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SAFEs aim is to make significant improvements in the lives of animals by raising awareness, challenging cruel practices, changing attitudes and fostering compassion so that they are no longer exploited or abused.
For over 80 years SAFE has been one of the strongest voices in New Zealand defending animals against cruelty and abuse. SAFE is a non-profit charitable organisation financed solely through the goodwill of the community.
SAFE is dedicated to changing attitudes and nurturing compassionate values by educating the public about the inherent value of animals.
SAFE is not afraid to challenge the prevailing view.
SAFE is not afraid to go it alone.
SAFE is not afraid to tell the truth.
Terms of Reference
This report was written at the request of Guillermo, Organisation and Management tutor, to investigate and analyse management in an organisation in the context of current management theory.
Scope and Methodology
The report considers a range of organisation issues, researching key aspects of management within the organisation. The organisation's management structure and processes are analysed and evaluated in relation to current theory.
I would like to thank Eliot Pryor for taking time off his busy schedule to answer the questions for this assignment
The following aspects of the organisation's management were investigated and analysed, and these conclusions were drawn:
Type and size of organisation
SAFE is a not for profit organisation which advocates against the cruelty of animals, with 12 fully employed staff. They also rely on many volunteers. Their main goal is to raise awareness through various campaigns and other outlets such as media and public awareness.
There is one main team with 3 main people and 3 managers who manage volunteers in their respective locations. The Executive Director and Managing Director are responsible for direction and operation.
The main external factors found are the economy, and education. The main internal factors are staffing and what knowledge and skills they can bring to the organisation.
Planning and control systems, processes and strategies
Financial planning can be difficult for non-profit organisations such as SAFE, as it is unpredictable as to what funds they will be receiving as grants from the government and as donations from the public. They can also have unplanned expenses which are hard to account for.
Team structures and dynamics
Important decisions such as what the organisation's direction should be are undertaken by the directors. But the process of heading into a specific direction has input from all staff.
Staffs takes turns in demonstrating leadership qualities, although there is not a set recognising and rewarding good behaviour system. The size of the organisation limits the staff's ability to move onto higher positions. Staffs are offered some opportunities for training and improving their skills.
2.1 Type and Size of Organisation
SAFE has been working in animal protection in New Zealand for over 70 years. SAFE is one of the world's most respected animal advocacy organisations because they make a real difference to the lives of animals and people.
With a history spanning more than eight decades of campaigning on behalf of animals, SAFE continues to be at the forefront of exposing animal abuse within New Zealand and around the globe. In 1932, an anti- vivisection organisation called The Auckland Branch of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection was formed in Auckland, New Zealand. The focus of the group broadened to incorporate other practices and eventually, in 1978, a name change was made and Save Animals from Experiments was launched.
Public awareness campaigns and political lobbying were the main means used to help expose and question the use of animals in cruel and needless experiments. In 1987, with further acknowledgement of cross-industry animal abuse en masse, the group again expanded its outlook and a second and final name change was made. The word Experiments was changed to Exploitation.
Â The people behind SAFE make the organisation the success that it is today. SAFE currently has 12 employees who are highly skilled and determined individuals. They empower the organisation with their personal commitment and passion towards SAFE and enable the organisation to operate professionally and effectively. In addition to staff, SAFE has a large national volunteer network involving hundreds of caring New Zealanders who remain a vital and integral part of SAFE's outreach programme.
Over the years SAFE has enjoyed the support of many organisations, businesses, corporations, celebrities and individuals willing to assist SAFE in its endeavours to help animals in New Zealand.
I think SAFE absolutely believes in rights for animals and put this belief into positive action in an organised, professional, educational and friendly manner. The work that they do in promoting respect and the kind of treatment all animals. The effects of their lobbying have been monumentally beneficial for sows especially, in New Zealand.
I believe it was due to SAFE's efforts, that we now see so many of the general public aware of the plight of battery hens. SAFE values the needs of animals more than the wants of people, and that shows integrity. They are genuine people who live their convictions on a daily basis.
SAFE are an amazing organisation that are the true face of NZ's clean green image. The way they conduct themselves in a caring, sincere and dignified manner, even when faced with the most abhorrent abuse of animals by certain industries, should be taught in every school in NZ. If it were the world would truly be a better place. SAFE taught people to view the world through different eyes.
SAFE is one of the most effective animal advocacy organisations in the world. SAFE's team of strategic, creative and committed campaigners have an extraordinary track record of publicly exposing animal cruelty and achieving results. If New Zealanders get behind SAFE they will help to ensure that animals in need are provided with the strongest voice possible.
2.2 Organisation and Structure
The main 'team' is the campaigns team, which has 3 main people and then 3 staff who manage volunteers locally.
There are 2 directors, the Executive Director who is mainly responsible for direction, and the Managing Director who is responsible for operations. All staff have lines of management which are either directly or indirectly going back to them - this depends on how the administration or campaigns are divided.Â
The other key factor is that they work in 3 different offices in 3 cities which can be challenging, and means they are working remotely with half the team.Â
There is also a Board which is 6-10 volunteer members that oversee the overall direction.Â
Â It's partly evolved over time, but the MD position is a new one that was put in place to take pressure off the ED, so there was reorganization. We think it's working well for the time being, but time will tell.Â
Â HANS KRIEK |Â Executive Director
DEBRA ASHTON |Managing Director
ELIOT PRYOR |Â Campaign Director
AMANDA SORRENSON |Â Promotions Manager
NICHOLA KRIEK |Â Education Officer
MANDY CARTER |Â Campaign Manager
LAURA GENTLEÂ |Â National Volunteer Coordinator
ANNELIES BASTEN |Â Database Administrator / Fundraising Assistant
MARIANNE MACDONALD |Â Administrator
ZIMENA DIDOVICH |Â Auckland Volunteer Coordinator / Campaign Officer
MICHAEL STEELE |Â Wellington Coordinator / Graphic Designer
Â Â 2.2b Analysis
The SAFE team (just a handful of staff who are the backbone of SAFE) are the most exceptionally dedicated, warm, genuine and intelligent people.
This organisation is running very well because everyone is well trained from managers to workers. The manager arranges monthly meetings; all the workers sit together and give suggestions for the betterment of the organisation. In the light of these suggestions, management makes future plans.
They have a tall structure. A tall organizational structure offers various levels of authorization for different actions taken by managers. This structure assumes that lower level employees lack the experience and knowledge to make good decisions for the company. A tall organizational structure consists of several layers of management.Â
2.3 Environmental factors
SAFE protests and other activities maintain a high profile in the media and community and have over 10,000 members and supporters. Nationwide over 200 active volunteers participate in protests and other activities.
SAFE a tangible difference for animals and is so well regarded in the media and among the general public nationally and internationally. As well as effecting positive change for animals at a systemic level, for example encouraging one person to become a more conscious consumer and adopt a cruelty-free lifestyle.
They are a highly effective force for badly needed change in how humans treat animals in New Zealand and abroad. especially commend SAFE's excellent education workbooks for school teachers and students, which offer a long-awaited refreshing, progressive perspective.Â
Â SAFE launches exciting new humane education programme and website
Animals & UsÂ is a SAFE humane education initiative that:
1) provides professional resources specifically designed for the New Zealand education framework.
2) advances knowledge and critical thinking about the social, economic, political, environmental and scientific relationships between human and non- human animals.
TheÂ Stop Factory FarmingÂ campaign hopes that the New Zealand public will vote with their wallets and hearts and boycott factory-farmed products, thus reducing the numbers of animals kept in these barbaric conditions.
TheÂ Go Veg campaignÂ underpins one of the key SAFE philosophies, which is to value the lives of all non-human animals. This campaign not only explains why animals matter, it also gives evidence on the impact our consumption of animals has on the environment and our health. Finally, it provides tips and suggestions on how you can make the switch to a vegetarian diet.
SAFE's work is funded by donations and gifts from the public of New Zealand, many of whom are also members and regular contributors.
Nonprofits obtain the lion's share of their income from donations and grants. Donations come from individuals, groups, trust funds and other organizations. Grants are awarded by organizations that exist to help fund other charities. Nonprofits engage in a range of fundraising activities, including mail campaigns, email marketing and benefit events to gain new donors. Organizations must submit formal grant proposals to grant-awarding organizations and compete against other proposals for the award.
External factors - TheÂ opportunitiesÂ andÂ threatsÂ presented by the external environment to the organization.
Â The external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological change, legislation, and socio-cultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or competitive position. The results are often presented in the form of a matrix.
A good tool for this is aÂ SWOTÂ (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis, which looks at forces internal and external to the organization think that - public opinion and media attention - is very important because they are trying to engage both all the time and it is unpredictable. Political and legislative arenas are important. The economic environment affects the fundraising aspects.Â If the economy is in a recession, people will be less willing to donate money as they are unsure of the future of their income. If the economy is in good shape, people are more likely to donate.
The most important internal factors are staffing levels, people's skills and strengths. The 3 offices are a small group with finite funds that is growing in success and recognition and there are some tensions, for example it is hard to meet all expectations.Â
Â The ethos, the people, the achievements and the professional attitude add up to one of the most influential Animal Advocacy groups in NZ and Worldwide. SAFE affects change.
The mission statement is available in public materials, there are human resources documents available to staff in each office, and there are volunteer policies that are available to each new volunteer.Â
Internal factors - TheÂ strengthsÂ andÂ weaknessesÂ internal to the organization.
The internal factors may be viewed as strengths or weaknesses depending upon their effect on the organization's objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses for another objective. The factors may include as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on.
It's important for staff to know what the organisation's mission statement is, and also to be reminded of it because otherwise they might lose sight of what is important for the organisation and what they are trying to achieve. It's a good thing that SAFE staff can have access to this in their offices, and also for new volunteers who might not be as informed about SAFE's practices.
2.4 Planning and control systems, processes and strategies
Non-profit organizations must create financial plans just like their for-profit counterparts. Since nonprofits rely to a great extent on donations and grants for their income, non-profit financial planners can find it more difficult to accurately plan for future income. Common difficulties with financial planning in a non-profit organization include the unpredictability of grant funding and the effects of economic shifts.
Non-profit organizations submit grant proposals to organizations in a competitive bid to receive funding. Because of the competitive nature of grant-writing, grant money is highly unpredictable. An organization may receive significantly more money than it planned, or it may receive none at all from grants during the year. This can make planning difficult for non-profit organisations, which can make setting goals for dollar amounts of grant funding also unpredictable and cannot accurately predict where the money will come from and exactly how much it will be.
Donations from individuals and organizations can quickly drop in times of economic uncertainty. Nonprofits can predict next year's income using previous years as a starting point, but a dramatic shift in the economy can cause the organization to drastically miss its income targets. This, in turn, can affect the scope of the organization's impact in the area of need it serves. Organizations can attempt to keep income levels steady by reducing costs or employing innovative fundraising tactics in difficult economic times.
Non-profit organizations can plan and predict their service expenses to a certain degree, but when an organization responds to a large international crisis it can incur significant, unplanned expenses. After incurring these expenses, the organization must still find ways to fund the services it has already committed to. The 2010 disaster in Haiti serves as an example of this fact; several large international charities spent millions of dollars, outside of their normal operating budget, on relief efforts. Many of these organizations, such as the Red Cross, employed quickly planned, innovative fundraising methods to address the new expenses.
The unpredictability of funds is not a positive outcome because SAFE is then unable to financially plan and properly allocates funds to campaigns and other expenses. Also because they have to compete with other non profit organisations for grants, it's an unreliable source of income. However, they are unable to control this, and must rely more heavily on donations from the public during annual appeals.
2.5 Team structures and dynamics
Directors and the Campaign Director, and for some things the Board is involved in setting long-term and short-term objectives.
For any other decision making, the whole staff have input at some level, depending on the project.
When it comes to determining and designing processes, the Directors, or the staff are involved
For day to day administration the Managing Director and the 2 other office managersÂ are responsible
I think morale is good though it goes through phases, depending on workloads. Directors are available to talk at any time if needed, it has always been a friendly working environment, and it could be called casual, though professional!Â
Dynamics between staff is good, apart from the limitation that 3 different locations exist - communication between these is limited to phones and emails.
SAFE coordinates volunteers in targeted letter and email campaigns that respond to key issues at strategic times.
People can also respond to website forums, call talkback radio shows or write to local newspapers about current events involving animal exploitation.
Volunteers are the public face of SAFE and it is an essential role to spread the message against animal cruelty and welfare issues across New Zealand. Volunteers can assist with and organise stalls, displays, public meetings, protest actions, fundraising events, and actively support SAFE's humane education programme.
Professionalism and a strategic approach to campaigning are in the organization SAFE's key strengths and the hallmarks of the organisation. All members of staff are determined and highly capable individuals, led by senior staffs who are experts in campaigning on animal welfare and rights issues and educating others about the humane treatment of animals. The senior staffs are realistic about effecting change but never compromise the organisation's principles and underlying ethic. The many generous and extremely committed volunteers are also integral to SAFE's public profile and effectiveness.
Team structure can be seen as a "bridge between organization-level strategy and staffing decisions"
AnÂ organizational structureÂ consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims.
Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization's actions.
Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as theÂ branch,Â department,Â workgroupÂ and individual.
But here it seems that the work environment is very friendly, and there is a lot of open communication, which is a good thing because the more communicative the staff are with the managers, the better it is for the organisation. With good communication everyone knows what they are supposed to do and how they are supposed to do it.
It is important for everyone to have a say in decision making, and it seems that for SAFE, everyone's opinion is valued and taken into account, which is good for any organization.
Team leaders and team members are chosen depending on their staff roles.
At the current time, team achievement is not really recognized or rewarded and we are looking at ways to improve this
The leaders in the organization see themselves as the type of leaders to simply lead by example - the actions the team members take should reflect the actions that the team leaders have taken
Staff members usually take turns in receiving leadership roles, which encourages participation and staff morale
In times of a crisis, the Board members will become more involved, and try to work with the staff to resolve any major issues. They are only involved where they are needed, rather than strategic involvement.
No motivation strategies are really used, the fact that there is a commitment to the cause is enough motivation for all staff involved - something which would not be seen in the for-profit sector
Delegation is quite informal - if someone has the skills and qualities that fit a role, they will be delegated to it
Management is able to suggest training courses that may or may not be accepted by staff. More responsibilities are given to the staff that stay on in the organization, but due to the size of the organization there is a limited number of roles people can advance into
I think it's a very good that staff members are given the chance to demonstrate leadership qualities, and also learn from others who act as leaders.
I think this organisation could possibly improve on the way it recognises and rewards achievement. In saying that, the staff involved in this organisation are involved because they believe in this cause, and so do not need to be motivated - the cause is motivation enough for them and that is why they became involved with this organisation to begin with. I think this is quite advantageous for the organisation as they know that staff are always very motivated and don't need to be more motivated by management. Due to the size of the organisation, delegation is not as important as it is for bigger organisations, but unfortunately the size limits staff in advancing to higher positions.
Also it is good that the organisation offers staff some ways to improve their skills and abilities, as it is important to keep these up to date and improve them as much as possible.