Personality has been defined as a a consist of established characteristics which interpret an individuals' behaviour in a certain way. (Mullins,2005)
Knowing the personalities is very important in the working environment. On its base managers got an idea how people behave in a particular situations. Origins of personality is mostly situated into genetic (family), social (living), cultural (culture) and situational environmnet (adapting and changing situation).(Mullins,2005)
Idiographic theory of personality shows the understanding, uniqueness and development of individuals, therefore the nomothetic theory points at collection of a group data.
The psychodynamic (S.Freud), interpersonal (Kelly) and humanistic (Rogers) theories fit into the idiographic theories, and into nomothetic belong trait (Cattell), type (Jung, Eysenck) the Big Five (Costa and McRae) theories.
The psychodynamic explanation by S.Freud refers to a theory of a human behaviour. It describes how child is changing at each stage of life by three structures. ''Id''consist of an instinctive part of self, goverened by instincts and basic drives including our sexual drive.
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'' Superego'' is a belief of the self and the center of ethics and ideas. Both are in conflict which heads into a simple change in behavior and personality traits. '' Ego'' is a part of humans personality consisted from the decision making process and rational/logical thinking. (Mullins,2005)
Kelly explains the relationship between persons and Roger's theory deals with a human behaviour.
This subject area also with Learning Styles gave me an opportunity to see the probability to know how people think and react in current situations. The base for it, is to see or hear a person and then I will be able to gain the understanding its personality.
I understood that people's whole relation is with the external world, and it based on their true personality which is needed not be over emphasized. The performance and contribution has many things to do with the development of personality.
As for example I could point at people who designs the advertisements. They are experts at how people think and often they come up with advertisements which helps to sell their products.
I enjoyed this subject and even if I am not good psychologist at all, it gave me wide view also about principles how managers have to react in organisation, that is why I have chosen this subject area as a first.I think it is very important to know this area.
Motivation is the main driving force for people to achieve goals in order to fulfill some needs or expectations and it is present in every life function. Specific action or certain behaviour can be caused by any reason or impulse, by enthusiasm or interest. In an activated behaviour are mostly involved the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces. In everyday life it could be described why a person does something. (Mullins,2005)
There are two main kinds of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic/psychological motivation is internal and it occurs when people do something out of pleasure, importance, or desire and the result is the satisfaction inside the person. External /tangible factors are included in extrinsic motivation and this compels the person to do something for money, wage, bonuses.(Cherry,2010)
Taylorism/Scientific Management, represented by F.W.Taylor, pointed on humans as being lazy so the growth of productivity could be achieved just through coercion, through standardization of tools, methods and conditions of work. Elton Mayo and the theory of Hawthorne Studies/effect is known as a psychological factor of the motivation of the workers/employees, in social and business operations, and they should not be considered as a part of a machine, but as an intelligent beings. Maslow's content theory; Hierarchy of Needs, is based on the human's needs, therefore McClelland's Theory of Needs, describes four main motives, which are related to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. (Mullins,2005)
Motivation helps people mostly to achieve goals (at work, with study), therefore they gain a positive perspective with creation the power to change their attitudes. It also manage their own development and help others with theirs.
This second subject area was important for me, because after knowing personalities of people/employees, there is a need to find a way how to motivate them.
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I understand the motivation as something what is able to inspire people and their hopes, passions, desires with the satisfied achieving goals and results.
Personally I think that motivation can be changed from moment to moment, from day to day, from year to year. I believe that people are driven by what matters the most to them in a particular time.
Even if motivation and knowing how to motivate environment around is good, it sometimes can lead to demotivation which can be caused by working place, sometimes by personal problems, sometimes by cultural differencies.
Money are the most common motivator for people but sometimes people would be more satified to get less money, but have work, where they are satisfied and motivated. It all depends on individuals personalities. I could say, that I incline to both of them; be motivated by money, and be motivated by working place.
From this subject area, I have inclined into the Elton Mayo's theory, where I could find the satisfaction and motivation for myself how to be motivated and how to motivate the others.
I found the interest, enthusiasm and motivation in environmental conditions that the tutor created while this subject area was given, and the rest of the subjects.
Cultures surround us and they are deeply seated. Organisational development and process cannot be understood without considering culture as the primary source of a resistance to a change. There is a need for observation and understanding norms, values, beliefs and traditions of each individual. Edgard Schein has defined the culture with three levels; basic assumptions and values (the core of culture consisted by the basic underlying assumptions and values), values and beliefs (conscious strategies, goals, philosophies of the organisation), artifacts and creations (tangible or verbally identified elements in organisation). (Uknown)
Usually in organisations is one dominant culture with many subcultures and the stregth determines how difficult or easy is to know how to behave within organisation. The cultural direction tries to influence a direction to culture, therefore cultural pervasivness is mainly focused what is expected and needed. The cultural strenght points mostly on socialisation people to do things in a certain way. (Mullins,2005)
In a Search of Excellence was shown by Peters and Waterman the essential message within organisation and its culture the importance of people, customers and action.
Deal and Kennedy's theory explain two dimensions which are related to activities and the level of the risk with the speed of the feedback, therefore Goffee and Jones's theory explains two dimenstions of Matrix; sociability and solidarity. The possibility of changing the culture was pointed by Silwerzeig and Allen.
Roger Harrison explained culture by four different organisational structures, Hierarchy structure (Role), Matrix structure (Task), Web structure (Athena), Scatter structure (Existential).Charles Handy, on a base of a Harrisons' model, made a picture of an organisational culture described by characteristics of Greek Gods; Zeus (Club Culture), Apollo (Role Culture), Athena (Task Culture) and Dionysus (Existential Culture).
I understood the culture as the third most important factor in the organisation (first and second mentioned early). I found that the organisational culture is essential to understand, because usually it is made up of the combined life experiences and the background that each employee brings to the organisation.
In my opinion organisation should be focused on its working environment, specially the relationships between employees and how things can be done within this environment.
I understand that people within the organisation are the most valuable asset and
the organisation should be focused on building and sustaining these assets to make a solid, long-lasting and successful organization.
This subject was intrepreted clearly and I would like to apply this what I learnt, later, hopefully at the place where I would like to work.
At the beginning I thought I will not like this subject. After first session I have found the importance of it and tutors'enthusiasm changed my opinion and I did enjoy whole subjects and sessions. For me is most important to know people and their behaviour, to motivate them and to know how it works in different organisations within the culture environmnet.
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As far as I know, the other subjects areas are important to understand as well but from all three subject areas, which I mentioned above I gained the experiences and examples (also experiences from my working environment but I did not notice them before).
Also good/bad managers will/should learn about organisational behaviour to ensure that they can get the most out of their employees and keep them happy at the same time