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Pakistan Shaheen P.v.t LimitedÂ achievement and accomplishment tale starts with the origin of contemporary shipping & logistics Industry. The olden time of PSL extent over 55 years and evolves from the pooled development of 8 pioneering companies.
PSL offer valuable marine management service setting tremendous quality standards. PSL is setting swiftness and generating exemplar outputs in the latest Maritime -based technology and schemes to keep clients informed and supported in the most appropriate manner.
PSL comprises of a broad network of area offices in more than 5 cities in Pakistan through which it serves vast and differentiated clients across the broad break bulk, container and commodity sectors.
Moreover, PSL maintains and operates an armada of 55 long trailers having complete control over the transportation route up and down country counting hinterlands and neighboring countries like Afghanistan, China and Iran. The vehicle fleet is being improved to attain a total of 100 by 2007 and is operational with high-tech GPS tracking competence that provides complete access with 24/7 monitoring.
The main services being offered by PSL includes: Quick Discharge Arrangement, Connecting Supplies / Providoring / spares in transit, Locating Outward Cargoes for Vessels, Arranging repairs/spares in port and offshore, Crew Transfers E.t.c
Furthermore, PSL identify and satisfy the changing requirements of all shippers with containers and equipment in order to ensure a secure and a protected stow which ultimately leads to maximum cargo safety and minimum cargo smash up & fatalities.
1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC:
People competence is the key for any organization's achievements, success and accomplishments. It is proven, time and again that the success of any organization is for the most part depends on the excellence of its "Human Resource". The objective of recruitment policy is to provide guidelines to recruit a vibrant, diversified, and supple workforce who can lead a corporate sector to achieve its long-term goals and objectives.
The policy chalks out procedural guidelines for recruitment and selection of any individual for any position exists in the organization. The philosophy of the policy is to have a centralized system that enables the management to recruit skillful individual of highest competency with a personality that harmonizes with the industry culture, and have ability to always deliver results up to the standards and if it does not than that can lead to problems and the consequence of these problems can be substandard productivity, less efficiency and lower profitability.
Recruitment and Selection is a vital element of effective human resource management necessary to play fundamental role in achieving organization's objectives in broader perspectives. One cannot discuss how recruitment and selection take place without asking why certain techniques or procedures are used in preference to others. Within the Human Resource Management paradigm, they are not simply mechanisms for filling vacancies. Recruitment and redundancy can be viewed as a key 'push' and 'pull' levers for organizational change.
The motive behind this research is to take notice of the certain problems the shipping companies are facing as regards to the selection of its permanent employees through appropriate sourcing (channels). With the help of this research which is to focus various Shipping Companies of Pakistan (in this case Pak Shaheen (Pvt) Ltd.) facing problems in current practices, procedures and decision-making in recruitment and selection and its impact over performance, productivity, and profitability can be deducted.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
PSL is facing the major problem of inappropriate Recruitment and Selection techniques and procedures for hiring permanent employees so I decided to work on this issue. My Statement of Problem is:
"Problems in recruitment and selection process of permanent employees
in Shipping Companies of Pakistan"
Above declared statement of this study will workout the following problems in the various Shipping Companies in Pakistan:
Not proper Community Outreach Programs to attract more applicants.
Not well trained and flexible workforce:
This might contribute to the organization's ability to adapt to uncertain and changing environment
No proper Manning and Staffing for upcoming projects.
All of the above mentioned problems are the major cause for the Shipping Companies to competently increase its productivity because the people are the key factors for an organization for having an edge in the market. Because of the owing to the globalization companies have to face many challenges. They have to remain in contact with the varying environment and remain competitive. Complacency can run out a company from its existence, incessant innovation and differentiation is vital as consumers have many choices today, a company cannot remain competitive, innovative and exceptional without the endorsement of an effective force of employees and this can be accomplished through proper recruitment and selection processes.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
This research can assist a company in achieving its strategic & corporate goals of attaining greater market share, enhanced revenues, superior quality, higher customer satisfaction, productivity & profitability. A competent employee can be placed in the right place only after his/ her sufficient and defined assessment of his knowledge, ability, skills, and other psychological characteristics that will certainly help the HR-Departments of the Shipping Companies to enlarge the pool of applicants .This will also help to apply Human Resource Tools & Techniques for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of its employees which is the best indicator of its productivity and profitability.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The complete research is going to be conducted in few of the Shipping Companies in Karachi (e.g. Pak Shaheen Group). The data gathered for analysis will be of recent 5 years in order to provide a factual and clear picture of the Industry present status.
The research will be conducted on the foundation of the information provided by the HR managers and other key personnel. These may get partial in providing the information, hence giving their own general observational view than dictating the real case; their personal interests may create biasness in the research.
The information disclosure and privacy issues may create a limitation to the research.
Since the research is based in Karachi, it cannot be functional throughout Pakistan. .
There are no such delimitations of this study but any of the following may reduce the significance of this thesis:
Invention and Implementation of a enhanced and newer tool
Natural Disasters, Government policies, Socio-economic changes or other unforeseen events
2.1 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This research is principally a descriptive study.
I'm undertaking this study to explain clearly the problems that the various Shipping Companies in Pakistan are facing as regards to recruitment and selection process. As Shipping Sector in Pakistan have better potential for growth that requires hiring more employees through appropriate recruitment and selection processes. My study will assist the Shipping sector to improve and enhance the areas leading towards decreased growth and profitability in the companies.
I want to determine whether the Shipping Companies find it difficult to recruit qualified and competent people as permanent employees through suitable channels and if the hiring personnel are unaware and ignorant of suitable selection processes then how they can become a part of it.
Conclusively, I have labeled my research as a descriptive study because the characteristics or the phenomenon to be tapped in a situation are known to exist, that is, these HR policies and practices are already implemented in some Shipping Companies. I want to be able to explain them more evidently, that is, I just want to be able to illustrate the concept, implementation and impacts of these practices to give recommendations about its future prospects in Pakistan.
2.2 TYPE OF INVESTIGATION:
This is a co relational study in which I want to discover whether a relation exists between the troubles faced by the Shipping Companies in recruiting and selecting their permanent employees and the company's performance or not. This will assist me in giving recommendations that whether the anticipated solution through this study can be implemented in Companies within Pakistan Shipping Industry to enhance their efficiency or not, that is, whether Shipping Companies in Pakistan should implement it or not.
2.2-1 TIME HORIZON OF STUDY:
This research is a cross-sectional study, that is, the data/information will be gathered/collected only once over the period of approximately six months to fulfill the research requirements in the most appropriate manner.
2.2-2 STUDY SETTING:
This study is conducted in the contrived, that is, natural setting, with a little amount of interference on my part with the natural flow of events.
2.2-3 UNIT OF ANALYSIS:
The units of analysis of this study will be individuals and business organizations.
2.2 RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY
The following will be the respective respondents of this study:
Management and employees of the company within Pakistan who are particularly affected by the issues on which the research is to be conducted, in this case, Pak Shaheen Group Ltd.
Employees and / or managers of diverse levels belonging to any shipping company within Karachi.
Students being recruited by one of the shipping company through inappropriate selection channels' in Karachi.
2.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
The primary aspect of this research is conducted through the following mentioned instruments:
The secondary aspect of this research is conducted through the following instruments:
2.4 SOURCES OF DATA:
The study is based on primary research however secondary sources of data are also used to get a deeper/closer insight and understanding of the problem. Primary source of data includes the structured questionnaire research technique that was distributed and filled by employees as well as managers. Secondary sources that were used include magazines and websites.
Personal interview is generally acknowledged as the most significant and most frequently used research mechanism. In this study there were two types of interview conducted:
In an interview the people working at PSL and various employees were chosen for obtaining information concerning the problem under study to acquire the information and opinion.
Questionnaires are special purpose documents allowing collecting information and opinions from respondents-the employees of PSL. These were mass produced and distributed to them.
The questionnaire was designed keeping this in view, the objectives of the report. Ease, simplicity and convenience were ensured.
Apart from primary resources, data was also gathered through secondary sources which included internet and World Wide Web (WWW), newspapers, books and magazines.
2.5 TREATMENTS AND PRESENTATION OF THE DATA
Descriptive / Qualitative:
The majority of the data will be in the qualitative form and will not need supplementary treatment and processes therefore the major portion of the thesis will be in the descriptive and theoretical form.
The questionnaires will be treated with general mathematical techniques.
Figures / Tables:
Some portion of the data will also be represented in the form of figures, tables etc.
3.1 RELATED LITERATURE
The employment scenarios today are making it harder for the organizations to locate, employ, and choose competent people. The need for skilled and talented workforce is escalating, as there are fewer eligible applicants accessible. This scarcity of competent workforce makes it all more vital for organizations to become more capable in attracting, selecting, and retaining quality candidates. Organizations require proposing more than a smart salary to tempt competent candidates. Competent people today are looking for organizations that can tender them a variety of reimbursement, the impending to go forward, and a healthy environment in which they can learn, grow and develop themselves. Thus, it is vital for organizations to identify accurately what they have to proffer potential employees, and then emphasize their finest features when employing candidates. Once firms have successfully recruited candidates, they must select the best ones for the positions under consideration. Organizations use a variety of tools for selecting competent individuals.
The process of identifying and attracting potential candidates from a pool of qualified people is called Recruitment. Once candidates are identified, an organization can initiate the process of selection which includes gathering, weighing, and evaluating information regarding candidates' qualifications for specific post. Organizations use this process to amplify the probability of hiring individuals who have the required competencies and abilities to be thriving at their jobs. Organizations modify their recruitment policies and procedures in order to remain competitive. There are different Recruitment phases that an organization has to go through depending upon its size and requirements of the vacant post. These include:
Potential candidates may come from an inside the organization, or from the external labor market. The latter are reached through channels such as job advertisement, consulting agencies, professional links or word of mouth. The approach differs depending upon the organization's resourcing viewpoint that includes:
- Strong culture firms are likely to look for flexible new employees whereas senior jobs are filled from within the organization.
- Organizations that require the most competent people will however exclude internal applicants because they do not match the personnel specification required for the vacant job post.
Word-of-mouth applicants are expected to stay longer and may be more appropriate than recruits gained by advertising. But word-of-mouth is biased, since it restricts applications to traditional communities and do not include minority groups. At senior levels the informal technique known as 'headhunting' or executive hunt has become regular. Specialist consultancies aspire to discover exceptional people to fill higher-paying jobs.
Equal chance claims equal contact. This can only be attained through public and open recruitment. The probability of attracting appropriate applicants depends on the facet and features of the recruitment advertisement or literature. Most vital factors such as wage, job label, career and voyage opportunities obviously influence response rates.Â But employers do not want to be flooded with large numbers of applications from inapt people.
Competition for the finest graduates requires employers to have an apparent idea of what they mean by finest. Recruitment requires sending a burly, typical memo to these people.
The recruitment crusade should have attracted a pool of applicants from which selectors can make their option. If a job analysis has been conducted, the criteria or competences, which are recognized as necessary, have been identified. These may be well defined and focus on experience and competence or general and focus on education, understanding and behavior.
Application letters and CVs/resumes
These are characteristically used for early or tentative applications. There are major cultural differences and therefore applicants should be cautious to exercise the approach expected in the recruiters' country. For example, French employers typically require petite, accurate education and career histories. They do not require the hobbies or interests to be mentioned in the resumes which are particularly required by the employers in Pakistan and other countries that are influenced by the British norms.
The letters and CV/resumes sometimes create problems for recruitment program. Applicants may not give all the required information that furthers the issues because comparison between applicants is easier if data is provided and presented in a standard application form.
Academic records are vital in some cultures like France and Japan. In other countries their value varies, depending on the level and nature of the vacancy. Research says that UK recruiters use credentials as a short-listing measure, and then requisite skills and competences in the later stages of selection.
An increasing trend of coaching leads to similar applications by a large number of applicants however they can be differentiated by their skills, abilities and talent.