Purpose of Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
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MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The main aim of the MBIE's is the growth of the New Zealand for all. This growth is relates to the economy. For achieving a quality life and a good living standard an economy promoting sustainable growth is required. For all includes the people of New Zealand at present an also in future.
MBIE's purpose is for New Zealand to benefit from:
- Maximum numbers of highly skilled people and innovative firms
- A greater dynamic and supportive business environment
- Sustainably higher value derived from natural environment
- more productive and prosperous sectors, regions and people
- A better environment that can better supports a well-functioning economy
The work of MED is to regulating the NZ's standards and conformance infrastructure. It works with the purpose of:
- Motivating the business person to do innovations in their products, encourages competition and productivity.
- Reduction in the compliance cost to the business
- Development in the technical infrastructure of business in order to meet the needs of consumers and local business.
5 specialist bodies works with the MED for the betterment of New Zealanders
These organizations works with the collaboration with the MED in order to provide quality life to the residents of NZ through standards and conformance infrastructure liaison group:
- TSS : Trading standards service
- IANZ: International Accreditation NZ.
- MSL: Measurement standards laboratory of NZ.
- SNZ: Standard NZ
- JAS-ANZ: Joint Accreditation system of Australia and New Zealand
There are fewer regulations related to trade of goods and services in New Zealand. The traders and manufacturers to ensure their product safety adopt self-regulations. All of this is backed by the consumer protection legislation.
- The responsibility of standards and conformance infrastructure falls under this legislation
- Works to improve technical infrastructure to support the people of New Zealand, their businesses and trading activities of New Zealand.
- Promotes healthy competition and supports innovation and productivity constantly.
- Reduces the compliance cost in businesses.
- Looks after the five technical bodies of Standard and Conformance infrastructure and makes sure they are functioning properly and are being met by people.
- TSS : Trading standards service
- IANZ: International Accreditation NZ
- MSL: Measurement standards laboratory of NZ
- SNZ: Standard NZ
- JAS-ANZ: Joint Accreditation system of Australia and New Zealand
Food Safety and HACCP
- Thus, food safety regulations are applicable on food sold in the domestic and local markets
- In Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) handlers of food have to analyze it, identify risks if any and put the systems to handle those risks. HACCP makes sure that food processors, wholesalers and retailers, restaurants and other food premises are involved in identifying and managing any areas or processes where food contamination or deterioration could occur.
- These regulations are applied by Ministry of Health on food which is sold by the seller in the local market.
- The aim of applying these regulations is to ensure that the food which is sold is free from any kind of contaminated material and fit for the human consumption.
- The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry also keep a check on the exported products whether they are safe for consumption or not.
- In the domestic market, it is voluntary, but food processors and retailers with an independently audited HACCP system in place can apply to the Ministry of Health for exemption from regular food safety inspections.
ELECTRICAL AND GAS SAFETY
- Electrical safety regulations protects the people from the electricity related harms and dangers
- The service also regulates the quality and measurement of gas and electricity and the quality of petrol and diesel
- This includes safely installation of electrical appliances and safety of electricity supply and generating systems
- This regulations deals with the safety requirements regarding the electrical and gas appliances
- This also includes the measurement of gas and electricity
- Electrical appliances are verified in order check whether they are safe to use or not
MACHINERY, PRESSURE EQUIPMENT, CRANES AND PASSENGER ROPE-WAYS
- There is a organization that is Occupational Safety and Health(OSH) that helps to safe the human beings and workers from the machines and equipments
- Heavy machines like boilers, cutting machines should meet OHS standard before being used in NZ.
- OSH provides the standards that must used by the person before the appliance used in NZ.
- Before going to the market, the product must be tested and inspected.
- Thus, exporters need to check carefully whether there are any technical requirements their product must meet in each market and what is involved.
MUTUAL RECOGNITION AGREEMENTS OR ARRANGEMENTS (MRAs)
Mutual Recognition Agreements is a mutual agreement between the two countries. It is an international agreement. This is the agreement where two or more countries agree to recognize one another's conformity assessments. MRAs enable New Zealand's test and inspection reports, and product and quality certificates, to be accepted by other economies. MRAs are based on shared purpose and belief in the technical competence of each other's systems and procedures. It is the responsibility of MED to maintain govt. level MRAs. For maintaining govt. level MRAs the govt. includes some sort of agreements. These are:
- TTMRA (Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition agreement): Australia and NZ made the agreements which are done for the betterment of the both countries. It came into force on May 1 1998. According to this agreement the good which is sold in one country is legally able to sell in country without any difference.
- NZ/EU MRA (Agreement between NZ and European community for mutual recognition of conformity assessment): According to this agreement conformity regulations is done by the NZ/EU MRA (testing, inspection, and certification) of products traded between New Zealand and any of the fifteen members of the European Union to be undertaken in the exporting country, before the goods are shipped. Each country follows its own rules and regulations but they agree that one country can act on the behalf of other.
- CEP (Agreement between the NZ and Singapore on Closer Economic Partnership): According to this approach same international standards are followed at international and recognition of conformity assessment. To minimize the effect of technical barriers, to promote use the best practice internationally and support of NZ exporters and importers. For example, the parties have negotiated mutual recognition of conformity assessment in electrical and electronic equipment.
- APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation): MED officials represent the NZ on APEC which is Sub-Committee on standards and conformance which works out for the purpose of bringing harmonization in the mandatory technical requirement of trade between the economics in Asia Pacific region.
Standards refer to the published documents that include specifications for processes, products and services that have been agreed upon. Standards cover areas of compatibility, quality, information, safety and performance. Standards are some sort of doings that are used as measure, norm or model in comparative analysis. It is a benchmark i.e. a product or a service should be of a particular quality or level. For example an electronic product is said to be meeting a standard when the minimum safety requirement is met. It makes our lives easy as it helps in keeping our house, building, electronics etc. safe.
TYPES OF STANDARDS
MANDATORY: Mandatory standards are documented in laws or regulations that are stated through Acts or legislations, Mandatory standards are put in place by governments in order to order to protect the national interest. If any person does not abide these standards while performing any act, it's punishable offence. These protect the consumer from being exploited because these act as safety standards; the demand for mandatory standards has been increased. It is illegal to sell products or services without meeting mandatory standards.
VOLUNTARY: Voluntary standards are those standards that are not stated under law; these are formed by company according to their wish. For example ISO is a voluntary standard. Voluntary standards are set by customers or these are encouraged by industry groups. If someone wants more sales then they have to follow the voluntary standards because they ensure product is safe. The ministry has produced document called self regulation and codes of product to assist the industry in preparing appropriate codes to initiate their voluntary moves to achieve mutually agreed purpose in the eye of society, industry. The purpose of creating voluntary standards is to maintain image in the minds of consumers that the product is safe for consumption and doesn't provide any harm to human lives.
SNZ is that business unit that has a specialization in managing the development of standards and standards based solutions. Under the guidance of trading department of standard council, it was formed. The rules and regulations are mentioned in the standard act 1988 and governed by standard council. The Council has statutory responsibility for overseeing the development and adoption of standards and standards related products. SNZ does not receive direct government funding but receives revenue from contracts with industry and government for the adoption, development and support of standards and from the sales of standards publications.
New Zealand Standards, specified for New Zealand conditions. It is anoperating arm of standard council. It works on the behalf of consumers, industry and govt. It provides codes of practice or Industry Technical Agreements; these are quicker and less expensive to develop than a full standard. It conducts seminars to inform and train people on the content of specific standards and to publicize new standards. The main objective of the SNZ is to check whether the product, process and any other thing meet the quality standards or not. The product, process that meets the quality standards is only allowed for sale. NZ authorities check whether the product is safe, secure, and efficient for consumption purposes. NZ has 5 crown standards and conformance bodies among them one of the crown bodies is The Standards Council which has a SNZ as its operating arm. It is governed by the standard act 1988.
SNZ'S INTERNATIONAL ROLE
SNZ represents New Zealand in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) and facilitates New Zealand representation on relevant ISO and IEC technical bodies and standards committees. This enables New Zealand to have participation in the shaping of international standards and developments that help in reducing barriers to trade in New Zealand's major export sectors and markets. SNZ is contracted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade to act as New Zealand's Enquiry Point for the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).Â The Enquiry Point notifies the WTO of any New Zealand regulations that may impact on trade.Â It also responds to enquiries from overseas on any regulations or requirements that must be met before specific products can be imported into New Zealand.
SNZ is a founding member of the Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC) and participates in PASC activities.Â SNZ also works closely with government in standards and conformance activities within APEC and on standards issues in negotiations between Australia/New Zealand (CER) and trade groups in Southeast Asia and South America. SNZ also provides advice to the government on standards issues within international organizations such as the WTO and the OECD.
SNZ assists in meeting the government's development assistance objectives by providing consultancy support, training and capacity building opportunities for standards bodies in developing countries
All goods that are Exported/Imported shall pass through a barrier before they can be legally allowed to be sold in the market.
The Measurement Act 1987 defines the regulations regarding the measurement and safety service. Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. Measurement ensures that units of measurement are consistent with the international system of units. Units of measurement which are used by exporter, trader and supplier must comply with the international system of units.
MSL(measurement standards laboratory)
TSS(trading standards service
MSL is the National Metrology Institute of New Zealand that ensures consistency of NZ units of measurement with International unit system that is SI.MSL makes sure New Zealand is delivering measurements that are reliable and correct. It provides national measurement standards that are traceable to International System of Units.New Zealand is a signatory of Metric Treaty and also to the Mutual Recognition of National Measurement Standards and of Calibration and Measurement Certificates issued by National Metrology Institutes. MSL participates in all metrology activities conducted in the region of Asia- Pacific and is one of the active members.
MSL measurement capability underpins our whole technical infrastructure. Its key functions are:
- To support the standards of measurement relevant to New Zealand
- To ensure that users, both national and international, have confidence in New Zealand's standards of measurement.
- To ensure that all measurements in New Zealand can be traceable to the International System of Units.
MSL provides appropriate national measurement standards for the SI units of importance to New Zealand. New standards must be introduced and accessible standards extended in range and accuracy. Self-assurance in measurement is important for enforcement of local and central government regulations and codes, and for well-being in society. MSL is continually improving the measurement standards. In scientists it also monitored development in their professional areas so they can report on and respond to the changes. One of the main roles of MSL is to provide calibration also known as verification reports, which are traceable to SI and to National Standards of New Zealand.
Calibration is provided in the areas like:
- Biological and chemical
- Length and dimensional
- Photometry and radiometry
- Mass and pressure
- Temperature and humidity
Time and frequency
- It provides specialist measurement services
- Provides expert consultancy which advices on the measurements that are difficult.
It includes expertise in technical areas such as-
- Laser safety
- Speed measurement
- Temperature required
- Ultra-Violent Hazards
SI or metric units of measurement are supported and developed under inter-governmental Metric Treaty of 1875 and NZ has adopted the same and became signatory to Metric treaty in the year 1991. MSL along with 37 other countries In October 1999 signed an agreement for "Mutual Recognition of National Measurement Standards and of Calibration and Measurement Certificates issued by National Metrology Institutes". MRA states that national measurement institutes of signatory countries carry international measurement comparisons on regular basis. Regular comparison shows that measurements followed by different countries are same. The review is done regularly for purpose of ensuring that measurements from the different countries are same.
TSS helps by providing the security or sureness that the exchange of goods takes place on accurate measure, weight, and recognition basis. TSS provides constant advice to the government about measurements systems and legal operations. It provides advice to government on the NZ legal measurement system and its operation. The Weight and Measures Act 1987 is enforced by and under TSS. The system of standards and conformance applicable to trade is stated under the Weight and Measurement act. TSS is involved in testing of new weights and measuring instruments and approves them.
NEW ZEALAND ROLE
- Provide advice to Government related to trade measurement issues
- Ensure compliance with the provisions of the Weights and Measures Act 1987
- By using traceable standards of weight and measure TSS protects the integrity of the NZ trade measurement system
- Protect the integrity of the New Zealand trade measurement system
- Promote assurance on the accuracy of weighing and measuring equipment
- TSS prevents fraud by maintaining a "type approval" laboratory where new types of weighing and measuring instruments are checked against international measurement standards.
- Asia Pacific Legal Metrology Forum: The purpose of Asia Pacific Legal Metrology Forum is to encourage honesty and harmony lawful metrology actions and services within the Asia-Pacific region and to build joint confidence in trade measurement. NZ is a active member of the APLMF. It is established under the APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) as a special regional body.
- Trade Measurement Advisory Committee: The trade measurement authorities of NZ in joint collaboration authorities, states and territories of Australia developed this committee. These authorities comprises of this committee. This committee solves the disputes arising within Australia and between Australia and New Zealand and provides advices. The focuses on trade main issues within Australia and between Australia and New Zealand and provides guidelines opinion on trade depth issues to Australian State and Federal Governments and the New Zealand Government.
- AFTA and Australia/New Zealand CER: New Zealand and Australia also work alongside partner in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) on trade measurement issues.
- International Organization of legal Metrology: This organization was developed for the purpose of bringing international harmonization in the practical and theoretical aspects of measurement which is known as Metrology. It was established in 1955. NZ is one of the corresponding members of this organization as it consists of 57 countries and further 48 corresponding members.
Conformance is undertaken by technical experts. Decisions are based on the results of measurements, tests, inspections or audits. Conformity assessment bodies then issue reports and certificates of compliance. This provides Accreditation or formal recognition that a body or person is competent to carry out specific tasks. There are three main types of conformity assessment: testing, inspecting and certifying. Conformance can be done through IANZ or JAS-ANZ.
JAS AND ANZ
- It is the national accreditation body which was established in 1972.
- It is a member of ILAC (international laboratory accreditation cooperation) and APLAC (Asia Pacific laboratory accreditation cooperation).
- It is involved in recognizing and assessing technical competencies
- It is a part of Accreditation councilandit is a crown entity.
- Govt. and others sectors voluntary use accreditation as a reliable method of competence.
NEW ZEALAND ROLE
It works with the government agencies to provide trade opportunities to NZ exporters to do trade at international level. It ensures that its government, consumers & public have confidence in quality & competence in NZ's testing. IANZ is the operating arm of the Testing Laboratory Registration Council, a statutory body established by Act of Parliament in 1972. Over 200 technical experts who act as technical assessors for peer reviews of laboratories or inspection bodies in their specialist field gives proof to IANZ and IANZ relies on them. IANZ itself do evaluations by counterpart accreditation authorities from Europe, North America and the Asia Pacific region. This ensures that its competence and procedures remain consistent with international practice. IANZ participates in similar peer evaluations of its overseas counterparts.
- Radiology service accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025 adapted)
- Pharmacy accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025 adapted)
- Testing and calibration laboratory accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025)
- Inspection body accreditation (ISO/IEC 17020)
- Proficiency testing programme accreditation (ISO/IEC Guide 43)
- Registration of OECD GLP Compliant Laboratories
- Designating Authority for approval of laboratories and inspection bodies for CE marking (see page 10)Assessment of Ministry of Health food safety system (HACCP) auditing bodies
- Assessment of MAF meat industry laboratories
- Development of accreditation programmes and technical criteria
- Technical information and advice
- Input to development of international standards relating to testing, inspection and accreditation
- Training courses in a range of technical areas, including laboratory quality management, measurement, testing and auditing skills.Â Specific courses cover accreditation requirements for medical testing, radiology and inspection services
- Advisory service for developing country accreditation authorities
- Accreditation authorities are signatories to the ILAC or APLAC Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRA) in over 65 countries, which recognizes reports from IANZ, accredited laboratories and inspection bodies as they meet the required international standards.
- IANZ comes in voluntary sector i.e. it is not mandatory under law.
- It is involved in providing proper guidance to the government on technical barriers and on conformance related issues.
Australia and New Zealand has Joint Accreditation System helps markets for making their work more efficient by providing internationally recognized accreditation services that create economic benefit. By using the criteria of conditional model on international standards and guidelines JAS-ANZ provides accreditation programmers for regulator and industry specific schemes. Increased trade and greater competition from imported products has brought into focus the need for quality in products, processes and services. It creates economic benefits. It helps in the establishment of confidence among the users of Australia and NZ that goods used by consumers are met with the certain standards. It provides advises to govt. regarding the conformance issues and also manages and administers efficient management schemes.
NEW ZEALAND ROLE
Joint accreditation system helps in the establishment of confidence among the users of Australia and NZ that goods used by consumers are met with the certain standards. It helps in supporting the trade by obtaining and maintaining oversea acceptance of product certificates and management systems certificates issued in New Zealand and Australia. It makes the links with relevant bodies in the areas of conformity assessment services and recognition of standards in relation to goods and services. It oobtains mutual recognition and acceptance of certificates of conformity with relevant bodies in other countries.
JAS-ANZ also provides advice to the government on conformance issues and participates in standards and conformance aspects of trade negotiations.
The following activities are presently under the accredited programmes.
Accreditation of Certifiers of Management Systems
- Certification of Quality Management Systems (ISO 9000 and QS-9000 for the automotive industry)
- Certification of Environmental management systems (ISO 14001)
- Certification of Food Safety Systems based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
- Certification of HACCP Management systems
- Certification of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OH&S - AS/NZS 4801)
- Certification of Information Security Management Systems (ISMS -Â AS/NZS 4444)
The purpose of the JAS-ANZ is to develop mutual understandings with the international bodies so that accreditation certificates issued by will be international level and to be a forum for the exchange of information and ideas of common interest based on the relevant ISO/IEC accreditation and certification Guides. It is also a founding member of International Auditor and Training certification association which helps in developing mutual recognition scheme for ISO 9000 auditors and auditor training courses.
Testing is the process that is being used to determine the characteristics of an item or material. The standard test methods are used to carry out tests in laboratories. For the scope of Accreditation all these tests are carried out.Â The test reports may only carry the accreditation logo if the laboratory is accredited for specific tests. Testing is conducted to determine items or products characteristics. It is conducted in labs and reports provided are related to the sample testing. There are some Standard test method is used for doing tests that states environment, equipment and procedures to conduct a reliable test. Thus labs that are accredited for those tests can conduct tests and 500 of such labs are there in NZ.
Calibration is the process of ensuring that measuring instruments are giving accurate results. The Measuring instruments are calibrated to ensure that any measurements performed with the calibrated instruments will be traceable back to the national measurement standard. The wide range of measuring instruments such as speed cameras, analytical balances, measuring tapes, pressure gauges and electrical power meters are calibrated in calibration laboratories.
Calibration reports may only carry the accreditation logo if the laboratory is accredited for those calibrations.
Inspection is done in order to check that whether safety and technical requirements are being met. It is done for the purpose of ensuring that all safety aspects are checked. The specialist inspectors' role is to examine technical aspects of things such as pipelines, crane designs, boilers, buildings, machinery, quarantine services or food premises. The international standard for professional inspection bodies (ISO/IEC 17020) covers designs, products, services, processes and plant.
- ISO/IEC 17020 (international standard for professional inspection bodies) covers all the products, designs, services and processes.
- Specialist inspectors examine the technical aspects of such things as pipelines, crane designs, boilers, buildings, machinery, quarantine services or food premises.
- International standard inspection methods are used in certain inspections for ensuring all safety aspects being checked.
- Inspection includes on-site observation in a detailed way and also thorough check of records, procedures and reports.
According to the specific international standards, the certification bodies are accredited which is also related to the type of certification. The range of standards a certification body is accredited to audit against is specified in its Scope of Accreditation. Certification includes various categories. These bodies are accredited to specific international standards, depending on the type of certification they are competent to undertake.
- Personnel certification
- Product certification
- Certification of environmental management system (ISO 14001)
- Certification of quality management system
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