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Recruitment planning is when an organisation anticipates demand for staff to match its supply. Recruitment planning involves finding out whether they need to recruit someone at all.
There are many reasons why businesses decide to consider recruiting. This could be:
The business has decided to expand the business, therefore, needing new staff. It takes advantage of economy and people being well off so that they can expand. If they do not believe that the economy will not grow, they will not create new jobs, instead preferring to use other methods.
Someone in the business has decided to retire.
Someone in the business has been dismissed for one reason or the other.
Internal promotion- this means that someone in the business has been given a better job in the same business.
Someone has died.
The business is being restructured, which means that there are holes in the business that need to be filled.
Someone has left the business because of personal reasons or has found a better job elsewhere.
Low staff morale.
In order to perform successfully and remain competitive, a business must have a good recruitment and selection team within their human resource function. . Recruitment must be a success by ensuring that they attract the best candidate for to fill the job vacancy. Selection processes are carefully devised and carried out on the possible candidates to help the organisation choose the best person possible to do the job
If it is decided that an organisation wants to recruit someone new, they do not necessarily need to recruit outside the business. Businesses like to recruit internally first before advertising externally, so that they can enable an employee to progress in a business. There are advantages and disadvantages of internal and external recruitment.
1.1 Internal recruitment
It is cheap to advertise.
All applicants are known to the business and there will be no need to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a staff member. Employing an outsider has risks attached because they are only desirable on paper.
Applicants already have inside knowledge about the business and how it is run; therefore, there will be shorter periods of training and time to fit in.
Internal promotion is an incentive to all staff to work harder, which encourages career progression.
The business will not be distracted by someone that does not know how things work in the firm.
Not a lot of candidates available to consider.
Problems amongst employees could arise.
The employee that has been promoted will need to be replaced.
Current employees may not have any ideas required in order to get the business more effectively and efficiently.
1.2 External Recruitment
High number of applicants to choose from.
Candidates may come in with new ideas.
New skills and management techniques could be brought in from their former workplace and might be adopted while working.
Newcomers are likely to be more flexible than existing staff and can be very useful to businesses
Recruiting is a long process.
Applicants given the job may not live up to the expectations of the business.
Expensive to advertise vacancy.
Newcomers may find it difficult to get used to their employers; therefore, the newcomers will be under-performing for a while.
2 The Recruitment Process
The Human Resource Department is usually responsible for recruiting new staff and for training them to do their job. When job vacancies arise, it draws up documents for specific purposes, organises and runs interviews.
The Human Resources department has to follow certain procedures before a job can be advertised. This page will explain these different stages in detail.
Three reasons why a vacancy may arise in a business:
- going to a new job
The Job Description should contain these basic details about the vacancy:
- The job title
- The position in the organisation chart
- A list of duties
The person specification should include the following details.
This specification represents the ideal qualities of the person required to fill the vacancy:
The job is advertised
The Human Resources manager needs to consider the following
- What details need to go in the advert?
- Where the advert should be placed
Candidates apply for the job
The advert will usually say what the candidate needs to send in as part of their application. This will probably include:
- A letter of application and/or a completed application form
- A copy of their curriculum viate or CV.
If you compare these documents you can assess whether the person has the right skills for the job:
- The CV
- the job application form
- The job specification
Arrange the interviews
Why are the candidates interviewed?
Whether a person gets the job or not depends on their performance at interview
What are the interviewers looking for?
- Good answers to all the questions
- The candidates' attitude and dress
- Body language
Follow up references
What is a reference?
The names and addresses of people who can provide details of your performance with a previous employer or give evidence of your good character
Appoint candidate to the job
What happens if references are not satisfactory?
- The job offer will be withdrawn and offered to someone else
- It might be necessary to re-advertise
3 Recruitment and Selection at Tesco
Tesco is the biggest private sector employer in the UK. The company has more than 360,000 employees worldwide. In the UK, Tesco stores range from small local Tesco Express sites to large Tesco Extras and superstores. Around 86% of all sales are from the UK. Tesco also operates in 12 countries outside the UK, including China, Japan and Turkey. The company has recently opened stores in the United States. This international expansion is part of Tesco's strategy to diversify and grow the business.
In its non-UK operations Tesco builds on the strengths it has developed as market leader in the UK supermarket sector. However, it also caters for local needs. In Thailand, for example, customers are used to shopping in 'wet markets' where the produce is not packaged. Tesco uses this approach in its Bangkok store rather than offering pre-packaged goods as it would in UK stores.
Tesco needs people across a wide range of both store-based and non-store jobs:
• In stores, it needs checkout staff, stock handlers, supervisors as well as many specialists,
such as pharmacists and bakers.
• Its distribution depots require people skilled in stock management and logistics.
• Head office provides the infrastructure to run Tesco efficiently. Roles here include
human resources, legal services, property management, marketing, accounting and
Tesco aims to ensure all roles work together to drive its business objectives. It needs to ensure it has the right number of people in the right jobs at the right time. To do this, it has a structured process for recruitment and selection to attract applicants for both managerial and operational roles.
3.2 Types Of Tesco Stores
Type Of Store
Convenience and valve. Fresh local food.
Convenience in town and city centres. Lots of food lines
A wide range of non-food lines, such as DVDS and books
A wide range of food and non-food, including seasonal items such as garden furniture
3.3 Workforce planning
Workforce planning is the process of analysing an organisation's likely future needs for people in terms of numbers, skills and locations. It allows the organisation to plan how those needs can be met through recruitment and training. It is vital for a company like Tesco to plan ahead. Because the company is growing, Tesco needs to recruit on a regular basis for both the food and non-food parts of the business.
Positions become available because:
Jobs are created as the company opens new stores in the UK and expands internationally
• vacancies arise as employees leave the company - when they retire or resign - or get
promotion to other positions within tesco.
• New types of jobs can be created as the company changes its processes and technology.
Tesco uses a workforce planning table to establish the likely demand for new staff. This considers both managerial and non-managerial positions. In 2008/09, for example, Tesco calculates that to support its business growth there will be a demand for around 4,000 new managers. This planning process runs each year from the last week in February. There are quarterly reviews in May, August and November, so Tesco can adjust staffing levels and recruit where necessary. This allows Tesco sufficient time and flexibility to meet its demands for staff and allows the company to meet its strategic objectives, for example, to open new stores and maintain customer service standards. Tesco seeks to fill many vacancies from within the company. It recognises the importance of motivating its staff to progress their careers with the company. Tesco practises what it calls 'talent planning'. This encourages people to work their way through and up the organisation. Through an annual appraisal scheme, individuals can apply for 'bigger' jobs. Employees identify roles in which they would like to develop their careers with Tesco. Their manager sets out the technical skills, competencies and behaviours necessary for these roles, what training this will require and how long it will take the person to be ready to do the job. This helps Tesco to achieve its business objectives and employees to achieve their personal and career objectives.
3.4 Job Description
An important element in workforce planning is to have clear job descriptions and person specifications. A job description sets out:
• The title of the job
• To whom the job holder is responsible
• For whom the job holder is responsible
• A simple description of roles and responsibilities.
3.5 Person Specification
A person specification sets out the skills, characteristics and attributes that a person needs to do a particular job. Together, job descriptions and person specifications provide the basis for job advertisements. They help job applicants and post-holders to know what is expected of them. As they are sent to anyone applying for jobs, they should:
• contain enough information to attract suitable people
• act as a checking device to make sure that applicants with the right
skills are chosen for interview
• set the targets and standards for job performance.
Job descriptions and person specifications show how a job-holder fits into the Tesco business. They help Tesco to recruit the right people. They also provide a benchmark for each job in terms of responsibilities and skills. These help managers to assess if staff is carrying out jobs to the appropriate standards
Area of Business
Store, All Non-Food Areas
- To drive business improvements and perfornace in
- To train and develop the non-food to give
Customers the best services
- Leadership skills, such as influencing others and
- Operating skills, such as managing staff and stock
- General skills, such as communication, planning
and problem solving.
3.6 Skills and Behaviours
Tesco's purpose is to serve its customers. Its organisational structure has the customer at the top. Tesco needs people with the right skills at each level of this structure. There are six work levels within the organisation. This gives a clear structure for managing and controlling the organisation. Each level requires particular skills and behaviours.
- Work level 1
Frontline jobs working directly with customers. Various in-store tasks, such as filling shelves with stock. Requires the ability to work accurately and with enthusiasm and to interact well with others.
- Work level 2
Leading a team of employees who deal directly with customers. Requires the ability to manage resources, to set targets, to manage and motivate others.
- Work level 3
Running an operating unit. Requires management skills, including planning, target setting and reporting.
- Work level 4
Supporting operating units and recommending strategic change. requires good knowledge of the business, the skills to analyse information and to make decisions, and the ability to lead others.
- Work level 5
Responsible for the performance of Tesco as a whole. Requires the ability to lead and direct others, and to make major decisions.
- Work level 6
Creating the purpose, values and goals for Tesco plc. Responsibility for Tesco's performance. Requires a good overview of retailing, and the ability to build a vision for the future and lead the whole organisation. Tesco has a seven-part framework that describes the key skills and behaviours for each job at
every level in the company. This helps employees understand whether they have the right knowledge, skills or resources to carry out their roles.
3.7 Attracting and Recruiting
Recruitment involves attracting the right standard of applicants to apply for vacancies. Tesco advertises jobs in different ways. The process varies depending on the job available. Tesco first looks at its internal Talent Plan to fill a vacancy. This is a process that lists current employees looking for a move, either at the same level or on promotion. If there are no suitable people in this Talent Plan or developing on the internal management development programme, Options, Tesco advertises
the post internally on its intranet for two weeks.
For external recruitment, Tesco advertises vacancies via the Tesco website www.tesco-careers.com or through vacancy boards in stores. Applications are made online for managerial positions. The chosen applicants have an interview followed by attendance at an assessment centre for the final stage of the selection process. People interested in store-based jobs with Tesco can approach stores with their CV or register though Jobcentre Plus. The store prepares a waiting list of people applying in this way and calls them in as jobs become available. For harder-to-fill or more specialist jobs, such as bakers and pharmacists, Tesco advertises externally:
- Through its website and offline media
- Through television and radio
- By placing advertisements on Google or in magazines such as The Appointment
Tesco will seek the most cost-effective way of attracting the right applicants. It is expensive to advertise on television and radio, and in some magazines, but sometimes this is necessary to ensure the right type of people get to learn about the vacancies. Tesco makes it easy for applicants to find out about available jobs and has a simple application process. By accessing the Tesco website, an applicant can find out about local jobs, management posts and head office positions. The website has an online application form for people to submit directly.
Selection involves choosing the most suitable people from those that apply for a vacancy, whilst keeping to employment laws and regulations. Screening candidates is a very important part of the selection process. This ensures that those selected for interview have the best fit with the job requirements.
In the first stages of screening, Tesco selectors will look carefully at each applicant's curriculum vitae (CV). The CV summarises the candidate's education and job history to date. A well-written and positive CV helps Tesco to assess whether an applicant matches the person specification for the job. The company also provides a 'job type match' tool on its careers web page. People interested in working for Tesco can see where they might fit in before applying. The process Tesco uses to select external management candidates has several stages. A candidate who passes screening attends an assessment centre. The assessment centres take place in store and are run by managers. They help to provide consistency in the selection process. Applicants are given various exercises, including team-working activities or problem solving
exercises. These involve examples of problems they might have to deal with at work.
Candidates approved by the internal assessment centres then have an interview. Line managers for the job on offer take part in the interview to make sure that the candidate fits the job requirements.
Screening of applicants' CVs to find best with Tesco
Successful candidates invited for interview
Successful candidates from screening
attend assessment centre
Successful candidates invited to second interview
Successful candidates sent offer letter and contract
In the light of above discussion we can say that, planning is vital if a business is to meet its future demands for staff. It allows a business time to train existing staff to take on new responsibilities and to recruit new staff to fill vacancies or to meet skill shortages.
Tesco is a major international company with many job opportunities, including management, graduate, school leaver and apprentice posts. Tesco needs to have people with the right skills and behaviours to support its growth and development. Tesco has clear organisational. structures, detailed job descriptions and person specifications. It provides user-friendly ways of applying for jobs and a consistent approach to recruitment and selection. This means it can manage its changing demand for staff.