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Recruitment is an essential role of the human resource personnel. The level of performance of and organisation depends on the effectiveness of its recruitment function. It is the first step for a competitive strength and the recruitment strategic advantage for the organisations.
Organisations have developed and follow recruitment strategies to engage the best people for their organisation and to make use of their resources optimally. A successful recruitment strategy should be well designed and useful to attract more and good talent to apply in the organisation.
Recruitment processes involves a logical process from selecting the candidates to arranging and preparing for the interviews. This requires resources and time. The recruitment process starts when a manger instigates an employee request for a specific or an anticipated vacancy.
According to Edwin B. Flippo, (1984) recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation". Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers.
3.1 The Recruitment Process
Successful recruitment involves the several processes of:
Development of a policy on recruitment and retention and the systems that give life to the policy.
An assessment is needed to establish the organisation's present and future human resource requirements. For this activity to be effective these requirements must be assessed and a priority is assigned for each job category and for each unit and or division of the organisation
Identifying the potential human resource team and the likely competition for the knowledge and skills available within the organisation.
Carrying out a job evaluation and job analysis to classify the individual aspects of each job and calculate its relative value.
Assessment of qualifications profiles, drawn from job descriptions that identify responsibilities and required skills, abilities, knowledge and experience
The power of the organisation's capability to pay salaries and benefits within a specified period
The actual process of recruitment and selection to be identified and documented as to ensure fairness and loyalty to equal opportunity and other law.
3.2 Recruiting future leaders
Leaders are the solution to the success of any organisation. Selecting future leaders is a very important process within an organization as we have to make sure that the leadership recruitment process is right. What are the best qualities in future leaders to look for?
The qualities to look for in a good leader are: intelligence, conviction, integrity, commitment, intelligence, emotional sensitivity, imagination, decisiveness, emotional toughness and emotional resonance, adaptability, Through the recruitment process, it is possible to evaluate candidates for these qualities as they go from resume screening to interviewing.
3.2.1 Looking for leadership qualities
Intelligence. In order for a leader to understand his mission and to be able to help others understand it, needs intelligence. Intelligence is the easiest quality of leadership to identify this can be measured by school grades and by tests.
Conviction. A leader should have conviction in what he performs. Does the manager we are recruiting believes in the organisation? Conviction has to be established in the actual situation. If we simply ask a person about his or her convictions, the person may misinform by replying what we want from them. Sometimes we can tell from a The person's personality can tell us if the candidate is a positive person in his or her manners.
Integrity. A leader should have integrity. If this is lacking, he or she cannot be trusted. This quality is very difficult to judge during recruitment, but there are some indications to reflect on. Is the candidate's resume accurate, or are there exaggerations of responsibility? During the multiple interviews, is the candidate constant in their discussions or replying depending on the interviewer? On a more positive note, are there indications in the candidate's background that they take integrity seriously?
Commitment. A leader should show commitment to what he is doing, and be able to convince others to make commitments. Here is where past involvement can be analyzed: Are there any long-term commitments done by the candidate such as charities, hobbies, or activities? Did the candidate perform leadership role in any of these tasks?
Imagination. The leader must be able to have enough imagination to resolve problems and change directions in the accomplishment of a mission Since imagination is not easy to ascertain, formal tests and puzzles exists, these will give an insight into how a person thinks and if there is uniqueness in his or her approach to challenges. The applicant's work and school records may confirm.
Decisiveness. The model leader should take decisions both timely and acceptably. Does the candidate take decisions quickly? Or are all decisions difficult to take? This is difficult to measure, although this can be measured during the probation period.
Emotional toughness and resonance. A leader should be firm and have guts to face difficulties- this is referred to as emotional toughness. An applicant for a managerial role can be asked when he or she showed courage and the evidence of emotional toughness. Simultaneously, a leader should be able to empathize and understand the feelings of others, this quality is referred to as emotional resonance. The leader should know that his followers are frightened in difficult times and satisfied in good times. The leader should be able to counter inappropriate feelings if necessary, Emotional resonance cannot be calculated, however, it can be noticed in a planned setting.
Adaptability. A leader should be adaptable so that to handle changing needs easily. Adaptability can be evaluated in many different ways. Was the candidate in an agreement to losing his or her job or to other important changes in their life? Did the applicant manage an organizational change in the past? Where there any changes in the recruitment process? What was the candidate reaction to these changes?
D. Quinn Mills (2007) states that "it makes sense to look for these qualities not only when an organization is recruiting for future leadership, but also when it is assessing its management team for leadership development". "Few candidates or managers will possess all of these qualities naturally, but many of them can be developed and enhanced through training, experience on the job, and exposure to new challenges".
4.0 The role of leadership to achieve corporate goals.
The key role of strategic leaders is to create and maintain the appropriate organisational culture that reward and encourage collective effort. What is actually meant by organisational culture? What effect does it have on the organisation? What is the role of the leader to build, influence or change the organisation's culture and finally to achieve the desired corporate goals?
Organisational culture is a group of values, beliefs and behavior patterns that form the core identity of organizations, and which help in determining the behavior of members. Deal and Kennedy (1982) put it simply as a set of values that underlie how we do our things around here.
Why is culture so important to an organization? Edgar Schein (1985), suggests that an organization's culture develops to help it cope with its environment. Today, organisational leaders are confronted with many complex issues during their attempts to generate organisational achievements. A leader's success will depend, to a great extent, upon understanding the organisational culture.
Schein argues that leaders are facing problems which can be traced to their inability to evaluate organisational cultures. Sometimes leaders are discovering that their strategies will fail if they are inconsistent with the organisation's culture when trying to apply new strategic plan to achieve the corporate goals.
The creation of the appropriate culture occurs if leaders correctly study the organisation's existing culture, and evaluate it against the cultural quality needed to achieve strategic goals. Therefore, leaders must first have a clear understanding of the strategic objectives, identify and take the necessary actions needed to reach those objectives. These two tasks by themselves are difficult, especially for the financial services sector that are experiencing changes rapidly.
The leader's role is to conduct a study of the organisation's, ideologies, values and norms. Two important questions that leaders should ask are:
(1) Are the present relationships, beliefs and behaviors applicable to the organisation's achievement of corporate objectives?
(2) Are organisational members facing doubt about the present work processes and the external environment that can only be explained clearly by the organisation leaders?
4.1 The commitment of a leader in an Organisation
Muthuveloo and Rose (2005) stats that organisational commitment is the motivation of employees to accept the goals and values of the organisation, and to work towards the achievement of these corporate goals. A committed leader of an organisation is the one who has consolidated the values and goals of the organisation and is willing to participate fully in all that the organisation does towards the achievement of its stated goals.
Herscovitch and Meyer (2002) also see it as a degree to which a leader identifies the corporate goals of the organisation, and is willing to put in efforts to help the organization to achieve these goals.
Meyer and Allen (1991) identified three types of commitments, namely, affective, normative, and continuance. In today's business word the most significant commitment for the right leader is the affective commitment. Affective commitment is:
the trust and the recognition of the organisation's values and goals.
a motivation to focus effort on helping the organisation to achieve its goals, and
a need to maintain membership in the organisation.
Leaders who are affectively committed are employees loyal to the organisation and its corporate goals.
4.2 The appropriate organisational Culture
A type of organisational culture that is very well recognised in the human resources leadership role is consensual organisational culture. In this type of culture, there is personal commitment to the values and goals of the organisation, teamwork and socialisation are important (Deshpande & Farley, 1999).
According to the analysis of Kurt Lewin's (1948) group dynamics, Johnson and Johnson, (1978; 1983) identified certain features of the internal dynamics of groups and organisations that have the consensual corporate culture.
These features are;
The role of the leaders in the financial services is to identify that the organisation which they are leading holds these features. This observation will boost and motivate them to gear their efforts to achieve the organisation's corporate goals.
Social skills are the diplomacy that leaders monitor and thereby warn non performing employees. Awareness must be made so discreetly that the pride of those in question will not be harmed.
Shared leadership, every leader in all departments must have the initiative to offer the right leadership that will contribute to the achievement of the corporate goals set by the organisation. Therefore, even though leadership is reposed in the Vice-Chancellor or President, in actual practice, leadership must be perceived to be diffuse and contextual (Opare, 2007).
Accountability, every leader has to accept the fact that every employee in the organisation is accountable to the team for tasks assigned to them. Leaders are individually and severally accountable to the organisation for their role they are responsible to lead in the quality direction. By keeping sub-ordinates accountable and by monitoring one another, from the other side nonperformers' can be recognized and made aware of their non performance.
Group processing, leaders of the organisation must meet very often and reveal on how well they are achieving their goals and monitor the performance of the organisation's employees. On a regular basis, example quarterly or semi-annually a self-appraisal exercise is carried out to determine the extent to which the institution is making success both as a corporate entity and as individually.
Interdependence, or positive interdependence, is the acknowledgment that no leader can succeed in their tasks unless everyone within the organisation is successful. Leaders must accept the fact that as they do their best to achieve effective management of their organisation, they are in a position where they can swim together or sink together, depending on the total result of their individual efforts.
Interaction is the shared help that colleagues offer to one another as they interact as members with a common objective. Colleagues should share experiences, ask questions, offer or receive explanations and seek clarifications. Leaders within the organisation must talk and meet about their experiences, problems, and successes with other colleagues so that they can learn from one another.
Equal participation, leaders must recognize that all colleagues give the same input to the organisation. Everyone is perceived to be involved.
Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things. Peter Drucker