E-recruitment and its practices. The emergence of the Internet has made the revolution in the methods of recruitment. Furthermore, it is not just the methods of recruitment, the whole HR recruitment structure and ways originations think about the recruitment function. It looks like e-recruitment is very likely to continue its explosion. Nowadays, this approach has been adopted in many large organisations as well as in small ones. Posting jobs and accepting resumes on the Internet as well as corresponding with applicants by email became very popular in many organisations. This essay will introduce to e-recruitment and its practices. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach will also be discussed.
There are several definitions of online recruitment also known as e-recruitment. Generally, it is described as alleviation of the recruitment process by advertising jobs or contacting applicants using the Internet. It can be achieved by the usage of the company's website of existing third party's job site. Schreyer & McCarter (1998) refereed e-recruitment to "the recruitment process, including placing job advertisements, receiving resumes, and building human resource database with candidates and incumbents." In various sources the words online recruitment, cyber recruiting, Internet recruiting or e-recruitment are mentioned as synonyms. All these definitions mean that the job information is formally sourced online (Ganalaki, 2002). E-recruitment was defined by Hoffman (2001) as "The utilisation of the Internet for candidate sourcing, selection, communication and management throughout the recruitment process".
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Hogler (1998) and HR Portal (2003) had an idea that job advertisement, storing and scanning resumes and contacting suitable candidates can be done by employers over the Internet in order to faster find the right candidate for the vacancy. Furthermore, it has been indicated by Vidot (2000) that e-recruitment is the attraction of highly qualified applicants with the use of Internet. This maintains the company profile and branding as well as creates individual selection and application processes within the company. Online recruitment appeared in articles in mid -1980s, but HR journals began to regularly reference e-recruitment almost 10 years, later in the mid-1990s, in that time universities and IT companies expansively started to use the Internet.
Recent survey showed that for 32% of 203 respondents used internet as a main recruitment source. 59% of IT specialists are most commonly recruited through the Internet postings followed by, technical (39%), engineering (29%), consulting (21%), sales (15%), management (14%), marketing (14%), accounting (10%). (Dessler) This survey clearly demonstrates success of e-recruitment in recent years. The main reason for the use of e-recruitment is instant access to large number of applicants. It allows transferring the message to the targeted area in much faster. Moreover, it is easy to set up an account and get the process going.
One of the advantages of online recruitment is the allowance to target large number of candidates. It allows the organisation to have more careful selection process in order to find the most suitable candidate for the vacancy. It was stated by Millman (1998) that e-recruitment opens a possibility for an organization to categorise and classify almost unlimited number of job seekers. Correspondingly, online recruitment broadens the range of an organisation's search. This leads to considerably increased possibility of high-quality candidate being found (Markevieius, 2000). It has been continued with the idea the e-recruitment is able to provide high-skilled applicants to the organisations. It has been shown in different resources that online applicants have common characteristics. Those applicants are normally young, educated, have good computer literacy and show interest in the recruiting organisation (Ganalaki, 2002), (Zall, 2000). iLogos research 1998 (iLogo, 1998), demonstrated the Internet's ability to assist companies in order to find high-quality candidates. Furthermore, Internet users are obviously more computer literate than those who do not use the Interned. They also tend to be better-educated. In addition, online recruitment provides an unending number of web sites that can be used by employers in order to post their available jobs. Candidates can examine these vacancies on the Internet and submit their resumes or even arrange a telephone interview. Moreover, the Internet targets highly-skilled candidates worldwide while newspapers can only target local population (Chaskelson, 2000), (Ganalaki, 2002). The idea that e-recruitment is able to increase the pool of applicants was also supported by Thomas & Ray (2000).
The cost-effectiveness and the economy gained through online recruitment became one of the main considerations regarding this recruitment method. It costs less to publish the vacancies on the Internet in comparison to any other media, for example Television or newspaper. Additionally, job adverts can be posted on the corporate website as it is at even lower cost than posting vacancies on third-party websites. The results of iLogos research 1998 (iLogos, 1998) showed that e-recruitment leads to reduced recruitment costs for an organisation. This cost savings can be achieved though cost cutting in three areas; direct costs of newspaper advertisements might be reduced, costs of job agencies of candidate finders might be cut, there should be less mails to send and therefore postage costs as well as the amount of work for human resource department should be reduced. Furthermore, relevant results showed that online recruitment can help companies to achieve faster recruiting cycle. It means that the organisations can save time which is very important invisible asset in business world. E-recruitment makes the life of human resource management department a lot easier. This is because recruitment process over the Internet normally does not involve major delays. The applicant's resumes can be theoretically received after an hour from the time when a vacancy has been posting. Online recruitment speeds up the processing job by automating some tasks. Moreover, there was a survey recently done by a large human resource trade association in order to compare the costs of traditional recruitment methods to online recruitment. The survey results showed that traditional methods tend to be more expensive than e-recruitment (IDC, 2000). Moreover, it was stated by Elswick (2000) that well organised online recruitment system can bring up to 90% lower recruitment cost to an organisation.
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Nevertheless, cost saving is not the only benefit that e-recruitment is able to bring to employers. As it was mentioned above online recruitment helps organisations to save time in recruitment cycle. It is widely assumed that time saving is one of the major benefits of e-recruitment. It was stated by Bussler & Davis (2002) that good online recruitment system allows an organisation to reduce the hiring time by 75%. It is easy to track recruitment process in e-recruitment. Mainly, this is because most organisations tend to receive resumes the same day a vacant job is posted on the Internet (Sunderland, 2000), (Weingarten, 1998), (Rudich, 2000).
Organisation's reputation can be increased if online recruitment is used. This happens when a company has its own corporate recruitment web site. The company gets an image of flexible and innovative structure (Fister, 1999). It was presented by Hogler (1998) that national or multinational company with strong brand awareness can attract more applicants through the corporate web site.
Finally, it is considered that e-recruitment is a great tool that can be used in order to attract candidates globally (Ganalaki, 2002). This is based on the fact that the Internet has no boundaries or limitations except language barriers which can be solved by multilingual web sites.
However, e-recruitment has some disadvantages. There is an issue that it discriminates Internet non-users (Flynn, 2000), (Hogler, Henle & Bemus, 1998). It is also claimed that e-recruitment has negative impact on employment of ethnic minorities. Although the geographic scope of recruitment has been increased by the Internet, it is still limited in the demographic scope (Hogler, Henle & Bemus, 1998).
Moreover, it has been mentioned that executive level talent applicants prefer personal contact with prospective employer Arkin and Crabb (1999). Likewise, Seminerio (2001) made a point that many companies prefer to follow the traditional recruitment method for hiring executive level staff. E-recruitment teds to be used mainly for hiring junior staff and university graduates (Arboledas, Ferrero and Vidal, 2001). It is clear that online recruitment cannot be applied when an organisation is looking for top management.
Another disadvantage is the fact that e-recruitment is more effective for companies who are well known (Greengard, 1998), (William & Klau, 1997). However, it was argued by Galanaki (2002) that company's reputation is one of the critical factors in any recruitment method, not just e-recruitment. Another issue of e-recruitment is the risk for organization to be overloaded with resumes from applicants. It may happen because the Internet makes it easy for anyone to apply for the job with no regard to their qualifications. This can result in large numbers of unqualified candidates (Ganalaki, 2002).
In conclusion, it is clear that e-recruitment is regarded as a vital additional tool in recruitment process. However, traditional recruitment methods are still widely used in today's business world. This essay discussed advantages and disadvantages of e-recruitment. Main advantages of are accessing to wide pool of candidates, targeting candidates globally, cutting costs on traditional recruitment methods, saving time in recruitment cycle and increasing the reputation of an organisation. Main disadvantages are discriminating non-users of the Internet, impossibility of recruiting executive staff on the Internet and the risk of resume overload. It is impossible to state that e-recruitment is perfect for any organisation. It is suitable for some jobs while completely inappropriate for others. Senior management has to review all pros and cons before making a decision whether to use online recruitment or not.