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- Company of choice: Event Cinemas New Zealand
- Topic of the questionnaire: marketing performance
- Intention of the questionnaire: to find out the marketing performance of the product named “Gift Card” (how often, the source and possible improvement), in order to better target and improve sales.
- What is your gender?
- Which age group do you belong to?
- Below 18
- 19 – 29
- 30 – 40
- 41 – 51
- 52 – 62
- Above 62
- How often do you go to cinemas to watch movies?
- Twice a week or more
- Once a week
- Once a month
- Once a quarter
- Once a year
- How do you usually purchase your ticket?
- Book online (Please go to Question 5)
- Buy at the counter (Please go to Question 6)
- Which website do you usually purchase your ticket from?
- Which payment method do you use more often?
- Cash or EFTOPS or credit card (Please go to Question 7)
- Gift Card/Movie Money/Other Vouchers (Please go to Question 8)
- Would you like to use Gift Cards instead?
- Yes (Please go to Question 9)
- No (Please go to Question 10)
- How do you obtain the Gift Card/Movie Money/Voucher?
- Buy it myself (If tick, where? __________________ )
- Gift from friends or families or others (If tick, which period, e.g. birthday day, Christmas, etc, please specify __________________ )
- What would encourage you to use a Gift Card/Movie Money/Voucher?
- Card Looking Design
- Others (please specify _________________________ )
- What would change your mind to use Gift Card/Movie Money/Voucher?
- Card Looking Design
- Others (please specify _________________________ )
LO1 Q & A regarding My Own Questionnaire
- To specify measurement method, four scales are commonly used, which are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio respectively.
In my questionnaire presented above, the nominal scale can clearly be identified in the very first question “What is your gender?” intended to categorize the interviewee.
Though not as clear as its counterpart, the ordinal scale, I believe, can still be revealed in Q3, which focus on the frequency of the interviewee going to the cinema to watch movies, as it has identity and magnitude and can be sorted out in order, despite the slightly complicated appearance.
The interval scale is used in Q2 regarding the age of the interviewee, where the interval is chosen as 10 years and the dimensions are deliberately more than usual in order to accurately capture the target market.
Unfortunately, according to my understanding and observation, the ratio scale is not used the questionnaire below.
- As for the scaling method, “identity” appears as male or female in Q1, “magnitude” used in Q3 shows growing trend of frequency in terms of going to the cinemas, “equal intervals” is specified as 10 years in Q2 to categorize and distinguish interviewees, while also in Q3 the dimension of “Never” was used to set up the “minimum value of zero”.
Four primary scales of measurement are “identity”, “magnitude”, “equal intervals”, and “a minimum value of zero”.
- Identity means that each number has a particular meaning. For example, in the common practice of rating a film on film-critic websites like IMDB, 5 or 5 stars means the film is brilliant or the reviewer is absolutely amazed by this particular film. 4 or 4 stars means the film is good, not great, yet still worth watching. 3 or 3 stars might label a film as mediocre while 2 or 2 stars show a film is very unflattering. Unfortunately 1 or 1 star could make a film as a disaster.
- Magnitude means that numbers have an inherent order from smaller to larger. Enjoying the convenience of the example listed under “identity”, from 5/5 stars to 1/1stars, each choice of number is not only given a specific meaning or gravity of how a film is reviewed, but also can be sorted out in order from 5 the best to 1 the worst.
- Equal intervals means that the differences between numbers (units) anywhere on the scale is the same. The example of this scale can be easily seen as age-related questions where each given dimension enjoys the same interval, no matter how small or big the number itself it.
- A minimum of zero means that the zero point represents the absence of the property being measured, which I consider as a bottom line where nothing exist beyond. For example, the question of “how often”, which concerns the frequency of one’s behavior, can have a dimension of “never” to set as the absolute zero.
Comparative scaling means the items are directly compared to each other, while in the case of non-comparative scaling, each item is scaled independently of the others.
- In comparative scaling, the scale of paired comparison is commonly used. For example in my own questionnaire, Q5 has an attempt of doing a direct comparison between two websites of two major film exhibitors, Event Cinemas and Hoyts Cinemas, even though a mild third party as in “others” were listed as well just for collecting more information. Dollar Metric Comparison is also another useful scale for comparative scaling. To follow up my own questionnaire designed to find out the market performance of Gift Card, I’d like to add a question asking the interviewee how much they are willing to pay to get lager Gift Card Credits. Or in other examples, dollar metric can be seen in consulting the proper price for Burger King’s combo.
- In non-comparative scales, semantic scales are usual practice, which allows the interviewee to use extensive words rather than numbers to describe their feelings about a certain product or brand on scales with semantic labels. I think the example of this kind is obviously seen in questions starting with “How do you feel after using…”, such as shampoo or conditioner where interviewee can specifically describe the change of their hair. While the other common scale of measurement is called liken scales, where a set of degrees are given to the scale or label. For example, the question/statement could be “The costumer service in Event Cinema is good”, and the dimensions are choices for the interviewee to agree or disagree to the statement with even extra emotion added.
Q5: Cluster analysis
- Cluster analysis can be understood as group analysis, meaning the objects be analyzed tend to have similarities with each other yet however these similarities are not shared with other groups. These similarities are commonly seen as age, gender, income, country, religion and so on.
In my field of research on Event Cinemas, clusters are quite common and easily seen. In my last questionnaire designed to see the marketing performance of the product named Gift Card, my very first two questions were specifically designed and intentionally put in the very beginning of the questionnaire to channel the respondents to their clusters.
The first question, “What is your gender?” was meant to categorize the respondents into different gender in order to see there’s any difference on customer behavior between the two – Who’s more leaning towards using Gift Card, male or female?
The second question, “Which age group do you belong to?” meant to further comb the respondents and the age scale were used to dive deeper in the purpose of seeing which age cluster is the most user/consumer of Gift Card – teenagers below 18, or young adult before their 30s, or the middle agers, or even the seniors?
- The three characteristics of a good quality clustering analysis are as follows:
- A clear object
In order to conduct a good quality clustering, the object of this analysis shall be clearly identified and carried throughout the researching. Or if put in simple words, it means, “You should always know what you want and what you are doing.”
Thus in the practice of conducting the questionnaire, the interviewer can be able to clearly identify what kind of respondents are needed to better contribute to the research. Otherwise, things tend to run out of the track.
- Similarities and differences
Similarities are the glue that attaches each to be a member of the cluster. Thus similarities are expected and easily discovered among the group, which help and contribute to the research. However, differences can also exist within the same group, though easily neglected, which may be worth looking into as well.
- Good implementation
Words stay as words if not well spoken, so do analysis and research. No matter how many clusters you fancily gather, if the result of the research doesn’t deliver well in terms of the whole research, the clustering itself is nothing but a window decoration.
In another perspective, in order to put clustering in better use, the proper methods shall be used, for example, the clusters shall be carefully divided, meaning each of the clusters need to be clearly cut and defined, to avoid any possible mix up which definitely contributes to wrong data analysis.
Q6: Quantitative and qualities methods and examples
Quantitative methods, as it literally shows, means numbers, which makes the research measurable. Its advantage and disadvantage are as follows:
- Advantage: given its numerous nature, it’s easier to compile the data and make further analysis, which in a way makes the result more objective.
- Disadvantage: despite its convenience of using the numbers, the method itself is usually used for larger scale of research, which can be not only unnecessary but also very costly.
Qualitative methods, on the other hand, are more of descriptions or words that respondents use to express feelings they have regarding the questions. In this sense, its advantage and disadvantage are surely different yet as specified below:
- Advantage: since it’s a purely description, it’s very easy to understand and help a great deal specially in specifying feelings interviewees have towards a certain product. And it’s also good to collect more and lively details.
- Disadvantage: exactly because of its form of description, no statistic data can be applied to this method, which in return makes the method itself very limited in using.
- Depth Interviews
- Definition: Approved by the client, it’s a secure and confidential conversation between an interview and a respondent. Guided by a thoroughly composed interview, the interviewer conducts the conversation encompassing the topics that are crucial to the purpose and the issue of the survey.
- Advantage: This particular method excels in reaching a large sample, which greatly contributes to abundant data collection.
- Disadvantage: Exactly due to the advantage mentioned below, the method can be very time consuming, as unlike conventional telephone or online questionnaire, the respondents are approached and invested in with more times.
- Example: Unfortunately this method was not used in my last questionnaire regarding the marketing performance of Gift Card. However, after learning it in the class, I’d like to add it to polish my questionnaire in terms of getting more specified and individualized feedback from the customers.
Since the mission of my questionnaire is to see the performance of Gift Card in the market (e.g. is it widely enjoyed or not? What can be done to improve it?), the method of depth interview can be used in digging out customers’ suggestions on how to better use the card. Therefore, it shall include a set of well-structured questions targeting at specifics of their after-use feelings and suggestions.
- Focus Groups
- Definition: The method of focus groups usually refers to a group of 10 or fewer people, who are asked of a series of questions or to given their opinions on new products. The data gathered from focus groups are viewed ad studied to measure the reaction of the larger market population.
- Advantage: It’s an easy method to measure customer reaction, as usually the nature of the method can provide immediate ideas for reaction or improvement towards certain products or even impression of companies or competitors.
- Disadvantage:Compared to individual interviews, focus groups tend to lose touch with each member of the group whose specific opinion may provide more insight. Exactly because it’s not in depth, there’s a possibility that the member may not express their honest and personal opinions about the topic at hand.
- Example: In my questionnaire, a dimension/thought was lay out to target at people of different ages, in the purpose of seeing clearly which age group Gift Card plays better in. So when conducted, I’d like to choose five respondents for each age group (six groups in total), the cluster of whom should be able to represent their age and give me a better idea.
- Projective Techniques
- Definition: Projective Techniques are indirect and unstructured methods of investigation which have been developed by the psychologists and use projection of respondents for inferring about underline motives, urges or intentions which cannot be secure through direct questioning as the respondent either resists to reveal them or is unable to figure out himself.
- Advantage: Being useful in giving respondents opportunities to express their attitudes without personal embarrassment, this method helps the respondents to project his attitude and feelings unconsciously on the subject under study.
- Disadvantage:This method has a big demand on highly trainedinterviewers and skilled interpreters, which are rarely seen or hard to find in daily common practice, which certainly brings obstacles to carry out the research.
- Example: Well portrayed in a once-popular US TV series named Lie to Me, this amazing method, carried out by highly skilled interpreters who are usually excellent psychological professionals, plays a wonderfully crucial role in correctly projecting potential criminal behaviors.
- Random Probability Sampling
- Definition: It is a random sample from whole population that each individual in the population of interest has an equal likelihood of selection.
- Advantage: One of the main advantages of probability sampling is that it offers a feeling of fairness among the people who are or are not chosen.
- Disadvantage:If applied with a large scale, it could potentially be very time consuming.
- Example: As an easy and convenient method, it’s widely and commonly seen in “lucky draw” sort of activities or even sales promotions.
- Face-to-Face Interviewing
- Definition: It’s a conversational method that requires a face-to-face approach or way of communication between the interviewer and interviewee.
- Advantage: With the fun of meeting the respondent in person, this method enables the interviewer establish rapport with potential participants and therefore gain their cooperation.
- Disadvantage: If applied in large scare, this method can be very time consuming and expensive.
- Example: As for my own research with the help of my questionnaire, I’d like to gather more information by conducting more questionnaires in this method, which enables me to see more details, especially the spontaneous reactions from potential customers.
- Telephone Interviewing
- Definition:It means interviews conducted by the mean of telephone communication.
- Advantage: Thanks to the convenience of making a phone call, the method can save the researcher much time.
- Disadvantage: The response rate may be less than the rate of face-to-face interviewing as various possibilities may stand in the way, such as the wide dislike towards telemarketers may stop someone from even answering the call.
- Example: I remember back in China, whenever I purchased something from an optical shop with which I had a membership card, a call always came asking if I was happy about the service.
- Postal and Self-Completion Market Research
- Definition: This method refers to the questionnaires sent via post, which rely on the respondents themselves to finish and submit.
- Advantage: It’s easy to be applied for large scale researching and has very low cost.
- Disadvantage: There’s no guarantee that enough surveys will be filled in to form an accurate view of the research group.
- Example: I think it’s commonly seen as a single leaf of page inside a magazine, which asked for the readers’ feedback on this particular issue, purchased.
- Omnibus Market Research Surveys
- Definition: It’s a method where data on a wide variety of subjects is collected during the same interview.
- Advantage:It’s a good way to save the cost because the sampling and screening costs are shared across multiple clients.
- Disadvantage: Since it’s conducted by sharing time and efforts with other topics, the particular topic of this research might be less emphasized or in some cases even neglected, which would certainly affect the result.
- Example:In my personal experience of being “researched” on, when it comes to female consumer behavior, a few products would like to line up together to ask the questions, such as makeup and perfume.
Chanray Chen DB681