the substantial risk-taking to manage the process of entrepreneurship with the lowest mean of 3.36. Risk-taking is among of factors that need to know when encounter in the life.

Item

Mean

Standard Deviation

I like to give myself challenges.

3.71

1.024

I do not like to make spontaneous decisions.

3.36

1.143

I like to trying totally new experiences.

3.86

0.889

I jump into new situations without much thought.

3.51

1.139

I am willing to take a chance in order to get what I want.

3.84

1.030

Table 2: Mean and Standard Deviation value for Risk-taking

c) Locus of control

Table 3 below shows the comparison on the several factors and the extent to which these factors influence the students' locus of control. The mean value is ranging from 3.40 to 3.87. The strongest factor from the respondents sample was the risk and uncertainty with the highest mean of 3.87, while the weakest factor from the respondents sample was the substantial locus of control to manage the process of entrepreneurship with the lowest mean of 3.40. Locus of control is among of factors that need to know when encounter in the life.

Item

Mean

Standard Deviation

I have control over the direction of my life.

3.87

0.947

I am a master of my own fate.

3.77

1.024

I succeed at getting what I want in life.

3.74

0.988

I will not gain success with necessary effort.

3.40

1.221

When I make plans, I make them work.

3.83

1.021

Table 3: Mean and Standard Deviation value for Locus of control

d) Self confidence

Table 4 below shows the comparison on the several factors and the extent to which these factors influence the students' self confidence. The mean value is ranging from 3.70 to 4.09. The strongest factor from the respondents sample was the risk and uncertainty with the highest mean of 4.09, while the weakest factor from the respondents sample was the substantial self confidence to manage the process of entrepreneurship with the lowest mean of 3.70. Self confidence is among of factors that need to know when encounter in the life.

Item

Mean

Standard Deviation

I like to improve my status.

4.03

0.884

I do not have the desire to have high salary.

3.99

1.014

I find satisfaction in exceeding my previous performance.

3.70

1.068

I consider myself more ambitious than others.

3.76

0.955

I like to get recognition for my work.

4.09

0.897

Table 4: Mean and Standard Deviation value for self confidence

e) Innovation

Table 5 below shows the comparison on the several factors and the extent to which these factors influence the students' Innovation. The mean value is ranging from 3.54 to 4.04. The strongest factor from the respondents sample was the risk and uncertainty with the highest mean of 4.04, while the weakest factor from the respondents sample was the substantial innovation to manage the process of entrepreneurship with the lowest mean of 3.54. Innovation is among of factors that need to know when encounter in the life.

Item

Mean

Standard Deviation

I entertain new ideas.

3.74

0.973

I search for new and better ways of approaching work.

4.04

0.955

It is easy for me to come up with new ideas.

3.54

1.031

I do not like to do things that others may not think of.

3.64

1.104

I am able to find many solutions to a problem.

3.74

0.988

Table 5: Mean and Standard Deviation value for Innovation

f) Entrepreneurial Intention

Table 6 below shows the comparison on the several factors and the extent to which these factors influence the students' entrepreneurial intention. The mean value is ranging from 3.77 to 3.83. The strongest factor from the respondents sample was the risk and uncertainty with the highest mean of 3.83, while the weakest factor from the respondents sample was the substantial entrepreneurial intention to manage the process of entrepreneurship with the lowest mean of 3.77. Entrepreneurial intention is among of factors that need to know when encounter in the life.

Item

Mean

Standard Deviation

I have a desire to manage my own business.

3.83

0.932

I have the capabilities to run my own business.

3.80

1.111

I have the passion to fulfil people is needs.

3.77

1.066

I have the intention of acquiring a small business.

3.83

1.021

I have considered becoming an entrepreneur.

3.79

1.141

Table 6: Mean and Standard Deviation value for Entrepreneurial intention

Reliability analysis

Below demonstrates the reliability analysis result. Cronbach coefficient alpha test was conducted on all the dimensions of entrepreneurship which are need for achievement, risk-taking, locus of control, self-confidence and innovation. This was to determine the internal reliability of the measuring instrument used. Cronbach Alpha is the reliability coefficient that indicates the extent to which the items are positively correlated to one another. Reliability coefficients of less than 0.50 are considered to be unacceptable, those between 0.50 and 0.60, are viewed as sufficient while those above 0.70 as acceptable and coefficients that are greater 0.80 are deemed as good. Based on the table below, all the variables have values that are above or close to the Cronbach alpha level of 0.80. Thus, it can be summarized that all the values demonstrates a meaningful correlation among the variables representing the characteristics of entrepreneurship.

Table 7: Reliability Analysis

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

Need for achievement

0.822

5

Risk-taking

0.834

5

Locus of control

0.854

5

Self- confidence

0.871

5

Innovation

0.870

5

Entrepreneurial intention

0.897

5

Hypothesis testing

Independent Sample T-test: Gender

An independent sample T-test was conducted to find out if there were any significant differences between male and female students and their entrepreneurial intention. The T-test was conducted on gender s the researcher deemed it deserved to explored further.

According to Table 8 below, p-value=0.577 is greater than 0.05. This shows that there is difference in gender to the intention to become entrepreneurs.

Table 8: Independent Samples T-test

Levene's test for Equality of variances

T-test for Equality of Mean

F

Sig.

t

df

Mean of Entrepreneurial intention

Equal variances assumed

0.314

0.577

1.161

68

Equal variances not assumed

1.098

42.289

ANOVA

Table 9 below shows that the ANOVA results conducted between the various races. An ANOVA test is used for more than two groups like case of races which includes the Chinese, Malay, Indian and others. The ANOVA test was conducted to find out if significant differences existed in entrepreneurial intention among various races.

The results were there was no significant difference found between the aged of students and the intention of becoming entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial intention can be influenced by aged, no matter if it is young or old.

Table 9: ANOVA test

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

3.581

3

1.194

1.544

0.211

Within Groups

51.019

66

0.773

Total

54.599

69

Hypothesis Testing

Correlation Analysis

Hypothesis 1: There is a significant relationship between need for achievement and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

Table 10 Shows that the correlation between Need for achievement and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

A Pearson correlation was calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between Need for achievement and intention to become a successful entrepreneur. From the table, it is shown that a moderate positive correlation was found, 0.774, indicating a significant relationship between the two variables. So, hypothesis 1 is accepted for this analysis.

Table 10: Correlation between Need for Achievement and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

N

Pearson Correlation

Significance (2-tailed)

Need For Achievement VS Entrepreneurial intention

70

0.774**

0.000

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Hypothesis 2: There is a significant relationship between risk-taking and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

Table 11 Shows that the correlation between risk-taking and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

A Pearson correlation was calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between risk-taking and intention to become a successful entrepreneur. From the table, it is shown that a moderate positive correlation was found, 0.810, indicating a significant relationship between the two variables. So, hypothesis 2 is accepted for this analysis. Risk- taking involves the willingness to take on a task regardless of certain calculable probabilities of failure. Risk-taking has been included as a major entrepreneurial characteristic in many studies.

Table 11: Correlation between Risk-taking and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

N

Pearson Correlation

Significance (2-tailed)

Risk-taking VS Entrepreneurial Intention

70

0.810

0.000

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Hypothesis 3: There is a significant relationship between locus of control and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

Table 12 Shows that the correlation between locus of control and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

A Pearson correlation was calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between locus of control and intention to become a successful entrepreneur. From the table, it is shown that a moderate positive correlation was found, 0.835, indicating a significant relationship between the two variables. So, hypothesis 3 is accepted for this analysis.

Table 12: Correlation between Locus of control and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

N

Pearson Correlation

Significance (2-tailed)

Locus of Control VS Entrepreneurial Intention

70

0.835

0.000

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Hypothesis 4: There is a significant relationship between self-confidence and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

Table 13 Shows that the correlation between self-confidence and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

A Pearson correlation was calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between self-confidence and intention to become a successful entrepreneur. From the table, it is shown that a moderate positive correlation was found, 0.861, indicating a significant relationship between the two variables. So, hypothesis 4 is accepted for this analysis.

Table 13: Correlation between Self-confidence and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

N

Pearson Correlation

Significance (2-tailed)

Self-confidence VS Entrepreneurial Intention

70

0.861

0.000

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Hypothesis 5: There is a significant relationship between Innovation and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

Table 14 Shows that the correlation between Innovation and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

A Pearson correlation was calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between Innovation and intention to become a successful entrepreneur. From the table, it is shown that a moderate positive correlation was found, 0.865, indicating a significant relationship between the two variables. So, hypothesis 5 is accepted for this analysis.

Table 14: Correlation between Innovation and intention to become a successful entrepreneur.

N

Pearson Correlation

Significance (2-tailed)

Innovation VS Entrepreneurial Intention

70

0.865

0.000

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

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