Recognising The Organisational Structure And Culture


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Organizing, the process of structuring human and physical resources in order to accomplish organizational objectives, involves dividing tasks into jobs, specifying the appropriate department for each job, determining the optimum number of jobs in each department, and delegating authority within and among departments. One of the most critical challenges facing lodging managers today is the development of a responsive organizational structure that is committed to quality.

The framework of jobs and departments that make up any organization must be directed toward achieving the organization s objectives. In other words, the structure of a lodging business must be consistent with its strategy. Managers give structure to a hotel and lodging through job specialization,

organization, and establishment of patterns of authority and span of control.

Other organisations will have different structures. For example most organisations will have a marketing department responsible for market research and Marketing planning. A customer services department will look after customer requirements. A human resources department will be responsible for recruitment and selection of new employees, employee motivation and a range of other people focused activities. In addition there will be a number of cross-functional areas such as administration and Information Technology departments that service the functional areas of the company. These departments will provide back up support and training.

Organisations are structured in different ways:

1. By function as described above

2. By regional area - a geographical structure e.g. with a marketing

manager North, marketing manager South etc

3. By product e.g. marketing manager crisps, marketing manager drinks, etc

4. into work teams, etc.

Reporting in organisations often takes place down the line. An employee might be accountable to a supervisor, who is accountable to a junior manager, who is then accountable to a senior manager - communication and instructions can then be passed down the line.

Moreover, structural features of organization are formal, inflexible (except under special conditions and procedures), created and maintained by documentation, and contingency-centered: they set responsibilities, formal rights, and rewards or punishments on which individual behavior or group action is contingent. The structure is adopted officially, by explicit decision, on the basis of known rules and procedures. It determines how the organization is supposed to operate and for what purposes. The Command chain in cliston hotel is shown in the fig 1.1

Fig 1.1 Chain of Commands

When designing an organizational structure, managers must consider the distribution of authority. Defined simply, authority is the organizationally sanctioned right to make a decision. Authority can be distributed throughout an organization or held in the hands of a few select employees. Decentralization is the process of distributing authority throughout an organization. In a decentralized organization, an organization member has the right to make a decision without obtaining approval from a higher-level manager. Centralization is the retention of decision-making authority by a high-level manager. Traditionally, hotel and lodging management has been very centralized, probably due to its roots in small, owner-operated lodging. In recent years, as the hotel and lodging industry has expanded, decentralization has become a more frequent style of operation.

Decentralization has several advantages. Managers are encouraged to develop decision-making skills, which help them advance in their careers. The autonomy afforded by this style of operation also increases job satisfaction and motivation. When employees are encouraged to

perform well, the profitability of the organization increases. Many hotel and lodging organizations have begun to empower employees and supervisors to make decisions that typically have been

made by managers. One example that we have already discussed is the use of the quality circle. For example, if a front desk agent determines that a guest s bill is incorrect, in a decentralized organization the agent has the power to make the correction immediately. If that same front

desk agent determines that a guest s stay has been unsatisfactory, he or she has the power to reduce the guest s bill by an amount previously specified by management. Additional challenges, control of the process, and quality assessment become part of everyone s job, and each employee is given the authority to take positive actions that will lead to high quality and improved performance.


Culture has been defined in various ways by different people. A sampling of these definitions is provided. Kluckholn (1951, p.36) described culture as patterned ways of thinking, feeling and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artefacts. Hofstede (1984, p.21) defined culture as the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another.

However, many people can define Organisation or Corporate Culture simply as How we do thing around here (in the organisation), with my point of view this is a Invisible powerful force that gently nudges you in compliance with how we do things around here , it is the force that get you to do things we do .

The foregoing definitions of culture suggest that culture is a very broad concept which encompasses many and varied dimensions. The specific cultural dimensions that have significant impact on cross-national business interactions are: (1) High-versus low-context cultures; (2) Monochronic versus Polychronic time; (3) Silent language; (4) Hofstede's five cultural dimensions; and (5) Maruyama's epistemological types. These dimensions can be used as a means of understanding and comparing cultures.

1) Plan the work activities of your team and gain their commitment.

The effective use of such resources requires managers to devise, communicate, implement and monitor plans to achieve

organisational aims and objectives.

Planning is broken down into Specific Skills. Each Specific Skill is described below and is followed by an explanation of how

your colleagues perceive your performance in this skill area. To improve your performance, a development action based

upon your current performance level, is provided for each of the Specific Skills.

Developing plans: Prioritising and organising work activities in-line with organisational aims and objectives

Your assessment shows that you:

Need to make more time to ensure that your plans are clear and well-constructed

Need to check that an adequate supply of resources is always available

Are able to prioritise activities to meet objectives, but need to be more consistent in this area

Development Action: To improve your planning skills, break down your objectives into a list of tasks. Adopt the PDA

model: Plan, Decide and Act. Start by talking to other people, especially those in your own team, to find out if they have

ideas which you might build into your plans as this will help to gain their commitment to your plans. Always ensure that you

commit your plans to paper so that you have a record of what needs to be done.

Monitoring performance: Monitoring and reviewing performance against organisational aims and objectives

Your assessment shows that you:

Rarely monitor progress against plans

Normally take action when performance is below the standard you expect

Check the quality of work and progress against plans, albeit infrequently

Development Action: Make time every week to monitor progress against plans. This will help you to identify what action

you need to take to get your plans back on track and to re-prioritise activities and the availability of equipment, supplies and

people, thereby improving productivity and efficiency. Using your diary, schedule the dates on which you will monitor

progress against plans.

Focusing on results: Maintaining a focus on achieving organisational aims and objectives

Your assessment shows that you:

Work steadily towards achieving objectives

Sometimes remind others of plans and objectives

Will sometimes adjust plans when objectives are not being achieved

Development Action: Whilst plans are important, do not be frightened to amend them if you are not achieving the results

you expected. If you have identified clear measures of performance when you devised your plan, you will know if action is

needed, so do not delay taking action immediately to ensure you achieve your objective use the STAR formula STOP,


Managing change: Planning for and implementing change to achieve organisational aims and objectives

Your assessment shows that you:

Often omit to let people know when there are changes to plans

Must ensure that people understand the reason for changes

Normally identify situations where change is needed

Development Action: When you have to make changes to plans, make sure that you inform people as soon as possible. If

you think some people might be anti-change, draw up a list of those likely to be for and against it and decide how best to

inform them of the changes.

Managing improvement: Taking action to improve performance by acting on the lessons from past successes and failures

Your assessment shows that you:

Identify new and improved ways of doing things and put your ideas into action

Tend not to make the same mistake twice because you learn from mistakes

Are open to ideas about improving systems and procedures

Development Action: In order to learn from mistakes, jot down the main learning points when you take time to review

plans. Ask yourself, what worked well, what could have worked better, what could you have done differently?


The principles and processes of effective communication underpin the role of the manager. Managers need to be able to

communicate effectively with a range of people, including team members, colleagues, line managers, customers and

suppliers. It is important that managers are able to organise, present and communicate their views, ideas and plans

according to the needs of the people with whom they interact.

Communication is broken down into Specific Skills. Each Specific Skill is described below and is followed by an explanation

of how your colleagues perceive your performance in this skill area. To improve your performance, a development action

based upon your current performance level, is provided for each of the Specific Skills.

Explaining clearly: Presenting ideas, plans and problems in ways that promote understanding

Your assessment shows that you:

Are not always able to explain complex ideas and plans clearly and concisely

Usually give instructions and information in a clear logical way

Normally check that people have understood what you have said when explaining something to others

Development Action: When you need to explain complex ideas and plans to others, plan what you want to say carefully

and break things down into small, bite-sized pieces. Always check that people have understood what you have said by

asking for their opinions and observing their reaction to you.

Influencing others: Presenting views and opinions clearly and positively to others, resulting in agreement and consensus

Your assessment shows that you:

Can usually be relied upon to make constructive suggestions to help achieve results

Present ideas and plans positively and are able to influence other people s point of view

Project a positive self image to others at all times

Development Action: As a manager, you need to be positive, supportive of others and provide constructive suggestions

and advice to improve performance. Thinking about the people that work with you, what suggestions do you have for helping

them to improve their performance?

Resolving conflict: Understanding the problems and concerns of others and working towards an appropriate resolution

Your assessment shows that you:

Should try harder to understand the views of others more often than you do currently

As a rule you resolve conflict in a positive manner

Generally resolve conflict by obtaining a consensus agreement

Development Action: Seek first to understand, then to be understood! should be your motto. This means taking time to

understand the feelings, concerns and anxieties of other people. Try asking questions such as, Why do you say that? ,

Can you explain that to me again or How do you feel about . .

Listening: Seeking and listening to the views and opinions of others

Your assessment shows that you:

Listen to others without interrupting

Often allow others to put forward their views and opinions

Show interest in what others have to say sometimes

Development Action: Although you might actually be listening to others, you also need to show that you are listening. To

do this, maintain eye contact with them when they are speaking, smile and acknowledge their contribution, nod your head in

agreement and discuss their ideas before moving on.


Managers achieve organisational aims and objectives through the work of other people and in particular teams. Setting up

and managing effective teams requires managers to inspire and motivate team members, ensuring that everyone

understands what the team is trying to achieve.

Teamworking is broken down into Specific Skills. Each Specific Skill is described below and is followed by an explanation of

how your colleagues perceive your performance in this skill area. To improve your performance, a development action

based upon your current performance level, is provided for each of the Specific Skills.

Building teams: Involving team members in planning and organising their work to meet team objectives

Your assessment shows that you:

Should involve your team in planning and decision-making more than you do currently

Incorporate ideas made by your team into plans

May not be fully aware of the strengths of individuals in your team and therefore may not always get the best from them

Development Action: Remember that the people in your team will have a wealth of knowledge, which could help you in

planning and decision-making. Try tapping into it by discussing plans and decisions during team meetings. Hold team

problem-solving and planning sessions with your team to get them involved more than you do currently.

Leading teams: Providing teams with a clear understanding of their purpose and objectives

Your assessment shows that you:

Need to ensure that your team fully understands its objectives and what it is expected to achieve

Should devote more time discussing plans and objectives with your team

Do not provide your team with enough direction at certain times

Development Action: High performance teams need to understand precisely what their objectives are and what is

expected of them. Hold a team meeting to discuss the team s objectives and invite people to comment on the best way of

achieving them.

Encouraging teamwork: Minimising conflict and problems to enable the team to perform

Your assessment shows that you:

Ought to provide people with more encouragement to work together as a team

Address most of the problems which impact upon team performance

Resolve conflict and disputes between team members when it arises

Development Action: Encourage individuals in your team to work together. Remind people that they are part of a team and

that as such they need to support each other.

Representing teams: Presenting a positive image of the team

Your assessment shows that you:

Always speak highly of your team when talking to others

Are always loyal to your team

Are prepared to support your team whenever it is required

Development Action: It is important to speak highly of your team, but beware of going over the top and presenting it as

some form of super-team, and rejecting any criticism.


Managers are leaders of people and need to inspire commitment and enthusiasm in others in order to achieve

organisational aims and objectives. To be effective, managers need to build strong working relationships which means

providing clear guidance and direction, acting as a role model and respecting the views and opinions of others.

Leading is broken down into Specific Skills. Each Specific Skill is described below and is followed by an explanation of how

your colleagues perceive your performance in this skill area. To improve your performance, a development action based

upon your current performance level, is provided for each of the Specific Skills.

Leading by example: Acting as a role model for others

Your assessment shows that you:

Always act in a professional manner

Achieve organisational objectives most of the time

Always demonstrate a positive and confident attitude

Development Action: If you do not have a very clear idea of how you are going to achieve your objectives, spend time

looking at this now or schedule an appropriate time in your diary. Review your plans and progress against each of your

SMART objectives, that is Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and a Timescale has been agreed.

Providing guidance: Providing support and advice to others in order to enable the achievement of organisational aims and


Your assessment shows that you:

Can be supportive of others on occasions

Provide others with the guidance and advice that they need from time to time

Often step in to help people who are experiencing problems

Development Action: Making to provide individuals with the support they need can be time consuming, but is time well

invested. You need to make more effort to be available to support your team; it is not enough to say, My door is always

open you must invite people in!

Motivating others: Enthusing, and gaining the commitment of others to decisions and plans

Your assessment shows that you:

Generate commitment to decisions and plans most of the time

Usually recognise and praise people for their contributions and hard work

Motivate and enthuse people to meet their objectives and targets

Development Action: When developing plans and making decisions, involve people. Try to make decisions through

consensus rather than imposition. If people cannot agree get them to produce a pros and cons list; this usually helps them

to make a clear decision.

Building trust and respect: Maintaining confidences and honouring commitments and promises made to others

Your assessment shows that you:

Always respect confidences and are considered to be an honest and straightforward manager

Endeavour to fulfil commitments and promises made to others

Are trusted and highly respected by others

Development Action: Once you fail to honour a promise or a commitment, you will lose trust and respect. Do everything

humanely possible to meet your commitments and promises. If necessary, think twice before agreeing to things you will

struggle to deliver; under promising and over delivering is better than over promising and under delivering!

Personal effectiveness

Personal effectiveness enables to achieve results and meeting personal and organisational objectives. Managers are

literally faced with hundreds of decisions to make every day: choices about how to prioritise activities, how to allocate their

time and how to communicate and present their plans and opinions to others. An important part of improving personal

effectiveness is recognising and addressing personal development needs.

Personal effectiveness is broken down into Specific Skills. Each Specific Skill is described below and is followed by an

explanation of how your colleagues perceive your performance in this skill area. To improve your performance, a

development action based upon your current performance level, is provided for each of the Specific Skills.

Acting assertively: Presenting views and opinions clearly and taking responsibility for initiating action

Your assessment shows that you:

Need to take more responsibility for making things happen

Are able to say no to others

Are always able to state your own views and opinions clearly and with confidence

Development Action: When something has not worked out as planned, think about how you could have prevented that

from happening and what you could do in future to prevent the same situation happening again. You should be proactive

and seek out possible solutions rather than look for excuses or people to blame.

Managing time: Maximising the use of time to achieve aims and objectives

Your assessment shows that you:

Are sometimes short of time

Usually find time to discuss problems and offer advice to people

Do not always meet deadlines which impacts upon your personal effectiveness

Development Action: Remember the old saying A stitch in time saves nine . Think about any instances where a small

amount of time spent now, could save a lot more time in the future, for example, sitting down and planning what needs to be

done, by when and with what resources or simply clearing your desk, so that you do not spend ages looking for that missing


Developing self: Improving personal performance and skills by recognising weaknesses and areas for improvement

Your assessment shows that you:

Spend some time improving and developing your knowledge and skills

Sometimes feel threatened when others try to provide you with feedback on your own performance

Tend not to be very aware of your own areas of development

Development Action: Use this assessment to review your strengths and areas for development. This report provides

numerous ideas and suggestions for improving your management skills. Take action on the Specific Skills in which you

scored lowest. Have a good look at your Core Management Skills Profile and reflect on any significant differences between

your perception and that of the people with whom you work.

Decision-making: Obtaining and analysing accurate information in order to make effective decisions

Your assessment shows that you:

Usually take decisions based upon your own opinions rather than those of others

Generally make decisions promptly and confidently

Need to keep others more informed of your decisions

Development Action: When making decisions, ask others for their ideas and opinions before making up your mind: you will

be surprised at just how many options and choices are open to you if you just take the time to seek the views of others.

Managing people

Managing and developing people is perhaps the hardest part of management. Managers must be able to agree clear,

measurable objectives, manage the performance of both individuals and teams and provide regular and constructive

feedback on their performance. Managers must provide timely and appropriate support for people, ensuring that they

possess the right knowledge and skills to achieve their objectives.

Managing people is broken down into Specific Skills. Each Specific Skill is described below and is followed by an

explanation of how your colleagues perceive your performance in this skill area. To improve your performance, a

development action based upon your current performance level, is provided for each of the Specific Skills.

Setting objectives: Negotiating individual and team objectives which are challenging and achievable

Your assessment shows that you:

Regularly agree objectives and targets with individual team members

Set long and short term objectives for your team

Often negotiate challenging and achievable objectives and targets

Development Action: Ensuring that all targets and objectives are recorded, agree a set of objectives with each team

member, which you can use to monitor performance in the future.

Managing performance: Reviewing individual and team performance to ensure that objectives are achieved

Your assessment shows that you:

Provide individuals with regular feedback on their performance

Regularly monitor your team s performance against its objectives

Take action when performance is not satisfactory, but not as promptly as you could

Development Action: Do not delay in taking action when you become aware of under performance. The sooner that you

take action, the less the effect of the under performance will be. Identify the cause of the problem, listen and negotiate a

performance improvement plan. Monitor performance and take whatever other action is necessary.

Developing others: Helping others to improve their knowledge and skills in order to achieve their objectives

Your assessment shows that you:

Need to take time to regularly review the training and development needs of others

Take action for helping to meet the training and development needs of others

Provide some coaching and on-the-job training

Development Action: Produce and up-date a simple skills matrix. Encourage people to identify their own development

needs or analyse their performance and identify what skills would help improve performance levels.

Providing feedback: Giving individuals and teams constructive feedback designed to improve performance

Your assessment shows that you:

Generally provide constructive feedback to others

Give positive feedback to improve the performance of your team

Often praise the achievement of objectives individuals and teams

Development Action: Feedback should be constructive and concentrate on positive aspects of performance as well as

discussing weaker aspects. Always sandwich areas for improvement with positive observations either side, ending on a

positive note. Encourage people to comment on their own performance, agree any action points and implement them.

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