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Quality has been in the limelight as organizations have sought to create a competitive advantage and theorists have sought to understand the implications of quality management. This paper examines the philosophical dimensions of quality emphasis in the organizations, the use of appropriate work force management practices, and the managerial performance outcomes as an interactive phenomenon.
Dr. W. Edwards Deming
Dr. Deming's Ideas
Dr. Deming's famous 14 Points, originally presented in Out of the Crisis, serve as management guidelines. The points cultivate a fertile soil in which a more efficient workplace, higher profits, and increased productivity may grow.
Create and communicate to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the company.
Adapt to the new philosophy of the day; industries and economics are always changing.
Build quality into a product throughout production.
End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone; instead, try a long-term relationship based on established loyalty and trust.
Work to constantly improve quality and productivity.
Institute on-the-job training.
Teach and institute leadership to improve all job functions.
Drive out fear; create trust.
Strive to reduce intradepartmental conflicts.
Eliminate exhortations for the work force; instead, focus on the system and morale.
(a)Eliminate work standard quotas for production. Substitute leadership methods for improvement.
(b) Eliminate MBO. Avoid numerical goals. Alternatively, learn the capabilities of processes, and how to improve them.
Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship
Educate with self-improvement programs.
Include everyone in the company to accomplish the transformation (Dr. W. Edwards Deming).
Theory of Profound Knowledge
In order to promote cooperation, Deming espouses his Theory of Profound Knowledge. Profound knowledge involves expanded views and an understanding of the seemingly individual yet truly interdependent elements that compose the larger system, the company. Deming believed that every worker has nearly unlimited potential if placed in an environment that adequately supports, educates, and nurtures senses of pride and responsibility; he stated that the majority of a worker's effectiveness is determined by his environment and only minimally by his own skill (Dr. W. Edwards Deming).
A manager seeking to establish such an environment must:
Employ an understanding of psychology--of groups and individuals.
Eliminate tools such as production quotas and sloganeering which only alienate workers from their supervisors and breed divisive competition between the workers themselves.
Form the company into a large team divided into sub-teams all working on different aspects of the same goal; barriers between departments often give rise conflicting objectives and create unnecessary competition.
Spread profit to workers as teams, not individuals.
Eliminate fear, envy, anger, and revenge from the workplace.
Employ sensible methods such as rigorous on-the-job training programs.
In the resulting company, workers better understand their jobs--the specific tasks and techniques as well as their higher value; thus stimulated and empowered, they perform better. The expense of training will pay for itself.
The ideas of W. Edwards Deming may seem common or obvious now; however, they've become embedded in our culture of work. Dr. Deming's ideas of hard work, sincerity, decency, and personal responsibility, forever changed the world of management.
"It is not enough to just do your best or work hard. You must know what to work on."-
W. Edwards Deming
Joseph Moses Juran
Joseph M. Juran is one of total quality management philosophy leaders; he was born in 1904 in Romania. Juran pursued a varied career in management as an engineer, executive, government administrator, university professor, labor arbitrator, corporate director, and consultant. Specializing in managing for quality, he has authored hundreds of papers and 12 books, including Juran's Quality Control Handbook, Quality Planning and Analysis (with F. M. Gryna), and Juran on Leadership for Quality.
His major contributions include the Juran trilogy, which are three managerial processes that he identified for use in managing for quality: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement (Joseph M. Juran, 2007).
Identify who the customers are
Determine the needs of those customers
Translate those needs into our language
Optimize the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs
Develop a process which is able to produce the product
Optimize the process
Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions
Transfer the process to operations (Joseph M Juran: Quality Management., 2001).
Juran conceptualized the Pareto principle in 1937. In 1954, the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) and the Keidanren invited Juran to Japan to deliver a series of lectures on quality that had profound influence on the Japanese quality revolution. He is recognized as the person who added the "human dimension" to quality, expanding it into the method now known as total quality management (TQM) (Joseph M. Juran, 2007).
Philip Bayard Crosby
While fellow gurus Deming, Juran, and Ishikawa were focused on the highly technical aspects of quality measurement and control, Crosby's Quality Is Free hit the bookstores with a simple but powerful message:
Quality is much too important to be left to the quality control department;
Senior management must commit to quality if things are to change; and
Doing things right the first time adds absolutely nothing to the cost of a product or service (Book that started the Quality Revolution).
The book set off a revolution in corporate thinking because it shifted the responsibility for the quality of goods and services from the quality control department to the corporate boardroom, attacked the entrenched notions of 'good enough' and Acceptable Quality Levels (AQL), and introduced Zero Defects as the only acceptable performance standard, setting the stage for the Six Sigma movement that followed in later years.
Before Crosby's best-selling book, it was commonly assumed that quality was achieved through inspection. Inspectors were necessary to sort the good from the bad, with ever more defect-free shipments requiring ever more examiners. With this mindset, creating quality goods and services required increased expenditures. Mr. Crosby broke that paradigm by showing the road to perfect goods and services was through prevention, not inspection. The defect that is never created cannot be missed. Identifying and eliminating the causes of problems reduces rework, warranty costs, and inspection. Following Mr. Crosby's approach, creating quality goods
and services did not cost money, it saved money. In essence, quality is free for enlightened organizations (Book that started the Quality Revolution).
Deming's approach is revolutionary--not evolutionary. Throw out your old system of management--implement the 14 points. Not just some of them -- ALL of them. And the points go far beyond what is considered to be quality control--they affect all areas of management. Juran's philosophy, while similar to Deming's in many ways, is more evolutionary than revolutionary. Juran's philosophy involves adapting the existing management system rather than instituting an entirely new system. Like Deming, he believes that 80% or more of the defects produced by a system are management controllable not operator controllable. Juran's definition of quality is fitness for use. His quality trilogy describes his approach to quality management. Crosby's philosophy differs significantly from both Deming's and Juran's. Deming, in fact, would assert that Crosby's philosophy is entirely misguided in that it exhorts workers to improve the system and only management can do that. Crosby's approach revolves around Zero Defects. Doing things right the first time is always cheaper than trying to fix defects after they have been created. Thus, quality is free. According to Crosby, costs of poor quality are higher than organizations realize. Organizations should spend more effort tracking costs of quality in track the reduction is costs as quality is improved (Sower, 2008).
The philosophical models of Juran, Deming, and Crosby have several things in common that relates to PMI's model. Deming's philosophical perspective leans toward statistical process control. While Juran's overall philosophical point of view primarily relates to the fundamental practices illustrated and described in project management. Crosby's philosophical concept of quality management control is geared toward company-wide motivation. The PMI standards associated with project management provide managers with the necessary tools to practice quality control and effectively deliver results (PMBOK, 2008). However the common factors which link the four together are: quality management requires careful planning which should involve an approach of company-wide involvement, they stress the importance of top management support and participation, and they need further personnel training and education. Overall, it is important that quality improvement programs signify well established and ongoing activities
Aimed at customer needs
Fit for purpose to satisfy customers needs
Comply to the requirements
Conformance to requirements
14 points of constant improvement
Optimize the process - Juran Trilogy
Formula for success
Statistical Process Control - Kaizen
Cost of Quality
Cost of non- conformance
Role of Top Management
Work to constantly improve quality
Quality planning, control, and improvement
Leadership and participation
Role of the Worker
High level involvement