Productions and operations

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Setting Up The Business

The strategy is for the business to be established as a public limited company. There will be four chief officers within the company - the four founding business partners, each of whom will provide a degree of expertise in a range of fields. The intention is, once the business has generated initial revenues, to reinvest some of this early cash flow to bring in experts at a later stage to aid in the growth, expansion and recognition of the business.

A Public Limited Company (PLC) also registered under the Companies Acts 1963 - 1990, needs a minimum of seven shareholders and a minimum capital of €38,092, of which at least 25% must be paid up.

  • A PLC is not subject to the restrictions that apply to a private limited company, which are that Restricts the right to transfer its shares
  • Limits the number of its members to 50
  • Prohibits any public subscription to shares or debentures

A company is formed by submitting its Memorandum and Articles of Association to the Registrar of Companies along with the registration fee. There need to be two directors and a secretary, none of whom need be Irish. However it is normal for there to be one Irish director who can act as a local representative.

A company must have an auditor, and accounts must be filed each year with the Companies Registration Office. Small companies can prepare abbreviated accounts which do not have to include the level of turnover.

Since 2000, it has been a requirement that Irish companies need at least one resident director, or must deposit an insurance bond with the Registrar.

To comply with legal safety regulations, the brake pedals and levers must be red so they're easily seen and more likely to be used.

The main responsibilities of the workers would be product assembly and quality control checks. As a result, the labour requirement is only that of low skilled workers, on cheaper salaries because of the lack of technical expertise required..


Assessing the production and operations needs and requirements for the business is a complex process. For our business, this process involves sourcing raw materials, installing in house production capabilities and arranging for parts to be outsourced by other vendors. The primary material used in the manufacturing process would be aluminium. Transportation of raw materials to and from our business premises must be arranged with a haulage company

Component manufacturing would be outsourced to other business initially, with product design and assembly taking place in our own business' premesis. Components would involve all materials, metals, screws and levers that would be incorporated into the design. Our own employees would make any necessary adaptations to the product's astethics during assembly though an automated assembly line process. After having established the business further, we would aim to put in place our own manufacturing plant, where brakes would be manufactured using the method detailed below.

Manufacturing Process

A normally engaged dead man's brake: A spring-biased, levered cam is housed within a wheel subassembly frame. Two wheels that are axle-mounted to the frame contain integral brake drums and are mounted so as to circumferentially superimpose the drums over brake shoes which are pivotally mounted to the frame. Under normal, non-operational conditions, the levered cam forces the brake shoes into registry and contact with the drums, thereby conditioning a brake-engaged mode. A manual control lever is cable-connected to the frame in a fashion to enable overcoming the spring biasing of the levered cams, thereby releasing the brake. The moment manual force is released, the levered cams return to the normal, brake-engaged mode, thus effecting the invention's purpose.

Manufacturing Of The Product:

Proceedure: A brake pad comprising a base (2) and a friction part (1) obtained by simultaneous sintering of two layers of powder of different composition previously pressed in a single pre-form. Said pad can be produced by successively charging a mould of appropriate form with two layers of powder of appropriate composition, pressing said powder in said mould, and baking the pre-form obtained at an adequate temperature

The brake pads of the sintered type are commonly formed by a part made of friction material and a metal base. In general, the friction material is pre-formed in a press, after it has been mixed with an appropriate material in the form of metal powder (copper, iron, bronze, etc) to obtain the so-called pre-form.

This is applied to the base, previously coated with an appropriate material that will be able to guarantee bonding of the two parts (for example, a thin layer of copper) on the side on which the pre-form will be applied. A subsequent treatment in an oven at appropriate temperatures will bring about sintering of the materials constituting the pre-form and adhesion of the pre-form to the base. Grinding and branding of the pad on the side of the friction material complete the process; in particular, grinding is rendered necessary to prevent any deformation that the pad undergoes during the step of baking in the oven.

It would be desirable to be able to produce brake pads by means of a simpler and more economical process with a smaller number of operations, which will guarantee an end product that possesses good characteristics of resistance in operating conditions.

A brake pad comprising a base and a friction part, being characterized in that said base and friction part are both made of sintered material. Preferably, said parts are sintered together in a single operation. In this way, the brake pad obtained will be monolithic.

Making brake pads comprises the following operations: - the setting in a mould of appropriate form, of at least one layer made of sinterable material in the form of powder having a composition suitable for constituting, once sintered, the base of a brake pad and of at least one layer made of sinterable material in the form of powder having a composition suitable for constituting, once sintered, the friction part of said pad; - pressing of the material introduced in said mould ; and - baking of the material at an adequate temperature to bring about sintering of the material.

The material constituting the base can be of any appropriate type. It may be made of iron and carbon powder, with possible addition of other materials, such as, for example, copper. The same applies to the friction part, which may comprise, according to a possible example of embodiment, iron, graphite and copper, in addition to other materials, such as manganese oxide.

The brake lining consists of a fiber-reinforced ceramic material that has a tribologically optimized behavior which is adjusted to the brake disk in a targeted manner. It exhibits low wear, a high service life, a high damage tolerance and mainly a surprisingly high coefficient of friction.

Tax Issues

In Ireland, the following two tax issues would apply to our business:

Corporate Tax Rate - A corporate tax rate of 12.5% applies to all corporate trading profits

R&D Tax Credit

  • A 25% tax credit can be claimed against qualifying R&D expenditure by Irish tax-resident companies within the European Economic Area (EEA).
  • Flexibility in the R&D tax credit system grants companies whose corporation tax liability is insufficient to claim the credit via a refund by the revenue commissioners over three accounting periods.
  • The R&D tax credit is claimable against “qualifying buildings” which are defined as buildings with a minimum R&D usage of 35% over a defined 4 years period
  • R&D work sub-contracted to unconnected parties also qualifies for the credit, up to a maximum of 10% of the company's qualifying R&D expenditure in any one year
  • Up to 5% of R&D expenditure can be outsourced to European universities


Bernhard, Emery and Durga. A Ride on Mother's Back: A Day of Baby Carrying around the World. San Diego: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1996.

Travers, Bridget, ed. World of Invention. Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1994.

Creager, Ellen. "Rolling and Strolling the Distance." Detroit Free Press, May 12, 1998, pp. 13-14F. —Kristin Palm

business format

sources and costs for raw materials/other inputs

product: details of machinery, etc.