Presentation of Organizational Psychology and its Application to Business

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My presentation is dedicated to a science call organizational psychology. It is relatively a new science, founded in the beginning of 20th century. Organizational psychology represents a sector of psychology surveys methodology of problems of organizations, business and management. In 1965 Guion defines it as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work [1] ". Organizational psychology's mean deed is studying men's psychology during their work, in their workplace. It tries to figure how structure of industrial organization influences to workers. Organizational psychology studies the influence of discipline, collaborators and managers to workers. Also Organizational psychology considers the psychological influences of work environment. Organizational psychology studies workers psychology for organizing set of workers and to assistance them and to render them psychological help. Sure organizational psychology studies, but it affects also to their daily life. As already mentioned, organizational psychology founded in the beginning of 20th century. Its founder is Walter Dill Scott. However the rise of this science began in the middle of 20th century, when organizational psychology incorporated the new constituent element: personnel recruitment and selection. It contents two processes: personnel recruitment and personnel selection. I try to explain what they mean. Personnel recruitment practices identifying of candidates in the workforce who are most qualified for current work. And it is the process of getting them to apply for jobs within specific organization. As such personnel recruitment includes several components: developing job announcements, placing ads, defining key qualifications for applicants, and screening out unqualified applicants.

Personnel selection is methodological process that hires and promotes personnel. The aim of personnel selection is determination of most qualified candidates.

If some company wants to have good personnel, it must have good organizational psychologists. Then provide successful employee selection.

Accustomed of using organizational psychology is a part of psychological culture and of culture in general. I mean tradition of using organizational psychology is not developed in every country and in each state. But use organizational psychology in some country influences to economy of that country. And even more, it influences to overall psychological condition of the population of that country. If we are look on the world's geopolitical map, we could see many backward countries with rich resources, that exist in terrible position. And one of the reasons of that fact is absence or excalation of organizational psychology. So development of organizational psychology is also political psychologist's job. Today organizational psychology developed most of all in the USA. Approximately 90 universities of the United States offer study of organizational psychology. There are near 5000 specialists of organizational psychology in the United States of America. Organizational psychology also developed in Canada, Germany, England, Australia and Israel.

Very important thing of each company and organization is individual assessment. It is locate in the scientific framework of organizational psychology. What is it? Individual assessment helps to involve the measurement of individual differences. Scilicet during this process organizational psychologists perform individual assessments to evaluate differences of candidates. It helps to provide efficiency of work and employment as well as differences among employees. Also individual assessment helps to make the structure of measured pertain to job performance. Individual assessment is one of the most important parts of the personnel selection process.

Functions of organizational psychologist define the specific tasks of its work in the organization, which can be represented by three categories: work with the personnel, organization of work and organizational governance and social planning. Now let's consider all them separately.

1) Work with the personnel means assessment of staff for recruitment, appraisal and travel (study and secure of business, professional qualities and abilities); professional orientation and counseling; socio-psychological training of the personnel and increase qualification of employees; acceleration of the processes of adaptation in the organization and interaction between head and subordinate.

2) Organization of work means certification of the posts included in the staffing table; study of the conditions of work, and organization of working places and analysis of worker's personality.

3) Organizational governance and social planning means socio-psychological support of innovations and reorganization; formation of group of norms, moral, organizational culture; prevention and conflict resolution; monitoring of the social-psychological climate in the group, its development and improvement; improving labor discipline; loyalty to the organization.

I can also supplement this list of tasks. One of the important tasks of organizational psychologist is the introduction of a new employee in the course of affairs in the organization. Psychologist speaks with a newcomer about the history of the company, about its role in the work, acquaints with the authorities, the traditions of the organization. Another task is the decision of questions of the vocational training and improvement of professional skill of workers. Psychologist decide whom to teach (who and in what learning needs), what to teach, how to teach, how to stimulate and evaluate the results of the study and its influence on the efficiency of work. Organizational psychologist also gives an estimate of contributions made by employees. Psychologist carries out periodic assessments of labor of each employee and its compliance with the wages earned. Typical items of assessment are: quality of work, quantity of work, physical and moral-psychological reliability of the employee and the degree of their trust. Other functions of organizational psychologist are development of means of maintaining discipline and effective methods of punishment and encouragement of employees; participation in the review of complaints, mediation in the negotiations of workers and trade unions with the administration of social-psychological support of the negotiation process in the situation of the conflict; participation in the organization of system of communication in organization (selection and comparative analysis of different means of communication, content analysis and clarity of information); organization of business promotion and advertising; improvement of labor organization; private psychological advice of governors. Sure the list of tasks, which have to deal with a psychologist in the company, can be expanded in connection with the specific problems of one or another organization.

On the basis of above we can divide functions of organizational psychologist into three categories:

1) Research (expert) function. Psychologist collects specific information about the psychological mechanisms of human behavior in a diverse and complex system of organizational relationships. The main is the study of groups and individuals as subjects of labor. Organizational psychologist investigates, as a rule, not theoretical problem, but a particular situation. Nevertheless, the methodological requirements to carrying out this kind of applied research may not be reduced: there should be formulated research hypothesis, the chosen methods and techniques selected measuring instruments, recorded and processed all of the results analyzed and documented report.

2) Consulting function. The psychologist provides advice on issues of optimal use of personal and professional features of the person (for example, in hiring, filling vacancies, reduction of personnel). A psychologist involved in the design and development of different methods of personnel management, social development organization, improving the organization of work and advises management on these issues.

The special place occupies personal counseling. The need for counseling, as a rule, is connected with a certain limited experience of management of the organization in the management and psychological areas. The obvious advantage consultant is an independent vision of the situation. The main factor in the efficient work of a consultant is his freedom and independence, which is made up of the financial (the amount of payment and its reliability), administrative (consultant is not subject to the client) and emotional components. Counseling, as a rule, is impossible without the research elaboration and adoption expert positions.

Consultants may be generalists or specialists on certain problems (e.g., psychological diagnostics of the organization's leaders, innovation, management, etc.). The organizational psychologist-consultant must hold a position of neutrality, impartiality and never interferes in the confrontation and struggle, which can exist in the organization that provides an objective and undistorted analysis of the relationships and situations. IN this regard, great significance is the professional ethics of the psychologist.

3) Pedagogical and educational functions. These functions are connected with the great interest of all people without exception to the problems of psychology, the desire to receive psychological knowledge, the need for solving personal problems. The teacher sends the special psychological knowledge, which they can use creatively for the effective organization of their own activities. If the expert review, the consultant recommends, advises, the teacher -made, increases the level of psychological knowledge with the others.

Organizational psychology is very important thing for companies. Sometimes organizational psychologists can save the company from collapse.

Used books

1) Guion, R.M. (1998). Assessment, measurement and prediction for personnel decisions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

2) Anderson, N.; Ones, D.S.; Sinangil, H.K.; & Viswesvaran, C. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology: Organizational psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.

3) Borman, W.C.; Ilgen, D.R.; Klimoski, R.J. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

4) Dunnette, M.D. (1976). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally.

5) Rogelberg, S.G. (2002). Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.